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    which best describes the outcome of dna replication? the new dna molecule is identical to the original dna. the new dna molecule is synthesized from amino acids. the new dna molecule has a different number of codons. the new dna molecule is single-stranded.

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    get which best describes the outcome of dna replication? the new dna molecule is identical to the original dna. the new dna molecule is synthesized from amino acids. the new dna molecule has a different number of codons. the new dna molecule is single-stranded. from EN Bilgi.

    From DNA to RNA

    Transcription and translation are the means by which cells read out, or express, the genetic instructions in their genes. Because many identical RNA copies can be made from the same gene, and each RNA molecule can direct the synthesis of many identical protein molecules, cells can synthesize a large amount of protein rapidly when necessary. But each gene can also be transcribed and translated with a different efficiency, allowing the cell to make vast quantities of some proteins and tiny quantities of others (Figure 6-3). Moreover, as we see in the next chapter, a cell can change (or regulate) the expression of each of its genes according to the needs of the moment—most obviously by controlling the production of its RNA.Figure 6-3Genes can be expressed with different efficienciesGene A is transcribed and translated much more efficiently than gene B. This allows the amount of protein A in the cell to be much greater than that of protein B.

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    Molecular Biology of the Cell. 4th edition.

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    From DNA to RNA

    Transcription and translation are the means by which cells read out, or express, the genetic instructions in their genes. Because many identical RNA copies can be made from the same gene, and each RNA molecule can direct the synthesis of many identical protein molecules, cells can synthesize a large amount of protein rapidly when necessary. But each gene can also be transcribed and translated with a different efficiency, allowing the cell to make vast quantities of some proteins and tiny quantities of others (Figure 6-3). Moreover, as we see in the next chapter, a cell can change (or regulate) the expression of each of its genes according to the needs of the moment—most obviously by controlling the production of its RNA.

    Figure 6-3

    Genes can be expressed with different efficiencies. Gene A is transcribed and translated much more efficiently than gene B. This allows the amount of protein A in the cell to be much greater than that of protein B.

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    Portions of DNA Sequence Are Transcribed into RNA

    The first step a cell takes in reading out a needed part of its genetic instructions is to copy a particular portion of its DNA nucleotide sequence—a gene—into an RNA nucleotide sequence. The information in RNA, although copied into another chemical form, is still written in essentially the same language as it is in DNA—the language of a nucleotide sequence. Hence the name transcription.

    Like DNA, RNA is a linear polymer made of four different types of nucleotide subunits linked together by phosphodiester bonds (Figure 6-4). It differs from DNA chemically in two respects: (1) the nucleotides in RNA are —that is, they contain the sugar ribose (hence the name nucleic acid) rather than deoxyribose; (2) although, like DNA, RNA contains the bases adenine (A), guanine (G), and cytosine (C), it contains the base uracil (U) instead of the thymine (T) in DNA. Since U, like T, can base-pair by hydrogen-bonding with A (Figure 6-5), the complementary base-pairing properties described for DNA in Chapters 4 and 5 apply also to RNA (in RNA, G pairs with C, and A pairs with U). It is not uncommon, however, to find other types of base pairs in RNA: for example, G pairing with U occasionally.

    Figure 6-4

    The chemical structure of RNA. (A) RNA contains the sugar ribose, which differs from deoxyribose, the sugar used in DNA, by the presence of an additional -OH group. (B) RNA contains the base uracil, which differs from thymine, the equivalent base in DNA, (more...)

    Figure 6-5

    Uracil forms base pairs with adenine. The absence of a methyl group in U has no effect on base-pairing; thus, U-A base pairs closely resemble T-A base pairs (see Figure 4-4).

    Despite these small chemical differences, DNA and RNA differ quite dramatically in overall structure. Whereas DNA always occurs in cells as a double-stranded helix, RNA is single-stranded. RNA chains therefore fold up into a variety of shapes, just as a polypeptide chain folds up to form the final shape of a protein (Figure 6-6). As we see later in this chapter, the ability to fold into complex three-dimensional shapes allows some RNA molecules to have structural and catalytic functions.

    Figure 6-6

    RNA can fold into specific structures. RNA is largely single-stranded, but it often contains short stretches of nucleotides that can form conventional base-pairs with complementary sequences found elsewhere on the same molecule. These interactions, along (more...)

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    Transcription Produces RNA Complementary to One Strand of DNA

    All of the RNA in a cell is made by DNA transcription, a process that has certain similarities to the process of DNA replication discussed in Chapter 5. Transcription begins with the opening and unwinding of a small portion of the DNA double helix to expose the bases on each DNA strand. One of the two strands of the DNA double helix then acts as a template for the synthesis of an RNA molecule. As in DNA replication, the nucleotide sequence of the RNA chain is determined by the complementary base-pairing between incoming nucleotides and the DNA template. When a good match is made, the incoming ribonucleotide is covalently linked to the growing RNA chain in an enzymatically catalyzed reaction. The RNA chain produced by transcription—the —is therefore elongated one nucleotide at a time, and it has a nucleotide sequence that is exactly complementary to the strand of DNA used as the template (Figure 6-7).

    Figure 6-7

    DNA transcription produces a single-stranded RNA molecule that is complementary to one strand of DNA.

