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    which actions were taken by many african nations following world war ii?

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    The effects of WW2 in Africa

    The effects of WW2 in Africa

    Africans resisted colonial rule from the outset, trying to hold on to their land,  but were not strong enough to defend themselves against European conquest. As a result, most of Africa was colonized by 1900. Only Ethiopia and Liberia remained free. After the First and Second World Wars colonial control of the continent began to come apart. This was the result of a new political climate, the rise of nationalism and the waging of independence campaigns in various colonies as well as the new domestic priorities in the post-war period for colonial rulers.

    The climate before WW2

    By the early 1900s European countries had succeeded in establishing their control in Africa. In some cases like the Igbo people of Nigeria, colonial rule was achieved in 1910 shortly before the First World War in 1914.

    Colonial rule in Africa is studied in two periods, divided by the First and Second World Wars. Africa's involvement in these two wars helped fuel the struggle for independence from colonial rule. This was partly because participation of Africans in these wars exposed them to ideas of self-determination and independent rule.

    The First World War changed things in Europe and Africa. It destroyed the economy of European countries. To rebuild their economies they turned to Africa's mineral and agricultural wealth. Europe's growing interest in Africa's minerals led to her expansion into the interior. The great depression that followed worsened the already failing economies of Europe. The mining of mineral wealth from Africa required the reorganization of colonial rule, which meant that the autonomy chiefs and kings in Africa had maintained over the years would be increasingly dissolved to make room for a more 'progressive' form of government. The result of these changes was that land was taken away from Africans and given to white settlers and colonial companies like the British South African Company for farming and mining. This was also largely because shortly before the war, in many colonies, the presence of Europeans was increasing, because by this time colonial officers were chosen according to the requirements of colonial civil administration. Experts were called in to help in the improvements in areas-like agriculture and the collection of taxes from African people.

    After the war colonial governments began to introduce agricultural reforms aimed at improving the revenues collected from African farmers. African societies were deeply affected by these changes because most of them were still dependent on agriculture for survival. Africans were now forced to sell their crops to colonial markets at lower prices that would in turn sell these crops to an international market at a much higher price. Colonies made a lot of profit in this way. Many African farmers and rulers blamed the colonial government for decreasing profits and as a result, people began to demand an end to colonial rule.

    After WW2Colonial Developments in the Gold Coast

    Following the Second World War, colonial governments became increasingly aware that colonial rule could not be maintained forever. They were under pressure to justify why they were keeping African societies under their rule despite the United Nations declaration that all people have the right to self-determination. People in Africa had the right to be free and independent from colonial rule and colonial governments had an obligation to co-operate in this.

    Colonial governments responded by saying Africans were being prepared for future self-government. But many of them were not ready to hand over rule to African people. Most European governments thought that colonial rule would end much later. In colonies like Angola, Mozambique, Algeria, and Kenya African people were forced to fight wars to win their independence.

    As part of the steps toward African self-governance, colonial governments began to invest in education and schools in the colonies. This resulted in a growing number of young educated black people whose social and political mobility was restricted by colonial rule. These growing numbers of educated elites were frustrated with the limited prospects they held under the colonial state. They were increasingly driven to fight for an end to colonial rule. Self-rule became the slogan. Nkwame Nkrumah, the first President of Ghana, the former Gold Coast, changed that slogan to 'independence now'. He captured the aspiration for self rule with his popular slogan: "seek ye first the political kingdom, and the rest shall follow". What he meant was that independence from colonial rule was the only way to guarantee a better life for all Ghanaians.

    In response to these growing demands for self-rule, the British colonial government introduced the Burns constitution in 1946. The Burns constitution, based on the Westminster model, incorporated the elites, chiefs and kings of Ghana into the colonial government. The majority of the people, many of them blue-collar workers were excluded from government. Though rejected by Kwame Nkrumah's party, the Burns constitution proved an important step towards independent Ghana's constitution.

    Other Colonies

    Source : www.sahistory.org.za

    6.17 Unit Assessment: The Contemporary World, Part 1 Flashcards

    Study with Quizlet and memorize flashcards terms like Please note that the answers to these questions for this history test are 100% correct. I took them from the history test that I did but only AFTER I took it. I shows you the answers to them once you've finished so I decided to post this on Quizlet so that you can use it to CHECK your answers. You are in no way allowed BY ME to use these just to get a score of 100%. Please use them to check your answers before you send in the quiz. (You may then use them to get a 100%), Which economic problem did many Latin American nations face in the years following World War II?, Which was an effect of industrialization in Latin American nations during the postwar years? and more.

