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    PY 201 Chapter 1

    Start studying PY 201 Chapter 1-3. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools.

    PY 201 Chapter 1-3

    A(n) ________ is a chamber that isolates the subject from the external environment.

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    Skinner Box

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    When was psychology accepted as an academic discipline?

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    Textbook solutions for this set

    Psychology: Themes and Variations

    10th Edition Wayne Weiten 180 explanations

    Cognitive Psychology

    3rd Edition

    E Bruce Goldstein, Robert Hershberger

    150 explanations

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    Terms in this set (76)

    A(n) ________ is a chamber that isolates the subject from the external environment.

    Skinner Box

    When was psychology accepted as an academic discipline?


    What was the primary conclusion of Stanley Milgram's obedience research?

    Average people will harm others if told to do so by an authority figure.

    When studying personality traits, someone who is hardworking, dependable, and organized will score high on the ________ trait.


    I provide Ralph with the positive reinforcement of a candy bar when he does something I like. I punish him by squirting him with a squirt gun when he does something I don't like. I am applying the principles of ________ in an attempt to modify Ralph's behavior.

    operant conditioning

    What do industrial and organizational psychology, health psychology, sport and exercise psychology, forensic psychology, and clinical psychology all have in common?

    They are all examples of applied psychology.

    Behaviorists all focus on ________.

    physiological responses that result in action

    When studying personality traits, someone who is quiet, reserved, and withdrawn will score low on the ________ trait.


    According to William James, the purpose of psychology was to ________.

    study the function of behavior

    Why is psychology considered a social science?

    Behavior is biological, and our behavior is influenced by our interactions with others.

    Peter is interested in pursuing a ________ training program with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention after he receives his PhD, which will allow him to further develop his research on adolescent suicide and broaden his research skills under the supervision of CDC researchers.


    The cognitive revolution created an impetus for psychologists to focus their attention on better understanding ________.

    the mind and mental processes that underlie behavior

    Which of the following refers to a broad explanation or group of explanations for some aspect of the natural world that is consistently supported by evidence over time?

    scientific theory

    When studying personality traits, someone who is helpful, trusting, and empathetic will score high on the ________ trait.


    Psychology refers to the ________.

    scientific study of the mind

    If you show an adult a toy, and then hide it behind a curtain, the adult knows that the toy still exists. However, infants act as if a hidden object no longer exists. What does this exemplify?

    object permanence

    Which of the following is a reason that Gestalt psychology did not become more popular in the United States?

    The rise of behaviorism overshadowed Gestalt psychology.

    Who was the first African American to receive a PhD in psychology in the United States?

    Francis Cecil Sumner

    What do industrial and organizational psychology, health psychology, sport and exercise psychology, forensic psychology, and clinical psychology all have in common?

    they are all examples of applied psychology

    According to William James, the purpose of psychology was to ________.

    study the function of behavior

    Behaviorists study ________.

    learned behavior

    Edmund wants to identify relatively consistent patterns of thought and behavior, measure these traits, and determine how these traits interact in a particular context to determine how a person will behave in any given situation. Edmund wants to conduct research in the area of ________.


    In Maslow's hierarchy of needs, the ________ include food, water, and shelter.

    basic survival needs

    Which of the following is a criticism of evolutionary psychology?

    It ignores non-genetic factors in determining human behavior.

    Cognitive psychology focuses on studying ________.

    thoughts and their relationship to our experiences and our actions

    Which of the following is a feminist criticism of the science of psychology?

    male bias exist in science

    When studying personality traits, someone who is quiet, reserved, and withdrawn will score low on the ________ trait.


    William James was the ________.

    first American psychologist

    What should be changed to make the following statement true? Jean Piaget is famous for his theories regarding changes in emotional ability that occur as we move from infancy to adulthood.

    The word "emotional" should be changed to the word "cognitive."

