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    which ancient astronomer developed a geocentric model of the universe explaining the observable motions of the planets?

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    Geocentric model

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    Geocentric model

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    "Geocentric" redirects here. For orbits around Earth, see Geocentric orbit. For the coordinate system, see Geocentric coordinates.

    — An illustration of the Ptolemaic geocentric system by Portuguese cosmographer and cartographer Bartolomeu Velho, 1568 (Bibliothèque Nationale, Paris)

    In astronomy, the geocentric model (also known as geocentrism, often exemplified specifically by the Ptolemaic system) is a superseded description of the Universe with Earth at the center. Under the geocentric model, the Sun, Moon, stars, and planets all orbit Earth.[1] The geocentric model was the predominant description of the cosmos in many European ancient civilizations, such as those of Aristotle in Classical Greece and Ptolemy in Roman Egypt.

    Two observations supported the idea that Earth was the center of the Universe:

    First, from anywhere on Earth, the Sun appears to revolve around Earth once per day. While the Moon and the planets have their own motions, they also appear to revolve around Earth about once per day. The stars appeared to be fixed on a celestial sphere rotating once each day about an axis through the geographic poles of Earth.[2]

    Second, Earth seems to be unmoving from the perspective of an earthbound observer; it feels solid, stable, and stationary.

    Ancient Greek, ancient Roman, and medieval philosophers usually combined the geocentric model with a spherical Earth, in contrast to the older flat-Earth model implied in some mythology.[n 1][n 2][5] The ancient Jewish Babylonian uranography pictured a flat Earth with a dome-shaped, rigid canopy called the firmament placed over it (רקיע- rāqîa').[n 3][n 4][n 5][n 6][n 7][n 8] However, the Greek astronomer and mathematician Aristarchus of Samos (c. 310 – c. 230 BC) developed a heliocentric model placing all of the then-known planets in their correct order around the Sun.[12] The ancient Greeks believed that the motions of the planets were circular, a view that was not challenged in Western culture until the 17th century, when Johannes Kepler postulated that orbits were heliocentric and elliptical (Kepler's first law of planetary motion). In 1687 Newton showed that elliptical orbits could be derived from his laws of gravitation.

    The astronomical predictions of Ptolemy's geocentric model, developed in the 2nd century CE, served as the basis for preparing astrological and astronomical charts for over 1500 years. The geocentric model held sway into the early modern age, but from the late 16th century onward, it was gradually superseded by the heliocentric model of Copernicus (1473–1543), Galileo (1564–1642), and Kepler (1571–1630). There was much resistance to the transition between these two theories. Some felt that a new, unknown theory could not subvert an accepted consensus for geocentrism.

    Contents

    1 Ancient Greece 2 Ptolemaic model

    2.1 Ptolemaic system

    2.2 Persian and Arab astronomy and geocentrism

    3 Geocentrism and rival systems

    3.1 Copernican system

    4 Gravitation 5 Relativity

    6 Religious and contemporary adherence to geocentrism

    6.1 Polls

    6.2 Historical positions of the Roman Catholic hierarchy

    6.3 Orthodox Judaism

    6.4 Islam 7 Planetariums 8 See also 9 Notes 10 References 11 Bibliography 12 External links

    Ancient Greece[edit]

    Illustration of Anaximander's models of the universe. On the left, summer; on the right, winter.

    The geocentric model entered Greek astronomy and philosophy at an early point; it can be found in pre-Socratic philosophy. In the 6th century BC, Anaximander proposed a cosmology with Earth shaped like a section of a pillar (a cylinder), held aloft at the center of everything. The Sun, Moon, and planets were holes in invisible wheels surrounding Earth; through the holes, humans could see concealed fire. About the same time, Pythagoras thought that the Earth was a sphere (in accordance with observations of eclipses), but not at the center; he believed that it was in motion around an unseen fire. Later these views were combined, so most educated Greeks from the 4th century BC on thought that the Earth was a sphere at the center of the universe.[13]

    In the 4th century BC, two influential Greek philosophers, Plato and his student Aristotle, wrote works based on the geocentric model. According to Plato, the Earth was a sphere, stationary at the center of the universe. The stars and planets were carried around the Earth on spheres or circles, arranged in the order (outwards from the center): Moon, Sun, Venus, Mercury, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, fixed stars, with the fixed stars located on the celestial sphere. In his "Myth of Er", a section of the , Plato describes the cosmos as the Spindle of Necessity, attended by the Sirens and turned by the three Fates. Eudoxus of Cnidus, who worked with Plato, developed a less mythical, more mathematical explanation of the planets' motion based on Plato's dictum stating that all phenomena in the heavens can be explained with uniform circular motion. Aristotle elaborated on Eudoxus' system.