    6.17 Unit Assessment: The Contemporary World, Part 1

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    Which economic problem did many Latin American nations face in the years following World War II?

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    WIDE GAPS BETWEEN RICH AND POOR

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    Please note that the answers to these questions for this history test are 100% correct. I took them from the history test that I did but only AFTER I took it. I shows you the answers to them once you've finished so I decided to post this on Quizlet so that you can use it to CHECK your answers. You are in no way allowed BY ME to use these just to get a score of 100%. Please use them to check your answers before you send in the quiz. (You may then use them to get a 100%)

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    Which economic problem did many Latin American nations face in the years following World War II?

    WIDE GAPS BETWEEN RICH AND POOR

    Which was an effect of industrialization in Latin American nations during the postwar years?

    RELOCATION OF MILLIONS OF WORKERS TO CITIES

    Which was not a reason for U.S. intervention in Latin America during the Cold War era?

    THE FALL OF THE SOVIET UNION

    Which was not a result of U.S. intervention in Latin America during the Cold War era?

    COMMUNISM DISAPPEARED FROM LATIN AMERICA.

    Which Latin American nation was controlled by Fidel Castro?

    CUBA

    Which describes the main purpose of the Organization of American States (OAS)?

    PROVIDE A WAY TO ENCOURAGE REGIONAL COOPERATION IN LATIN AMERICA

    Which best describes the rise to power of Mao Zedong?

    LEADING AN ARMY OF RURAL PEASANTS, HE LAUNCHED A COMMUNIST REVOLUTION

    Which does not describe China's Great Leap Forward?

    A MILITARY ALLIANCE WITH THE SOVIET UNION

    Who was a key leader in India's independence movement?

    MOHANDAS GANDHI

    For which is Mohandas Gandhi best known?

    USE OF PASSIVE RESISTANCE TO ACHIEVE INDEPENDENCE

    Which presents the most serious ongoing challenge to modern India?

    WIDESPREAD POVERTY

    Which describes a cause of the war in Vietnam?

    POWER STRUGGLE BETWEEN COMMUNIST AND NONCOMMUNIST GOVERNMENTS

    Which was not an outcome of the war in Vietnam?

    THE END OF THE COLD WAR

    Which best describes change in Japan since World War II?

    STRENGTHENED TIES WITH THE UNITED STATES

    Which best describes recent changes in South Korea?

    GROWTH OF DEMOCRACY

    Which accurately describes reforms undertaken by China in an attempt to compete with other Asian nations in the early twenty-first century?

    ECONOMIC REFORMS THAT ALLOW LIMITED FREE ENTERPRISE

    Which actions were taken by many African nations following World War II?

    DEMANDED INDEPENDENCE FROM COLONIAL RULERS

    Which best describes the period of apartheid in South Africa?

    THE RULING MINORITY INSTITUTED A POLICY OF RACIAL DISCRIMINATION.

    Which best describes the role of Nelson Mandela in ending apartheid?

    HIS IMPRISONMENT LED TO WORLDWIDE CONDEMNATION OF THE GOVERNMENT'S POLICIES.

    Which is not a recent consequence of ethnic rivalries in African nations?

    RAPID INDUSTRIALIZATION

    Which was committed to the creation of a Jewish homeland in the Middle East?

    ZIONISM

    Which best describes a challenge in the Middle East resulting from oil production?

    WEALTH PRODUCED BY OIL ENRICHES POWERFUL ELITES.

    Which group used terrorism in the late twentieth century?

    AL-QAEDA

    Which was a response to the terrorist attack against the United States on September 11, 2001?

    INVASION OF AFGHANISTAN

    Which issue presents a major obstacle to settling the Arab-Israeli conflict?

    CONFLICTING CLAIMS TO TERRITORY

    What role have religious differences played in ongoing challenges in the Middle East?

    CONFLICT BETWEEN SECULARISM AND RELIGION LED TO REVOLUTION IN IRAN.

