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    Artificial Selection

    Artificial selection is the identification by humans of desirable traits in plants and animals, and the steps taken to enhance and perpetuate those traits in future generations. Artificial selection works the same way as natural selection, except that with natural selection it is nature, not human interference, that makes these decisions.

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    Artificial Selection

    Artificial selection is the identification by humans of desirable traits in plants and animals, and the steps taken to enhance and perpetuate those traits in future generations. Artificial selection works the same way as natural selection, except that with natural selection it is nature, not human interference, that makes these decisions.

    GRADES 5 - 8 SUBJECTS

    Biology, Genetics, Conservation

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    IMAGE

    pigeons

    Like many animals kept in human captivity, mating pairs of pigeons are often paired together based on their genetics to achieve the most desirable traits in their offspring.

    PHOTOGRAPH BY MARK THIESSEN

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    In laying out the evidence for his theory of evolution by natural selection in his 1859 book, On the Origin of Species, the British naturalist and biologist Charles Darwin highlighted the physical traits and behaviors of several species of bird called finches. During a voyage in the 1830s, Darwin had observed these birds on the Galápagos Islands, a group of islands in the Pacific Ocean west of South America.

    Sometimes summed up by the phrase “survival of the fittest,” natural selection is based on the following principles: In nature, organisms produce more offspring than are able to survive and reproduce. Offspring with traits that make them more likely to survive, mature, and reproduce in the environment they inhabit pass on their traits to the next generation.

    As this happens generation after generation, natural selection acts as a kind of sieve, or a remover of undesirable traits. Organisms therefore gradually become better-suited for their environment. If the environment changes, natural selection will then push organisms to evolve in a different direction to adapt to their new circumstances.

    How does this relate to finches? On the Galápagos Islands, some finches appeared so different from others that Darwin did not realize at first that they were all finches. In fact, they were different species of finches with a variety of traits. Some finches, for instance, had long, narrow beaks, while others had short, thick beaks. Darwin concluded that the traits of the different populations of finches had changed over time, and that these variations were related to different environments in the islands. Each type of beak had evolved for a specific task. Where there was a large supply of seeds on the ground, for instance, short-beaked finches became more common, because these beaks were better at cracking open the seeds. Where cactus plants were more common, finches developed long, narrow beaks to extract pollen and nectar from cactus flowers.

    Darwin’s finches constituted powerful evidence for natural selection. But Darwin was also inspired greatly by the evolution that he saw in the traits of pigeons, not due to natural selection but rather artificial selection. Breeding pigeons was a popular hobby in England in Darwin’s time. By selecting which pigeons were allowed to mate, people had a profound effect on their appearance, such as the shape and size of their beaks and the color of their feathers.

    Dog breeding is another prime example of artificial selection. Although all dogs are descendants of the wolf, the use of artificial selection has allowed humans to drastically alter the appearance of dogs. For centuries, dogs have been bred for various desired characteristics, leading to the creation of a wide range of dogs, from the tiny Chihuahua to the massive Great Dane.

    Artificial selection has long been used in agriculture to produce animals and crops with desirable traits. The meats sold today are the result of the selective breeding of chickens, cattle, sheep, and pigs. Many fruits and vegetables have been improved or even created through artificial selection. For example, broccoli, cauliflower, and cabbage were all derived from the wild mustard plant through selective breeding. Artificial selection appeals to humans since it is faster than natural selection and allows humans to mold organisms to their needs.

    artificial selection

    Noun

    breeding to produce desired characteristics in animal or plant offspring

    biologist

    Noun

    scientist who studies living organisms.

    breeding

    Noun

    practice of selectively pairing breeding pairs of animals together to achieve desired traits in animal offspring.

    evolution

    Noun

    change in heritable traits of a population over time.

    naturalist

    Noun

    person who studies the natural history or natural development of organisms and the environment.

    natural selection

    Noun

    process by which organisms that are better -adapted to their environments produce more offspring to transmit their genetic characteristics.

    offspring

    Noun

    the children of a person or animal.

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    Source : www.nationalgeographic.org

    Chapter 17 Lesson 2: Ideas that Influenced Darwin Flashcards

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    Chapter 17 Lesson 2: Ideas that Influenced Darwin

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    Which are examples of artificial selection? Select all of the answers that apply.

    A.

    Female cardinals are attracted to the bright red feathers of male cardinals.

    B.

