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    which artery supplies blood to the external genitalia?

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    Vascularization of the male penis

    The penis receives blood from external and internal pudendal arteries, which are very variable. The venous blood of the penis flows off in three types of veins.

    . 2004;49:285-91.

    Vascularization of the male penis

    E Okolokulak  1 , D Volchkevich

    Affiliations

    Affiliation

    1 Human Anatomy Department, Grodno State Medical University, Grodno, Belarus. [email protected]

    PMID: 15631359

    Vascularization of the male penis

    E Okolokulak et al. Rocz Akad Med Bialymst. 2004.

    . 2004;49:285-91.

    Authors

    E Okolokulak  1 , D Volchkevich

    Affiliation

    1 Human Anatomy Department, Grodno State Medical University, Grodno, Belarus. [email protected]

    PMID: 15631359

    Abstract

    Purpose: The study of the features of the blood supply of a penis of the man. Material and methods: Macromicropreparation, angiography, corrosion method, morphometry, statistical method. Results: The penis has three venous collector-executing outflow of blood. First of them is submitted surface dorsal vein, which is shaped from small-sized venous vessels of skin, subcutaneous fat and surface fascia of penis. The beginning deep dorsal vein, which will derivate second venous collector, gives veniplex of head of the penis. The spongy veins outstanding as third venous collector, reach the bulb of penis, where they receive small-sized bulbar vein. The arterial blood supply of penis happens at the expense of external and internal pudendal arteries. The external pudendal artery starts from an internal wall of femoral artery on 2.5-2.7 cm below inguinal ligament. In some cases (8%) the artery starts by two trunks--forward and back. The internal pudendal artery is main source of blood supply of penis of the man. It removes from forward trunk of internal iliac artery independently in 50% of cases. In remaining cases it or removes from this artery by one trunk with lower gluteal (36%), common trunk with the upper and lower gluteal arteries (4%), or with upper gluteal (8%), or with obturator artery (2%). Besides in the arterial blood supply of penis take part bulbar, urethral, dorsal and deep arteries of penis. Conclusions: The penis receives blood from external and internal pudendal arteries, which are very variable. The venous blood of the penis flows off in three types of veins.

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    MeSH terms

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    Internal Pudendal Artery

    Internal Pudendal Artery

    9 The internal pudendal artery supplies the pelvic portion of the urethra and terminates in the CSP as the artery of the bulb of the penis, which supplies the CSP.

    From: Equine Surgery (Fifth Edition), 2019

    Related terms:

    Pudendal NerveSphincterForamenAnestheticsInternal Obturator MuscleNerve BlockInternal Iliac ArterySacrotuberous LigamentUterine ArteryClitoris

    View all Topics

    The Genital Tract

    Morris D. Cooper, Anne M. Rompalo, in Sexually Transmitted Diseases (Second Edition), 2013

    Blood supply

    The internal pudendal artery is the arterial trunk supplying blood to all of the perineal structures inferior to the pelvic diaphragm. It begins as a branch of the internal iliac, which is located subperitoneally in the lateral pelvis. It exits the bony pelvis, crosses the sacrospinous ligament, and enters the ischiorectal fossa. At this point the artery, along with the internal pudendal vein and nerve, becomes enclosed by the obturator fascia, forming the pudendal canal. As the artery enters the pudendal canal it gives off an inferior rectal artery which supplies the anorectal junction. The remaining portion of the internal pudendal artery reaches the base of the urogenital diaphragm and gives off a series of perineal branches. These supply the contents of both superficial and deep perineal spaces, including the vagina, urethra, and clitoris.

    The venous drainage of both perineal triangles parallels the arterial supply. There is also a rich submucosal venous plexus in the distal vagina. Distension of these submucosal veins can produce vaginal or vulvar varices. The inferior rectal veins join the internal pudendal vein just as it leaves the ischiorectal fossa at the lesser sciatic foramen. Both the rectal and the vaginal submucosal plexuses penetrate the pelvic diaphragm to communicate with the endopelvic space. Here, vaginal veins may anastomose with uterine veins and inferior rectal veins with middle rectal veins.

    The blood supply of the uterus and the upper vagina is via a single arterial trunk, the internal iliac artery. This arises from the division of the common iliac artery at the junction of the sacrum and the ilium. Descending in the lateral pelvis subperitoneally, it gives off a series of visceral branches, including rectal, uterine, and vesicle; these course medially to enter the endopelvic space at the base of the broad ligament. Before reaching the isthmus of the uterus, the uterine artery crosses superior to the ureter and gives branches to the vaginal fornix and cervix. Turning superiorly in the parametrial space of the broad ligament, a series of arterial branches is given to the body of the uterus until the artery anastomoses with the ovarian artery at the ureterotubal junction.

    The uterine vein is usually plexiform, coursing laterally in the base of the broad ligament before reaching the lateral pelvic wall. Here the plexus of veins forms a series of tributaries entering the internal iliac vein, which in turn empties into the inferior vena cava. Other veins in the endopelvic space include the middle recto veins draining the rectum.

    The normal route of rectal venous flow is into the internal iliac vein. During pregnancy the fetus may partially occlude the inferior vena cava when the woman is recumbent, increasing venous resistance and diminishing pelvic venous flow into the inferior vena cava. Because the middle rectal veins also communicate with the superior rectal branches of the inferior mesenteric vein, there is the potential for pelvic blood to ascend via the portal circulation. None of the pelvic veins contains valves, which allows blood to take the path of least resistance. Middle rectal veins also communicate with inferior rectal veins; these are tributaries of the internal pudendal vein, which drains into the iliac veins before entering the inferior vena cava. Increased bloodflow in these vessels, particularly in the last trimester of pregnancy, is a well-known cause of hemorrhoids.

