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    which allied nation dropped the atomic bomb on japan in 1945? britain united states australia france

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    atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki

    atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, during World War II, American bombing raids on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima (August 6, 1945) and Nagasaki (August 9, 1945) that marked the first use of atomic weapons in war. Tens of thousands were killed in the initial explosions and many more would later succumb to radiation poisoning. On August 10, one day after the bombing of Nagasaki, the Japanese government issued a statement agreeing to accept the Allied surrender terms that had been dictated in the Potsdam Declaration. The turning point in the quest for atomic energy came in January 1939, eight

    atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki

    World War II [1945]

    By The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica • Edit History

    atomic bombing of Hiroshima

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    Date: August 6, 1945 - August 9, 1945

    Location: Hiroshima Japan Nagasaki

    Context: World War II

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    atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, during World War II, American bombing raids on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima (August 6, 1945) and Nagasaki (August 9, 1945) that marked the first use of atomic weapons in war. Tens of thousands were killed in the initial explosions and many more would later succumb to radiation poisoning. On August 10, one day after the bombing of Nagasaki, the Japanese government issued a statement agreeing to accept the Allied surrender terms that had been dictated in the Potsdam Declaration.

    Discover more about the first atomic bombs tested and used during World War II

    The first atomic bomb was detonated on July 16, 1945, in New Mexico as part of the U.S. government program called the Manhattan Project. The United States then used atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki in Japan on August 6 and 9, respectively, killing about 210,000 people. This infographic describes these early bombs, how they worked, and how they were used.

    Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc.

    Early atomic research

    The turning point in the quest for atomic energy came in January 1939, eight months before the start of World War II. German scientists Otto Hahn and Fritz Strassmann, following a clue provided by Irène Joliot-Curie and Pavle Savić in France (1938), proved definitely that the bombardment of uranium with neutrons produced radioisotopes of barium, lanthanum, and other elements from the middle of the periodic table.

    nuclear fission

    The impact of a slow (low-energy) neutron splitting the nucleus of the uranium isotope U-235 into two new nuclei. These can be nuclei of any of 30 or more elements ranging in atomic number from 30 to 64. Krypton and barium are examples. Energy and neutrons (2 or 3 for an average of about 2.5) are also produced.

    Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc.

    Otto Hahn Otto Hahn.

    Fritz Basch/Anefo/National Archives of the Netherlands (CC BY 4.0)

    BRITANNICA QUIZ World Wars

    Fight for the title of War Wiz with this quiz on famous conflicts throughout history.

    Observe an animation of sequential events in the fission of a uranium nucleus by a neutron

    Sequence of events in the fission of a uranium nucleus by a neutron.

    Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc.

    See all videos for this article

    The significance of this discovery was communicated by Lise Meitner and Otto Frisch, two Jewish scientists who had fled Germany, to Niels Bohr in Copenhagen. Bohr had been preparing to journey to the United States, and he arrived in New York on January 16, 1939. He discussed the matter with Albert Einstein, John Archibald Wheeler, and others before announcing to the world on January 26 the discovery of a process that Meitner and Frisch had termed fission. Enrico Fermi proposed to Bohr that neutrons might be released during the fission process, thus raising the possibility of a sustained nuclear chain reaction. These revolutionary suggestions triggered a flurry of activity in the world of physics. Subsequent studies by Bohr and Wheeler indicated that fission did not occur in uranium-238, the isotope of uranium most commonly found in nature, but that fission could take place in uranium-235. Gradually many of the riddles surrounding fission were resolved, and by June 1940 the basic facts concerning the release of atomic energy were known throughout the scientific world.

    Lise Meitner and Otto Hahn

    Physicist Lise Meitner and chemist Otto Hahn at the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute of Chemistry, Berlin-Dahlem, Germany, 1913.

    National Archives, Washington, D.C.

    Neils Bohr Niels Bohr.