    A dog breeder mates a friendly, well-trained male dog with a similar female dog.

    C.

    A pet cat escapes into the neighborhood and mates with a stray cat.

    D.

    A farmer observes that predators tend to kill the slowest chickens in the flock.

    E.

    A farmer selects a mating pair of the largest ewe and largest ram in the flock.

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    ANSWER:

    B. A dog breeder mates a friendly, well-trained male dog with a similar female dog.

    E. A farmer selects a mating pair of the largest ewe and largest ram in the flock.

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    Rocks form in horizontal layers. However, as shown along mountainsides, rock layers can become twisted or bent.The work of James Hutton and Charles Lyell helped to explain observations of twisted or bent rock layers. What was one of their conclusions?

    A.

    Earth is extremely old, and Earth processes acted gradually to twist or bend rocks.

    B.

    Earth is only a few thousand years old, and Earth formed with many twisted or bent rocks.

    C.

    Earth is only a few thousand years old, and Earth processes acted much more rapidly in its early history.

    D.

    Earth is extremely old, and Earth formed with many twisted or bent rocks.

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    ANSWER:

    A. Earth is extremely old, and Earth processes acted gradually to twist or bend rocks

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    Terms in this set (6)

    Which are examples of artificial selection? Select all of the answers that apply.

    A.

    Female cardinals are attracted to the bright red feathers of male cardinals.

    B.

    A dog breeder mates a friendly, well-trained male dog with a similar female dog.

    C.

    A pet cat escapes into the neighborhood and mates with a stray cat.

    D.

    A farmer observes that predators tend to kill the slowest chickens in the flock.

    E.

    A farmer selects a mating pair of the largest ewe and largest ram in the flock.

    ANSWER:

    B. A dog breeder mates a friendly, well-trained male dog with a similar female dog.

    E. A farmer selects a mating pair of the largest ewe and largest ram in the flock.

    Rocks form in horizontal layers. However, as shown along mountainsides, rock layers can become twisted or bent.The work of James Hutton and Charles Lyell helped to explain observations of twisted or bent rock layers. What was one of their conclusions?

    A.

    Earth is extremely old, and Earth processes acted gradually to twist or bend rocks.

    B.

    Earth is only a few thousand years old, and Earth formed with many twisted or bent rocks.

    C.

    Earth is only a few thousand years old, and Earth processes acted much more rapidly in its early history.

    D.

    Earth is extremely old, and Earth formed with many twisted or bent rocks.

    ANSWER:

    A. Earth is extremely old, and Earth processes acted gradually to twist or bend rocks

    An elephant has a long, powerful trunk. According to the ideas of Lamarck, how did the trait of long, powerful trunks develop in elephants?

    A.

    Suddenly, after one elephant was born with a long, powerful trunk.

    B.

    Suddenly, after one elephant developed a long, powerful trunk as it grew.

    C.

    Gradually, as elephants began mating with animals of other species that had long trunks.

    D.

    Gradually, as generations of elephants continued to selectively use and develop their trunks.

    ANSWER:

    D. Gradually, as generations of elephants continued to selectively use and develop their trunks.

    The graph shows the worldwide human population from 1950 to 2050. Data for the future years are predictions. According to the ideas of Thomas Malthus, what are the predicted changes to the human population after 2050?

    A.

    The population would continue to increase at the same rate, due to constant food supplies.

    B.

    The population would increase more rapidly, due to advances in technology.

    C.

    Eventually the population would stop increasing or would decrease, due to lack of food and living space.

    D.

    Eventually the population would decrease to zero, because of war, famine, or disease.

    ANSWER:

    C.Eventually the population would stop increasing or would decrease, due to lack of food and living space

    A pigeon breeder wants to apply artificial selection to develop pigeons with a specific body shape and feather pattern. For the breeder to be successful, what property must exist among the breeding stock of pigeons?

    A.

    equal numbers of males and females

    B.

    unequal numbers of males and females

    C.

    uniformity of inheritable traits

    D.

    sufficient inheritable variations

    ANSWER:

    D.sufficient inheritable variations

    Match each of Darwin's ideas to the earlier scientist whose work helped Darwin develop the idea.

    Malthus: In every species in nature, some individuals survive while many others die

    Hutton and Lyell: The environment of organisms may change over time.