    The ovarian arteries arise as lateral branches from the abdominal aorta, descend in the retroperitoneal space, cross the ala of the sacrum, and enter the suspensory ligament of the ovary. As the ovarian artery enters the lateral edge of the broad ligament, it courses medially between the two layers of the ligament, giving branches to the ovary and the uterine tube.

    The venous drainage of the structures in the superior part of the broad ligament is via the ovarian vein, which parallels the ovarian artery as the vein ascends in the retroperitoneal space. On the right side of the ovarian vein is the tributary of the inferior vena cava, whereas on the left side it drains into the left renal vein.

    View chapter Purchase book

    Surgery of the Bovine Reproductive System and Urinary Tract

    Robert O. Gilbert, ... Susan L. Fubini, in Farm Animal Surgery (Second Edition), 2017

    Perivaginal Bleeding and Hematoma

    Fetus passage may damage the internal pudendal artery, resulting in formation of a large hematoma lateral to the vaginal wall. In rare cases, this condition may be bilateral. In most instances, these hematomata resolve spontaneously; sometimes they become infected and persist as abscesses. The hematoma or abscess may be drained into the vagina by means of a lateral incision, with care taken not to damage the internal pudendal artery in making the incision. This should not be done until 3 days postpartum to allow complete hemostasis.

    Source : www.sciencedirect.com

    Male Reproductive Vessels Diagram & Function

    There are many blood vessels within the male pelvic region. Many are there to supply the lower half of the body but many supply the male reproductive organs. The femoral artery and femoral vein — two major blood vessels — travel through the pelvic bone.

    Vessels

    Medically reviewed by the Healthline Medical Network — Written by the Healthline Editorial Team on January 23, 2018

    There are many blood vessels within the male pelvic region. Many are there to supply the lower half of the body but many supply the male reproductive organs.

    The femoral artery and femoral vein — two major blood vessels — travel through the pelvic bone. These vessels transport blood to and from each leg.

    Arteries and veins branch off from the femoral artery to supply oxygen-rich blood to the male reproductive organs.

    The internal pudendal artery is the main vessel that supplies oxygenated blood to the penis. Without it, a man could not achieve an erection. Problems with blood flow to the penis can result in erectile dysfunction and other related conditions.

    Other arteries of the male pelvis include:

    Testicular arteries: Also known as the internal spermatic arteries, these branch from the abdominal artery and supply blood to the testes, which is where sperm production and development occurs.Internal iliac artery: A main artery in the pelvis despite being only about four centimeters long, it helps supply blood to the reproductive organs, buttock muscles, and other areas in the pelvis.Inferior vesical: This artery supplies oxygenated blood to the bladder.

    Along with major arteries, a major nerve — the sciatic nerve — runs from the bottom of the spine, behind the pelvic bone, and down the back of each leg. When this spinal nerve becomes compressed, it causes pain in the lower back and legs known as sciatica.

    Other important nerves in the region include:

    Pudendal nerve: This major nerve in the pelvic region branches off to several areas, especially the external genitalia. It serves not only the genitals, but the bladder and rectum.Peroneal nerve: This nerve branches off from the pudendal nerve from the sciatic nerve and serves the lower leg, foot, and toes. It branches off to the dorsal nerve of the penis.Dorsal nerve of the penis: This is the major nerve of the penis and is the deepest branch of the pudendal nerve. It is responsible for motor functions and sensation in the penis’s skin.

    The dorsal nerve of the penis is critical to erection. Although the signal for erection originates in the brain, the dorsal nerve sends and receives signals to increase blood flow. Additionally, this nerve receives the physical stimulation that usually ends with ejaculation.

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    Frontal Lobe: What to Know

    Medically reviewed by Nancy Hammond, M.D. — Written by the Healthline Editorial Team — Updated on November 30, 2021

    What is the frontal lobe?

    The frontal lobe is the part of the brain that controls important cognitive skills in humans, such as:

    emotional expression

    problem-solving memory language judgment sexual behaviors

    It is, in essence, the “control panel” of our personality and our ability to communicate.

    Functions of the frontal lobe

    The frontal lobe controls high-level cognitive skills like:

    planning self-control memory formation empathy attention

    It’s the center for the emotions and thought processes that translate into personality.

    The frontal lobe is also responsible for primary motor function, or our ability to consciously move our muscles, and the two key areas related to speech, including Broca’s area. The frontal lobe allows us to formulate thoughts as speech. It also helps us produce voluntary movements like walking and running.

    Anatomy

    As its name indicates, the frontal lobe is at the front of the brain. The right hemisphere of the frontal lobe controls the left part of the body, and vice versa.

    The frontal lobe exists mainly in the anterior (frontal) cranial fossa and rests on the orbital (horizontal) part of the frontal bone.

    The frontal lobe takes up about 1/3 of the cerebral hemisphere. It’s larger and more developed in humans than in any other organism.

    Takeaway

    The frontal lobe is the part of the brain that controls high-level cognitive skills and primary motor functions. It is the center for our personality and communication abilities. The frontal lobe is the largest of the four major lobes, and it is located at the front of the brain.

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    3 sources expanded

    Healthline has strict sourcing guidelines and relies on peer-reviewed studies, academic research institutions, and medical associations. We avoid using tertiary references. You can learn more about how we ensure our content is accurate and current by reading our editorial policy.

    Bell DJ, et al. (2021). Frontal lobe.

    radiopaedia.org/articles/frontal-lobe

    Brain map frontal lobes. (2021).

    Source : www.healthline.com

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