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    99942 Apophis

    99942 Apophis

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    Model of 99942 Apophis's shape, assuming the entire surface is of a similar composition.

    Discovery[1] Discovered by Roy A. Tucker David J. Tholen Fabrizio Bernardi

    Discovery site Kitt Peak[1]

    Discovery date June 19, 2004


    MPC designation (99942) Apophis

    Pronunciation /əˈpɒfɪs/

    Named after Ἄποφις [2]

    Alternative designations 2004 MN4

    Minor planet category


    Adjectives Apophidian /æpəˈfɪdiən/ (Latin )

    Orbital characteristics[1]

    Epoch 21 January 2022 (JD 2459600.5)

    Uncertainty parameter 0

    Observation arc 6267 days (17.16 yr)

    Earliest precovery date March 15, 2004

    Aphelion 1.0993 AU (164.45 Gm)

    Perihelion 0.7461 AU (111.61 Gm)

    Semi-major axis 0.9227 AU (138.03 Gm)

    Eccentricity 0.1914

    Orbital period (sidereal) 0.89 yr (323.7 d)

    Average orbital speed 30.73 km/s

    Mean anomaly 195.654°

    Mean motion 1.11203°/day

    Inclination 3.339°

    Longitude of ascending node 203.971°

    Argument of perihelion 126.596°

    Earth MOID 0.0002442 AU (36,530 km; 22,700 mi)

    Jupiter MOID 4.1251 AU (617.11 Gm)

    TJupiter 6.465

    Physical characteristics

    Dimensions 0.370 km (0.230 mi) 0.45 × 0.17 km[3] Mean radius 0.185 km (0.115 mi) 0.17±0.02 km[3]

    Mass 6.1×1010 kg (assumed)[4]

    Mean density ~3.2 g/cm3[5]

    2.6 g/cm3 (assumed)[4]

    Synodic rotation period 30.4 h (1.27 d)[1][6]

    30.56±0.68 h[7] tumbling:[8] precession period: 27.38±0.07 h[8] rotation period: 263±6 h[8]

    period of harmonic with strongest lightcurve amplitude:

    30.56±0.01 h[8] Geometric albedo 0.23[9] 0.35±0.10[3] Temperature 270 K Spectral type Sq[6] Absolute magnitude 19.7±0.4[1][6] 19.09±0.19[3] 18.95±0.15[10]

    99942 Apophis (/əˈpɒfɪs/) is a near-Earth asteroid and potentially hazardous asteroid with a diameter of 370 metres (1,210 feet) that caused a brief period of concern in December 2004 when initial observations indicated a probability up to 2.7% that it would hit Earth on April 13, 2029. Additional observations provided improved predictions that eliminated the possibility of an impact on Earth in 2029. Until 2006, a small probability however remained that during its 2029 close encounter with Earth, Apophis would pass through a gravitational keyhole of no more than about 800 metres (1⁄2 mi) in diameter,[11][12] which would have set up a future impact exactly seven years later on April 13, 2036. This possibility kept it at Level 1 on the Torino impact hazard scale until August 2006, when the probability that Apophis would pass through the keyhole was determined to be very small and Apophis' rating on the Torino scale was lowered to zero. By 2008, the keyhole had been determined to be less than 1 km wide.[11] During the short time when it had been of greatest concern, Apophis set the record for highest rating ever on the Torino scale, reaching level 4 on December 27, 2004.[13]

    The diameter of Apophis is estimated to be approximately 370 metres (1,210 ft).[4] Preliminary observations by Goldstone radar in January 2013 effectively ruled out the possibility of an Earth impact by Apophis in 2036.[14] By May 6, 2013 (April 15, 2013, observation arc), the probability of an impact on April 13, 2036, had been eliminated altogether.[4] Apophis will make two modestly close approaches to Earth in 2036, but even the planet Venus will come closer to Earth in 2036. On April 12, 2068, the nominal trajectory has Apophis 1.87 AU (280 million km) from Earth.[15] Entering March 2021, six asteroids each had a more notable cumulative Palermo Technical Impact Hazard Scale than Apophis, and none of those has a Torino level above 0.[16][a] On average, an asteroid the size of Apophis (370 metres) is expected to impact Earth once in about 80,000 years.[17] Observations in 2020 by the Subaru telescope confirmed David Vokrouhlický's 2015 Yarkovsky effect predictions.[18] The Goldstone radar observed Apophis March 3–11, 2021, helping to refine the orbit again,[19] and on March 25, 2021, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory announced that Apophis has no chance of impacting Earth in the next 100 years.[20][21] The uncertainty in the 2029 approach distance has been reduced from hundreds of kilometers to now just a couple of kilometers[22] greatly enhancing predictions of future approaches. Apophis was removed altogether from the Sentry Risk Table the next day.[23][]