    Source : quizlet.com

    Artificial Selection

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    QUIZ

    Artificial Selection

    Artificial Selection 81%

    12 8th Biology Deleted User 3 years

    42 Qs

    1. Multiple-choice 2 minutes Q.

    A German Shepard would probably not survive in the wild because...

    answer choices the dog is mixed.

    the dog is a product of artificial selection and not adapted for the wild.

    the dog is dumb.

    the dog is a product of natural selection and can survive in the wild.

    2. Multiple-choice 2 minutes Q.

    This animal is a product of...

    answer choices Natural Selection

    Environmental Pressures

    Nature

    Artificial Selection

    3. Multiple-choice 2 minutes Q.

    This animal is product of

    answer choices Natural Selection Selective Breeding

    Asexual Reproduction

    Bacteria 4. Multiple-choice 2 minutes Q.

    This animal is an example of...

    answer choices Natural Selection Bacteria

    Asexual Reproduction

    Artificial Selection

    5. Multiple-choice 2 minutes Q.

    Scientist have created larger and sweeter strawberries for humans to consume (eat). What process was used?

    answer choices Natural Selection

    Artificial Selection

    Cellular Respiration

    Environmental Natural Selection

    6. Multiple-choice 2 minutes Q.

    Scientist, farmers, and ranchers breed the organisms that have the genes they are wanting. Which process are they using?

    answer choices Natural Selection

    Cellular Respiration

    Artificial Selection "Selective Breeding"

    Homeostasis 7. Multiple-choice 2 minutes Q.

    If a mouse population changes color from white to black over many generations due to their ability to blend in to their environment, what selection is taking place?

    answer choices Natural Selection Selective Breeding

    Artificial Selection

    Hydrogen and Helium 8. Multiple-choice 2 minutes Q.

    Farmers breed cows to produce high amounts of milk. This is an example of...

    answer choices Natural Selection

    Variations in a species

    Selective Breeding 9. Multiple-choice 30 seconds Q.

    Process by which individuals that are better suited to their environment survive and reproduce most successfully; also called natural selection.

    answer choices

    Survival of the Fittest

    Extinction Derived trait

    Artificial Selection

    10. Multiple-choice 2 minutes Q.

    The blue whale is an example of..

    answer choices

    Artificial Selection

    Natural Selection Selective Breeding Mutations 11. Multiple-choice 2 minutes Q.

    Artificial Selection "Selective Breeding" is a necessary process due to earths population (7 billion humans). Why is artificial selection important for humanity?

    answer choices Photosynthesis For nature

    To produce bigger and better food to feed all of humanity.

    Nature can create better organisms

    12. Multiple-choice 2 minutes Q.

    All farm animals were created by...

    answer choices Natural Selection Photosynthesis

    Environmental Pressures

    Artificial Selection "Selective Breeding"

    13. Multiple-choice 2 minutes Q.

    What organisms only survive in the wild (Nature)?

    answer choices Handicap Organisms White Mouse Only Fit organisms

    Organisms that cannot adapt

    14. Multiple-choice 2 minutes Q.

    The phrase "Survival of the Fittest" would best describe...

    answer choices Natural Selection

    Artificial Selection

    Selective Breeding Rainbow Trout 15. Multiple-choice 2 minutes Q.

    This animal is a product of ...

    answer choices Natural Selection

    Artificial Selection

    Human Made Selective Breeding 16. Multiple-choice 2 minutes Q.

    Artificial selection means ...

    answer choices made by nature made by the water made by humans Hecho en Mexico 17. Multiple-choice 2 minutes Q.

    Natural Selection = Nature made

    Artificial Selection = Man made

    answer choices True False 18. Multiple-choice 30 seconds Q.

    Someone has a wild cat breed with a house cat in order to have a cat that looks wild but is more gentle and less aggressive. This is__.

    answer choices

    Genetic Modification

    Gene Therapy Animal Husbandry Selective breeding 19. Multiple-choice 30 seconds Q.

    Someone selects specific turkeys in order to have turkeys that have more meat. This is_____.

    answer choices Gene Therapy Gene Modification Selective Breeding Animal Husbandry 20. Multiple-choice 30 seconds Q.

    Parkinson's is a disease that could be potentially cured through_____.

    answer choices Gene Therapy Gene Modification Selective Breeding Animal Husbandry 21. Multiple-choice 30 seconds Q.

    The flavor savor tomato doesn't rot as quickly as normal tomatoes because they were

    answer choices

    going through gene therapy

    Genetically Modified

    Source : quizizz.com

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