    Source : en.wikipedia.org

    1. Which ancient astronomer developed a geocentric model of the universe explaining the observable

    1. Which ancient astronomer developed a geocentric model of the universe explaining the observable motions of the planets? - 1979412

    10/14/2016 Geography High School

    answered • expert verified

    1. Which ancient astronomer developed a geocentric model of the universe explaining the observable motions of the planets?

    A. Aristotle B. Ptolemy C. Copernicus D. Newton

    2. Aristotle concluded that Earth was round because ____.

    A. it always casts a curved shadow during a lunar eclipse

    B. he sailed around the world

    C. he calculated Earth’s circumference

    D. it exhibited retrograde motion

    3. The first early astronomer to propose a sun-centered solar system was ____.

    A. Galileo B. Newton C. Copernicus D. Brahe

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    Source : brainly.com

    CHAPTER 22 Flashcards

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    CHAPTER 22

    Which ancient astronomer developed a geocentric model of the universe explaining the observable motions of the planets

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    Ptolemy

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    Terms in this set (43)

    Which ancient astronomer developed a geocentric model of the universe explaining the observable motions of the planets

    Ptolemy

    Hipparchus was best known for his

    star catalog

    Aristotle concluded that Earth was round because

    it always casts a curved shadow during a lunar eclipse

    The geocentric model of the universe stated that

    Earth was the center of the universe

    One astronomical unit averages about

    150 million kilometers

    Using Tycho Brahe's data, which scientist proposed the three laws of planetary motion?

    kepler

    The first early astronomer to propose a sun centered solar system was

    Copernicus

    What is the shape of a planet's orbit?

    elliptical

    Which law states that each planet revolves so that an imaginary line connecting it to the sun sweeps over equal areas in equal time intervals?

    the second law of planetary motion

    Which scientist determined the nature of he forces that keep the planets in their orbits?

    Newton

    The true shape of planetary orbits was discovered by

    Kepler

    Which of the following was NOT discovered by Galileo?

    the two moons of Mars

    According to the third law of planetary motion,the period of revolution of a planet is related ot the planet's

    distance to the sun

    The moons period of revolution is 27 1/3 days, and its period of ration is

    same number

    The length of daylight on the moon is about

    two weeks

    The total number of eclipses each year does not exceed

    7

    Druing the period that the moons phases are changing from new to full, the moon is

    waxing

    What occurs when the moon casts its shadow on Earth

    solar eclipse

    Deep steep sided valleys that originate on the continental slope and may extend to the ocean basin floor are calle

    submarine canyons

    What technology do scientists use to measure ocean depth?

    sonar

    Differences in ocean surface height can be measured by

    satellites

    Which of the following is NOT one of the three major regions of the ocean floor?

    coastal plain

    Which of the following is NOT associated with upwelling

    horizontal water movements

    What is NOT true about radiation?

    it needs a medium throught which to travel

    Which gas is most important for understanding atmospheric processes

    water vapor

    Isotherms are lines that connect points of equal

    temperature

    The heating of the lower layer of the atmosphere from radiation absorbed by certain heat absorbing gases is called

    the greenhouse effect

    The Koppen Classification System was developed in the 1900s by a german botanist and climatologist

    true

    ithout Earths rotation there would only exist two convection cells pulling cold dense air towards the equator

    true

    The rain shadow effect is associated with

    mountains

    temperature decreases with elevation by an average of how many degrees per 1000 meters?

    6.5

    A very small tilt in Earths axis would likely cause

    small seasonal variations in temperature

    What phenomenon naturally warms Earhs lower atmosphere and surface?

    the greenhouse effet

    What is the relationship etween fossil fuels and the greenhouse effect

    burning fossil fuels releases carbon dioxide into the atmosphere

    Which of the following is an example of human inmpact on climate changes

    global warming

    Which type of spectrum is associated with the radiation of most stars?

    absorption spectrum

    The thin red rim seen around the sun druing a total solar eclipse is called the

    chromosphere

    By observing sunspots,Galileo concluded that the sun

    ratated on its axis

    The product of nuclear fusion is

    helium

    The sun can cntnue to exist in its present stalble state for about another

    5.5 billion years

    Stars of which color have the highest surface temperature

    blue

    Stars of which color have the coolest surface?

    yello

    The measure of a stars brightness is called its

    intensity

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