    1 Discovery and naming

    2 Physical characteristics

    3 Orbit

    3.1 2029 close approach

    3.2 2036 approaches 3.3 2051 approach 3.4 2066/2068

    3.5 Refinement of close approach predictions

    3.5.1 2005 and 2011 observations

    3.5.2 2013 refinement

    3.5.3 2015 observations

    3.5.4 2020–21 observations

    3.6 History of impact estimates

    4 Possible impact effects

    4.1 Expired 2036 path of risk

    5 Potential space missions

    5.1 Planetary Society competition

    5.2 Planned Chinese mission

    5.3 Don Quijote mission

    5.4 OSIRIS-APEX rendezvous

    5.5 Proposed deflection strategies

    6 Popular culture 7 See also

    Source : en.wikipedia.org


    When it was first discovered, astronomers thought asteroid 2022 AE1 would hit Earth next year and "do real damage." Turns out we are safe.

    230-foot wide asteroid initially expected to hit Earth in 2023 was false alarm

    Jordan Mendoza USA TODAY

    A recently discovered asteroid wider than a hockey rink that had been projected to hit Earth next year actually won't after all.

    In January, asteroid 2022 AE1 was discovered by astronomers at the Catalina Sky Survey at the University of Arizona. Not long after that, the European Space Agency noted the 230-foot-wide asteroid was on a collision course with Earth for July 2023.

    Astronomers used the Palermo scale to determine the risk and potential effects of an impact. On the scale, anything under -2 is not a threat, -2 to 0 is something worthy of monitoring, and anything higher is of great concern.

    Asteroid 2022 AE1 had reached a -0.66, according to Marco Micheli, an astronomer at the agency's Near-Earth Object Coordination Center. Given its size, impact would "do real damage to a local area," similar to the atomic bomb dropped in Hiroshima in 1945, according to Space.com.

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    What concerned astronomers was that after they realized an impact was probable, the asteroid disappeared from the telescope's view because of the moon's glow and the asteroid's orbit leading it farther away.

    "In my almost 10 years at ESA I’ve never seen such a risky object," Micheli said in a statement.

    When the asteroid became visible a week later, astronomers were able to calculate it was a false alarm by following its orbit. They confirmed that the asteroid would not hit Earth in 2023.

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    Summer travel is predicted to do well

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    "The data was clear," said Laura Faggioli, near-Earth object dynamicist with the European Space Agency. "Had 2022 AE1’s path remained uncertain, we would have used any means possible to keep watching it with the biggest telescopes we have. As it was removed from our risk list, we didn’t need to follow it anymore – time to move on to the next."

    Want to visit space?: You can send your name on NASA's next mission around the moon for freeAsteroid and dinosaurs: New research says asteroid that killed the dinosaurs hit Earth in the spring

    According to NASA's Center for Near Earth Object Studies, 2022 AE1 will make its closest approach to Earth on July 1, 2023, at about 5.7 million miles.

    Astronomers had been concerned that there wasn't enough time to prepare a defense system against the asteroid had it been on track to strike Earth. In November, NASA launched the DART system, which will seek to determine whether crashing a spacecraft into an asteroid could change its course. The spacecraft is expected to hit the asteroid moon of Didymos in September.

    Follow Jordan Mendoza on Twitter: @jordan_mendoza5.

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    Source : www.usatoday.com

    NASA System Predicts Impact of Small Asteroid

    Asteroid 2022 EB5 was too small to pose a hazard to Earth, but its discovery marks the fifth time that any asteroid has been observed before impacting into the atmosphere.