    A(n) ________ is conducted in order to determine whether there are meaningful differences between two groups in a study.

    statistical analysis

    Source : quizlet.com

    The “big 5” Personality traits

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    The “big 5” Personality traits

    The Big The big five personality traits are the best accepted and most commonly used model of personality in academic psychology. The big five come from the statistical study of responses to personality items. Using a technique called factor analysis researchers can look at the responses of people to hundreds of personality items and ask the question “what is the best way to summarise an individual?”. This has been done with many samples from all over the world and the general result is that, while there seem to be unlimited personality variables, five stand out from the pack in terms of explaining a lot of a person’s answers to questions about their personality: extraversion, neuroticism, agreeableness, conscientiousness and openness to experience. The Big Five factors and their constituent traits can be summarized as an acronym of “OCEAN”:

    Openness to experience – (inventive/curious vs. consistent/cautious). Appreciation for art, emotion, adventure, unusual ideas, curiosity, and variety of experience.Conscientiousness – (efficient/organized vs. easy-going/careless). A tendency to show self-discipline, act dutifully, and aim for achievement; planned rather than spontaneous behaviour.Extraversion – (outgoing/energetic vs. solitary/reserved). Energy, positive emotions, urgency, and the tendency to seek stimulation in the company of others.Agreeableness – (friendly/compassionate vs. cold/unkind). A tendency to be compassionate and cooperative rather than suspicious and antagonistic towards others.Neuroticism – (sensitive/nervous vs. secure/confident). A tendency to experience unpleasant emotions easily, such as anger, anxiety, depression, or vulnerability.

    The five broad factors were discovered and defined by several independent sets of researchers. These researchers began by studying known personality traits and then factor-analysing hundreds of measures of these traits (in self-report and questionnaire data, peer ratings, and objective measures from experimental settings) in order to find the underlying factors of personality.

    The initial model was advanced by Ernest Tupes and Raymond Christal in 1961, but failed to reach an academic audience until the 1980s. In 1990, J.M. Digman advanced his five factor model of personality. These five over-arching domains have been found to contain and subsume most known personality traits and are assumed to represent the basic structure behind all personality traits.

    Because the Big Five traits are broad and comprehensive though, they are not nearly as powerful in predicting and explaining actual behaviour as are the more numerous lower-level traits. Many studies have confirmed that in predicting actual behaviour the more numerous facet or primary level traits are more effective

    When scored for individual feedback, these traits are frequently presented as percentile scores. For example, a Conscientiousness rating in the 80th percentile indicates a relatively strong sense of responsibility and orderliness, whereas an extraversion rating in the 5th percentile indicates an exceptional need for solitude and quiet. Although these trait clusters are statistical aggregates, exceptions may exist on individual personality profiles.

    Openness to experience

    Openness to experience is one of the domains which are used to describe human personality in the Five Factor Model. Openness involves active imagination, aesthetic sensitivity, attentiveness to inner feelings, preference for variety, and intellectual curiosity. A great deal of psychometric research has demonstrated that these qualities are statistically correlated. Thus, openness can be viewed as a global personality trait consisting of a set of specific traits, habits, and tendencies that cluster together.

    Openness is a general appreciation for art, emotion, adventure, unusual ideas, imagination, curiosity, and variety of experience. People who are open to experience are intellectually curious, appreciative of art, and sensitive to beauty. They tend to be, compared to closed people, more creative and more aware of their feelings. They are more likely to hold unconventional beliefs. People with low scores on openness tend to have more conventional, traditional interests. They prefer the plain, straightforward, and obvious over the complex, ambiguous, and subtle. They may regard the arts and sciences with suspicion or even view these endeavours as uninteresting

    Openness tends to be normally distributed with a small number of individuals scoring extremely high or low on the trait, and most people scoring near the average. People who score low on openness are considered to be closed to experience. They tend to be conventional and traditional in their outlook and behaviour. They prefer familiar routines to new experiences, and generally have a narrower range of interests.

    People who are open to experience are no different in mental health from people who are closed to experience. There is no relationship between openness and neuroticism, or any other measure of psychological wellbeing. Being open and closed to experience are simply two different ways of relating to the world.

    Source : www.crowe-associates.co.uk

    Being "Highly Sensitive" Is a Real Trait. Here’s What It Feels Li

    The Big Five personality traits are one way of looking at someone’s personality. We’ll go over what these traits are, how they’re measured, and what they might say about a person.