    © The Nobel Foundation, Stockholm

    The Manhattan Project

    The Manhattan Project The American atomic program takes shape

    While engaged in one war in Europe and another in the Pacific, the United States would launch the largest scientific effort undertaken to that time. It would involve 37 installations throughout the country, more than a dozen university laboratories, and 100,000 people, including the Nobel Prize-winning physicists Arthur Holly Compton, Enrico Fermi, Richard Feynman, Ernest Lawrence, and Harold Urey.

    Source : www.britannica.com

    Atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki

    Atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki

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    Atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki

    Part of the Pacific War of World War II

    Atomic bomb mushroom clouds over Hiroshima and Nagasaki

    Date 6 and 9 August 1945

    Location

    Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan

    Result Allied victory

    Belligerents United States United Kingdom Canada Japan

    Commanders and leaders

    William S. Parsons Paul Tibbets Robert A. Lewis[1] Charles Sweeney Frederick Ashworth Shunroku Hata Units involved

    Manhattan Project: 50 U.S., 2 British

    509th Composite Group: 1,770 U.S.

    Second General Army:

    Hiroshima: 40,000 (5 anti-aircraft batteries)

    Nagasaki: 9,000 (4 anti-aircraft batteries)

    Casualties and losses

    1 British, 7 Dutch, and 12 American prisoners of war killed Hiroshima:

    20,000 soldiers killed

    70,000–126,000 civilians killed

    Nagasaki:

    39,000–80,000 killed

    At least 150 soldiers killed

    Total killed: 129,000–226,000 show vte Pacific War

    The United States detonated two nuclear weapons over the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki on 6 and 9 August 1945, respectively. The two bombings killed between 129,000 and 226,000 people, most of whom were civilians, and remain the only use of nuclear weapons in armed conflict.

    In the final year of World War II, the Allies prepared for a costly invasion of the Japanese mainland. This undertaking was preceded by a conventional and firebombing campaign that devastated 67 Japanese cities. The war in Europe concluded when Germany surrendered on 8 May 1945, and the Allies turned their full attention to the Pacific War. By July 1945, the Allies' Manhattan Project had produced two types of atomic bombs: "Fat Man", a plutonium implosion-type nuclear weapon; and "Little Boy", an enriched uranium gun-type fission weapon. The 509th Composite Group of the United States Army Air Forces was trained and equipped with the specialized Silverplate version of the Boeing B-29 Superfortress, and deployed to Tinian in the Mariana Islands. The Allies called for the unconditional surrender of the Imperial Japanese armed forces in the Potsdam Declaration on 26 July 1945, the alternative being "prompt and utter destruction". Japan ignored the ultimatum.

    The consent of the United Kingdom was obtained for the bombing, as was required by the Quebec Agreement, and orders were issued on 25 July by General Thomas Handy, the acting Chief of Staff of the United States Army, for atomic bombs to be used against Hiroshima, Kokura, Niigata, and Nagasaki. These targets were chosen because they were large urban areas that also held militarily significant facilities. On 6 August, a Little Boy was dropped on Hiroshima, to which Prime Minister Suzuki reiterated the Japanese government's commitment to ignore the Allies' demands and fight on. Three days later, a Fat Man was dropped on Nagasaki. Over the next two to four months, the effects of the atomic bombings killed between 90,000 and 146,000 people in Hiroshima and 39,000 and 80,000 people in Nagasaki; roughly half occurred on the first day. For months afterward, large numbers of people continued to die from the effects of burns, radiation sickness, and injuries, compounded by illness and malnutrition. Most of the dead were civilians, although Hiroshima had a sizable military garrison.

    Japan surrendered to the Allies on 15 August, six days after the Soviet Union's declaration of war and the bombing of Nagasaki. The Japanese government signed the instrument of surrender on 2 September, effectively ending the war. Scholars have extensively studied the effects of the bombings on the social and political character of subsequent world history and popular culture, and there is still much debate concerning the ethical and legal justification for the bombings. Supporters believe that the atomic bombings were necessary to bring a swift end to the war with minimal casualties, while critics dispute how the Japanese government was brought to surrender, while highlighting the moral and ethical implications of nuclear weapons and the deaths caused to civilians.