    Transcription, however, differs from DNA replication in several crucial ways. Unlike a newly formed DNA strand, the RNA strand does not remain hydrogen-bonded to the DNA template strand. Instead, just behind the region where the ribonucleotides are being added, the RNA chain is displaced and the DNA helix re-forms. Thus, the RNA molecules produced by transcription are released from the DNA template as single strands. In addition, because they are copied from only a limited region of the DNA, RNA molecules are much shorter than DNA molecules. A DNA molecule in a human chromosome can be up to 250 million nucleotide-pairs long; in contrast, most RNAs are no more than a few thousand nucleotides long, and many are considerably shorter.

    Source : www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov

    [Expert Answer] Which best describes the outcome of DNA replication? The new DNA molecule is

    Which best describes the outcome of DNA replication? The new DNA molecule is identical to the original DNA. Th… Get the answers you need, now!

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    The best statement that describes the outcome of DNA replication is that the new DNA molecule is identical to the original DNA.

    What is DNA replication?

    DNA replication is the process by which new sequence of nucleotides are synthesized from an original DNA template.

    In DNA replication, the old strand

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    DNA Quiz Biology Flashcards

    Study with Quizlet and memorize flashcards terms like Explain how DNA replication is semi conservative, Explain how replication depends on base pairing, what is the function of helicase and more.

    DNA Quiz Biology

    Explain how DNA replication is semi conservative

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    semi conservative replication - 2 strands of DNA molecule are separated by breaking hydrogen bonds between the bases new polymers of nucleotides are assembled on each of the 2 single strands. The template strand is the strand of DNA on which a new strand is assembled

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    Explain how replication depends on base pairing

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    Because of complementary base pairing the new strands have the same base sequence as the old strand that was separated from the template strand. The 2 DNA molecules produced are identical to each other and the parent.This is semi-conservative replication because each of the DNA molecules produced has one new strand and one strand conserved from the parent molecule

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    Terms in this set (35)

    Explain how DNA replication is semi conservative

    semi conservative replication - 2 strands of DNA molecule are separated by breaking hydrogen bonds between the bases new polymers of nucleotides are assembled on each of the 2 single strands. The template strand is the strand of DNA on which a new strand is assembled

    Explain how replication depends on base pairing

    Because of complementary base pairing the new strands have the same base sequence as the old strand that was separated from the template strand. The 2 DNA molecules produced are identical to each other and the parent.This is semi-conservative replication because each of the DNA molecules produced has one new strand and one strand conserved from the parent molecule

    what is the function of helicase

    Unwinds the double helix and separates the two new strands by breaking hydrogen bonds

    what is the function of dna polymerase

    links nucleotides together to form new strands, using the pre-existing strands as templates

    explain transcription and how the dna bases are used

    transcription - copying of a base sequence of a gene by making an RNA molecule.

    the process beings when the enzyme RNA polymerase binds to a site on the dna at the start of a gene. it then carries out all of the stages shown in the diagram below. (pg 30).

    1. rna polymerase moves along the gene separating the dna into two single strands

    2. rna nucleotides are assembled along one of the two strands of dna. the same rules of complementary base pairing are followed as in replication, except that uracil paris with adenine, as rna does not contain thymine

    3. the rna nucleotides are linked together by covalent bonds between the pentose sugar of one nucleotide and the phosphate of the next

    4. the rna strand separates from the dna strand as it is producd and is released completely when the end of the gene is reached

    5. the dna stands pair up again and twist back into a double helix

    which rna contains the code

    mRNA

    explain codons and how they correspond to one amino acid in a polypeptide

    the genetic code is a triplet code - three bases code for one amino acid. a group of three bases is called a codon. if codons consisted of two bases there would only be 16 codes - not enough for the twenty amino acids in a polypeptide. with three bases in a codon there are 64 codons, so more than enough for 20 amino acids. none of the 64 codons are unused. there are two or more codons for most amino acids.

    explain how translation depends on complementary base pairing between mrna and trna

    translation - synthesis of polypeptides on ribosomes, using mrna and trna. the amino acid sequence of polypeptides is determined by mrna according to the genetic code. messenger rna binds to a site on the small subunit of the ribosome. the mrna contains a series of codons consisting of three bases, one per amino acid. transfer rna molecules are present around the ribosome in large numbers. each trna has a special triplet of bases called an anticodon and carries the corresponding amino acid to this anticodon.there are three binding sites for trna molecules on the large subunit of the ribosome but only two ever bind at once. a trna can only bind if it has the anticodon that is complementary to the codon on the mrna. the bases on the codon and anticodon link together by forming hydrogen bonds, following the same rules of complementary base pairing as in replication and transcription

    how does pcr work

    for gene transfer procedures, many copies of the desired gene are needed. it is useful to be able to copy dna artificially when a sample contains very small quantities and larger amounts are needed for forensic analysis. polymerase chain reaction. used for copying dna artifically. dna polymerase is used in this procedure to copy the original molecule again and again, doubling the quantity with each cycle of replication. dna is copied in small tubes called eppendorfs. by the end of pcr there could more than a hundred million copes of a gene in a .2 ml eppendorf. to speed up pcr it is carried out at high temps.

    how do we make human insulin for diabetics

    a protein that contains 51 amino acids. the gene that codes for it has been transferred from humans to the bacterium e. coil and other organisms to produce the insulin that is needed to treat diabetes. the amino acid sequence of the insulin produced in these organisms is identical to the sequence in humans so each codon in the mrna is translated into the same amino acid when insulin is made.

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