    What the Big Five Personality Traits Can Tell You

    Medically reviewed by Timothy J. Legg, PhD, PsyD — Written by Crystal Raypole — Updated on January 26, 2019

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    What are the Big Five personality traits?

    Your personality is unique to you and an important part of who you are. It includes your preferences, mannerisms, and behavior. Together, these can play a role in your friendships, relationships, career, and hobbies.

    There are countless personality tests designed to help you better understand your own personality. They come in many formats and are based on different models. The Big Five model of personality, also called the Five-Factor Model (FFM), is one popular model.

    The Big Five model represents five major personality traits, which you can remember using the CANOE acronym:


    Read on to learn more about the Big Five personality traits, including how to find out your own results.

    How can I get my results?

    There are several websites that offer their own versions of the Big Five personality trait test. One popular option is called the Big Five inventory. This method uses your response to about 50 short statements or phrases.

    You’ll be asked to agree or disagree, on a scale of 1 to 5, to each phrase. Based on your answers, your results will show you where you fall on a spectrum for each trait. For example, you might score high in conscientiousness and low in extraversion.

    You can take the Big Five inventory for yourself here.


    When looking at your results, remember that personality is incredibly complex. There are no right or wrong traits, and each trait is linked to unique strengths. These results also aren’t any kind of definitive statement about your personality. They may even change based on a range of factors, from your mood that day to whether you’ve got an important, nerve-wracking event coming up in the near future.

    What does conscientiousness mean?

    Conscientiousness describes a careful, detail-oriented nature.

    High score

    If you score high on conscientiousness, you likely:

    keep things in order

    come prepared to school or work

    are goal-driven are persistent

    If you are a conscientious person, you might follow a regular schedule and have a knack for keeping track of details. You likely deliberate over options and work hard to achieve your goals. Coworkers and friends might see you as a reliable, fair person.

    You may tend to micromanage situations or tasks. You might also be cautious or difficult to please.

    Low score

    A low score on conscientiousness might mean you:

    are less organized

    complete tasks in a less structured way

    take things as they come

    finish things at the last minute

    are impulsive

    A low conscientiousness score might mean you prefer a setting without structure. You may prefer doing things at your own pace to working on a deadline. This might make you appear unreliable to others.

    What does agreeableness mean?

    Agreeableness refers to a desire to keep things running smoothly.

    High score

    A high score in agreeableness might mean you:

    are always ready to help out

    are caring and honest

    are interested in the people around you

    believe the best about others

    If you score high in agreeableness, you you’re helpful and cooperative. Your loved ones may often turn to you for help. People might see you as trustworthy. You may be the person others seek when they’re trying to resolve a disagreement.

    In some situations, you might a little too trusting or willing to compromise. Try to balance your knack for pleasing others with self-advocacy.

    Low score

    A low agreeableness score might mean you:

    are stubborn

    find it difficult to forgive mistakes

    are self-centered

    have less compassion for others

    A low agreeableness score may mean you tend hold grudges. You might also be less sympathetic with others. But you are also likely avoid the pitfalls of comparing yourself to others or caring about what others think of you.

    What does neuroticism mean?

    Neuroticism describes a tendency to have unsettling thoughts and feelings.

    High score

    A high score in neuroticism can mean you:

    often feel vulnerable or insecure

    get stressed easily

    struggle with difficult situations

    have mood swings

    If you score high on neuroticism, you may blame yourself when things go wrong. You might also get frustrated with yourself easily, especially if you make a mistake. Chances are, you’re also prone to worrying.

    But you’re likely also more introspective than others, which helps you to examine and understand your feelings.

    Low score

    If you score low on neuroticism, you likely:

    keep calm in stressful situations

    are more optimistic worry less

    have a more stable mood

    A low neuroticism score can mean you’re confident. You may have more resilience and find it easy to keep calm under stress. Relaxation might also come more easily to you. Try to keep in mind that this might not be as easy for those around you, so be patient.

    Source : www.healthline.com

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