    Contents

    1 Background 1.1 Pacific War

    1.2 Preparations to invade Japan

    1.3 Air raids on Japan

    1.4 Atomic bomb development

    2 Preparations

    2.1 Organization and training

    2.2 Choice of targets

    2.3 Proposed demonstration

    2.4 Leaflets

    2.5 Consultation with Britain and Canada

    2.6 Potsdam Declaration

    2.7 Bombs 3 Hiroshima

    3.1 Hiroshima during World War II

    3.2 Bombing of Hiroshima

    3.3 Events on the ground

    3.4 Japanese realization of the bombing

    4 Events of 7–9 August

    5 Nagasaki

    5.1 Nagasaki during World War II

    5.2 Bombing of Nagasaki

    5.3 Events on the ground

    6 Plans for more atomic attacks on Japan

    7 Surrender of Japan and subsequent occupation

    8 Reportage

    9 Post-attack casualties

    9.1 Cancer increases

    9.2 Birth defect investigations

    9.3 Investigations into brain development

    Source : en.wikipedia.org

    TURNING POINTS IN THE PACIFIC 90% Flashcards

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    During World War II, the Battle of Guadalcanal was significant because it

    A. was the first decisive victory for American naval forces.

    B. evened out the naval strength of the Japanese and US navies.

    C. was the first major Allied offensive against Japanese forces.

    D. allowed Japan to construct an airfield from which to attack the Allies.

    Click card to see definition 👆

    C.

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    Which of the following losses changed the Japanese plan to continue advancing and taking islands in the Pacific?

    A. Japan's loss of aircraft carriers in the Battle of Midway.

    B. Japan's loss of its naval base on the island of Midway.

    C. Japan's loss of its airfield on Guadalcanal.

    D. Japan's loss of ships and planes in the Coral Sea.

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    A.

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    Terms in this set (9)

    During World War II, the Battle of Guadalcanal was significant because it

    A. was the first decisive victory for American naval forces.

    B. evened out the naval strength of the Japanese and US navies.

    C. was the first major Allied offensive against Japanese forces.

    D. allowed Japan to construct an airfield from which to attack the Allies.

    C.

    Which of the following losses changed the Japanese plan to continue advancing and taking islands in the Pacific?

    A. Japan's loss of aircraft carriers in the Battle of Midway.

    B. Japan's loss of its naval base on the island of Midway.

    C. Japan's loss of its airfield on Guadalcanal.

    D. Japan's loss of ships and planes in the Coral Sea.

    A.

    Before August 1945, military leaders in Japan

    A. repeatedly asked the Allies for terms of surrender.

    B. refused Allied requests for their surrender.

    C. mounted a final offensive against Allied troops.

    D. were unaware that the Allies had defeated Germany.

    B.

    During World War II, US naval forces were able to intercept the Japanese fleet before it reached Midway because

    A. US ships were on their way to Japan when they met the outbound fleet.

    B. US ships waited near the island to intercept inbound Japanese ships.

    C. US intelligence had deciphered messages laying out the Japanese plan.

    D. US warplanes on their way to Japan happened to spot the inbound fleet.

    C.

    During World War II, who was the commander-in-chief of the Pacific fleet?

    A. Dwight D. Eisenhower

    B. Douglas MacArthur

    C. Chester Nimitz D. George S. Patton C.

    During World War II, which battle denied the Japanese the opportunity to attack Australia?

    A. Battle of the Coral Sea

    B. Battle of Midway

    C. Battle of Guadalcanal

    D. Battle of Iwo Jima

    A.

    During World War II, which battle was the first significant US victory in the Pacific?

    A. Battle of the Coral Sea

    B. Battle of Midway

    C. Battle of Guadalcanal

    D. Battle of Iwo Jima

    B.

    Which Allied nation dropped the atomic bomb on Japan in 1945?

    A. Britain B. United States C. Australia D. France B.

    As a result of Japan's increasing use of suicide attacks in 1945, Allied leaders began

    A. decreasing the number of bombing raids on Japanese cities.

    B. developing more accurate and effective anti-aircraft weapons.

    C. thinking of a new strategy besides invading the Japanese mainland.

    D. weighing the pros and cons of surrendering to the Japanese.

    D.

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