    Sets with similar terms

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    Milestones: 1945–1952

    history.state.gov 3.0 shell

    Home Milestones 1945-1952 Decolonization of Asia and Africa, 1945–1960

    MILESTONES: 1945–1952

    NOTE TO READERS

    “Milestones in the History of U.S. Foreign Relations” has been retired and is no longer maintained. For more information, please see the full notice.

    Decolonization of Asia and Africa, 1945–1960

    Between 1945 and 1960, three dozen new states in Asia and Africa achieved autonomy or outright independence from their European colonial rulers.

    Harold MacMillan, British Prime Minister, helped begin decolonization

    There was no one process of decolonization. In some areas, it was peaceful, and orderly. In many others, independence was achieved only after a protracted revolution. A few newly independent countries acquired stable governments almost immediately; others were ruled by dictators or military juntas for decades, or endured long civil wars. Some European governments welcomed a new relationship with their former colonies; others contested decolonization militarily. The process of decolonization coincided with the new Cold War between the Soviet Union and the United States, and with the early development of the new United Nations. Decolonization was often affected by superpower competition, and had a definite impact on the evolution of that competition. It also significantly changed the pattern of international relations in a more general sense.

    The creation of so many new countries, some of which occupied strategic locations, others of which possessed significant natural resources, and most of which were desperately poor, altered the composition of the United Nations and political complexity of every region of the globe. In the mid to late 19th century, the European powers colonized much of Africa and Southeast Asia. During the decades of imperialism, the industrializing powers of Europe viewed the African and Asian continents as reservoirs of raw materials, labor, and territory for future settlement. In most cases, however, significant development and European settlement in these colonies was sporadic. However, the colonies were exploited, sometimes brutally, for natural and labor resources, and sometimes even for military conscripts. In addition, the introduction of colonial rule drew arbitrary natural boundaries where none had existed before, dividing ethnic and linguistic groups and natural features, and laying the foundation for the creation of numerous states lacking geographic, linguistic, ethnic, or political affinity.

    During World War II Japan, itself a significant imperial power, drove the European powers out of Asia. After the Japanese surrender in 1945, local nationalist movements in the former Asian colonies campaigned for independence rather than a return to European colonial rule. In many cases, as in Indonesia and French Indochina, these nationalists had been guerrillas fighting the Japanese after European surrenders, or were former members of colonial military establishments. These independence movements often appealed to the United States Government for support.

    While the United States generally supported the concept of national self-determination, it also had strong ties to its European allies, who had imperial claims on their former colonies. The Cold War only served to complicate the U.S. position, as U.S. support for decolonization was offset by American concern over communist expansion and Soviet strategic ambitions in Europe. Several of the NATO allies asserted that their colonial possessions provided them with economic and military strength that would otherwise be lost to the alliance. Nearly all of the United States’ European allies believed that after their recovery from World War II their colonies would finally provide the combination of raw materials and protected markets for finished goods that would cement the colonies to Europe. Whether or not this was the case, the alternative of allowing the colonies to slip away, perhaps into the United States’ economic sphere or that of another power, was unappealing to every European government interested in postwar stability. Although the U.S. Government did not force the issue, it encouraged the European imperial powers to negotiate an early withdrawal from their overseas colonies. The United States granted independence to the Philippines in 1946.

    However, as the Cold War competition with the Soviet Union came to dominate U.S. foreign policy concerns in the late 1940s and 1950s, the Truman and Eisenhower Administrations grew increasingly concerned that as the European powers lost their colonies or granted them independence, Soviet-supported communist parties might achieve power in the new states. This might serve to shift the international balance of power in favor of the Soviet Union and remove access to economic resources from U.S. allies. Events such as the Indonesian struggle for independence from the Netherlands (1945–50), the Vietnamese war against France (1945–54), and the nationalist and professed socialist takeovers of Egypt (1952) and Iran (1951) served to reinforce such fears, even if new governments did not directly link themselves to the Soviet Union. Thus, the United States used aid packages, technical assistance and sometimes even military intervention to encourage newly independent nations in the Third World to adopt governments that aligned with the West. The Soviet Union deployed similar tactics in an effort to encourage new nations to join the communist bloc, and attempted to convince newly decolonized countries that communism was an intrinsically non-imperialist economic and political ideology. Many of the new nations resisted the pressure to be drawn into the Cold War, joined in the “nonaligned movement,” which formed after the Bandung conference of 1955, and focused on internal development.

    Source : history.state.gov

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