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    ...1. Czechia 2. Germany 3. New Zealand 4. Iceland

    Step 2 : Answer to the question "Where can you find this town built inside a meteor crater?"

    Germany - If you’re flying over the town of Nördlingen, Germany, you'll notice a sunken circular perimeter that rings the city. That perimeter was actually created by an asteroid that hit Earth roughly 15 million years ago. Not only did it give nine miles of terrain its unique shape, but it also created millions of microscopic diamonds. When early settlers in the area harvested the surrounding rock to build their structures, they found the crystals. As for why the town's circular shape has held up for so long? The early settlers also built a protective wall around their crater — one of the few that withstood multiple wars.:

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    Middlesboro crater

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    Middlesboro crater

    From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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    This article is about the meteorite impact crater in Kentucky. For the meteorite that impacted in Middlesbrough, England in 1881, see Middlesbrough meteorite.

    Middlesboro crater

    Middlesborough astrobleme

    The city of Middlesboro is built within the crater

    Impact crater/structure

    Confidence Confirmed[1]

    Diameter 6 kilometers (3.7 mi)

    Age <300 Ma

    Permian to late Mesozoic

    Exposed Yes Drilled Yes Location

    Location Bell County, Kentucky, United States

    Coordinates 36°37′N 83°44′W / 36.617°N 83.733°W

    Coordinates: 36°37′N 83°44′W / 36.617°N 83.733°W

    Country United States

    State Kentucky Middlesboro crater

    Location of Middlesboro Crater in Kentucky

    Access U.S. Route 25E

    The Middlesboro crater (or astrobleme) is a meteorite crater in Kentucky, United States.[2] It is named after the city of Middlesborough (both spellings are used), which today occupies much of the crater.

    The crater is approximately 3 miles (about 5 km) wide and its age is estimated to be less than 300 million years (Permian). The impactor is estimated to have been about 100 m in diameter.

    Contents

    1 History 2 Settlements

    3 Geological features

    4 Industrial activity

    5 References 6 External links

    History[edit]

    The Middlesboro crater is located in the Appalachian Mountains, between the Cumberland Mountains and Pine Mountain. It forms part of the string of geological features that made the Cumberland Gap a critical westward passage during the settlement of Kentucky and the Ohio Valley in the late 18th and early 19th centuries.

    Settlements[edit]

    The town of Middlesboro, built in the crater, was established in 1886 to exploit iron and coal deposits,[3] although the town's founder, Alexander A. Arthur, apparently did not know of the crater's extraterrestrial origin. K. J. Englund and J. B. Roen, working for the U. S. Geological Survey, identified the impact basin in 1962.[4]

    Geological features[edit]

    The 12-mile (19 km) long Cumberland Gap consists of four geologic features: the Yellow Creek valley, the natural gap in the Cumberland Mountain ridge, the eroded gap in Pine Mountain, and Middlesboro crater.

    Middlesboro crater is a 3-mile (4.8 km) diameter meteorite impact crater in which Middlesboro, Kentucky, is located. The crater was identified in 1966 when Robert Dietz discovered shatter cones in sandstone, which led to the further identification of shocked quartz. Shatter cones, a rock shattering pattern naturally formed only during impact events, are found in abundance in the area. In September 2003 the site was designated a Distinguished Geologic Site by the Kentucky Society of Professional Geologists.[5]

    Without Middlesboro crater, it would have been difficult for packhorses to navigate this gap, formed by differential erosion along one of the subsequent cross faults,[] and improbable that wagon roads would have been constructed at an early date. Middlesboro is the only place in the world where coal is mined inside an impact crater. Special mining techniques must be used in the complicated strata of this crater. (Milam & Kuehn, 36).

    Panoramic view from Pinnacle Overlook at Cumberland Gap National Historic Park

    Industrial activity[edit]

    While coal mining is still the town's primary economic driver, local leaders hope to turn the crater into a tourist destination.[6] In 2003, the Kentucky Society of Professional Geologists designated the area a Distinguished Geologic Site,[7] and the construction of the Cumberland Gap Tunnel makes the town a convenient source of supplies for visitors to Cumberland Gap National Historical Park.

    References[edit]

    ^ "Barringer". . Planetary and Space Science Centre University of New Brunswick Fredericton. Retrieved 2013-08-26.^ "Middlesboro". . Planetary and Space Science Centre University of New Brunswick Fredericton. Retrieved 2008-12-30.^ [1] Archived May 11, 2006, at the Wayback Machine^ K. A. Milam, J. Evenick, and B. Deane eds. "Field Guide to the Middlesboro and Flynn Creek Impact Structures" (PDF). Impact Field Studies Group. Archived from the original (PDF) on January 6, 2014. Retrieved November 13, 2012. {{cite web}}: |author= has generic name (help)CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)^ Kortenkamp, Steve (Summer 2004). "Impact at Cumberland Gap: Where Natural and National History Collide". . 5 (2): 1–2.^ "Kentucky town sees a future in its crater". St. Petersburg Times. Associated Press. 2003-09-20. Retrieved September 16, 2006.^ Kortenkamp, Steve (Summer 2004). "Impact at Cumberland Gap: Where Natural and National History Collide" (PDF). . 5 (2): 1–2.

    Source : en.wikipedia.org

    Small German Town was Unknowingly Built Inside a Meteorite Crater

    The town of Nördlingen was unknowingly built inside a meteorite impact crater, and now all of the buildings are composed of tiny diamonds.

    CULTURE

    Small German Town was Unknowingly Built Inside a Meteorite Crater

    The town of Nördlingen was unknowingly built inside a meteorite impact crater, and now all of the buildings are composed of tiny diamonds.

    By  Trevor English Jun 02, 2016

    Roger W/Flickr

    The town of Nördlingen, Germany sits inside an ancient meteorite crater, and even though the town is over 1,100-years old, it wasn't known about until the early 1960s. Sitting in Swabia, Bavaria, Germany, this town has a current approximate population of 24,000 and it has great historical significance in the area. First recordings of the town's presence date back to 898 A.D. and it was built in a shallow localized depression that was thought to have been an ancient volcano. However, two American scientists who visited the town in 1960 found that the local buildings were constructed from 'shocked quartz' which is only present in meteorite impact zones, confirming the town's topographical origins.

    Source: David Holt/Flickr

    The crater in which the town was built spans 25 kilometers across. An impact from a meteorite of this size would have had quite the impact on the Earth at the time, estimated to be about 14.5 million years ago. On other historical notes, the town of Nördlingen is currently only one of three towns to have a fully intact and established city wall in Germany. Remains of a Roman castle dating back to 85 A.D. were also found buried beneath the now thriving city.

    Nördlinger Ries crater is the official name for the site, and the impact created some geological formations seen nowhere else in the world.

    Source: Dave Shafer/Flickr

    Stone buildings created with local rocks contain millions of tiny diamonds, forged by the pressure from the ancient meteorological impact. An estimated 72,000 tons of tiny diamonds were created in the violent impact, but the largest ones are only 0.3 mm in size, so residents won't be cashing in anytime soon. The town has also been seen in a movie, Willy Wonka and the Chocolate Factory, as it was the town seen in the final scene of the 1971 classic.

    Source: Roger W/Flickr

    The town's origins become quite evident when seen from above, but it is hard to imagine that for 1,000 years of its existence that no one knew the catastrophic origins of the localized depression they all lived in. Nördlingen is very unique, from buildings composed of millions of diamonds to the fact that it lies in a meteorite crater, it is definitely a place to see.

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