    NASA System Predicts Impact of Small Asteroid

    March 15, 2022

    This animation shows asteroid 2022 EB5's predicted orbit around the Sun before impacting into the Earth’s atmosphere on March 11, 2022. The asteroid – estimated to be about 6 ½ feet (2 meters) wide – was discovered only two hours before impact.

    Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech

    Asteroid 2022 EB5 was too small to pose a hazard to Earth, but its discovery marks the fifth time that any asteroid has been observed before impacting into the atmosphere.

    A small asteroid hit Earth’s atmosphere over the Norwegian Sea before disintegrating on March 11, 2022. But this event wasn’t a complete surprise: Astronomers knew it was on a collision course, predicting exactly where and when the impact would happen.

    Two hours before the asteroid made impact, K. Sarneczky at the Piszkéstető Observatory in northern Hungary first reported observations of the small object to the Minor Planet Center – the internationally recognized clearinghouse for the position measurements of small celestial bodies. The object was posted on the Minor Planet Center’s Near-Earth Object Confirmation Page to flag it for additional observations that would confirm it as a previously unknown asteroid.

    NASA’s “Scout” impact hazard assessment system then took these early measurements to calculate the trajectory of 2022 EB5. As soon as Scout determined that 2022 EB5 was going to hit Earth’s atmosphere, the system alerted the Center for Near Earth Object Studies (CNEOS) and NASA’s Planetary Defense Coordination Office, and flagged the object on the Scout webpage to notify the near-Earth object observing community. Maintained by CNEOS at NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Southern California, Scout automatically searches the Minor Planet Center’s database for possible new short-term impactors. CNEOS calculates every known near-Earth asteroid orbit to improve impact hazard assessments in support of the Planetary Defense Coordination Office.

    “Scout had only 14 observations over 40 minutes from one observatory to work with when it first identified the object as an impactor. We were able to determine the possible impact locations, which initially extended from western Greenland to off the coast of Norway,” said Davide Farnocchia, a navigation engineer at JPL who developed Scout. “As more observatories tracked the asteroid, our calculations of its trajectory and impact location became more precise.”

    Fully interactive, Eyes on Asteroids uses science data to help visualize asteroid and comet orbits around the Sun. Zoom in to travel along with your favorite spacecraft as they explore these fascinating near-Earth objects in beautiful 3D.

    Scout determined that 2022 EB5 would enter the atmosphere southwest of Jan Mayen, a Norwegian island nearly 300 miles (470 kilometers) off the east coast of Greenland and northeast of Iceland. At 5:23 p.m. EST (2:23 p.m. PST), 2022 EB5 hit the atmosphere as predicted by Scout, and infrasound detectors have confirmed the impact occurred at the predicted time.

    From observations of the asteroid as it approached Earth and the energy measured by infrasound detectors at time of impact, 2022 EB5 is estimated to have been about 6 1/2 feet (2 meters) in size. Tiny asteroids of this size get bright enough to be detected only in the last few hours before their impact (or before they make a very close approach to Earth). They are much smaller than the objects that the Planetary Defense Coordination Office is tasked by NASA with detecting and warning about.

    “Tiny asteroids like 2022 EB5 are numerous, and they impact into the atmosphere quite frequently – roughly every 10 months or so,” said Paul Chodas, the director of CNEOS at JPL. “But very few of these asteroids have actually been detected in space and observed extensively prior to impact, basically because they are very faint until the last few hours, and a survey telescope has to observe just the right spot of sky at the right time for one to be detected.”

    A larger asteroid with hazardous impact potential would be discovered much farther from Earth. NASA’s goal is to keep track of such asteroids and to calculate their trajectories in order to have many years’ notice ahead of a potential impact should one ever be identified. But this real-world event with a very small asteroid allowed the planetary defense community to exercise capabilities and gave some confidence that the impact prediction models at CNEOS are highly capable of informing the response to the potential impact of a larger object.

    2022 EB5 is only the fifth small asteroid to be detected in space before hitting Earth’s atmosphere. The first asteroid to be discovered and tracked well before hitting Earth was 2008 TC3, which entered the atmosphere over Sudan and broke up in October 2008. That 13-foot-wide (4-meter-wide) asteroid scattered hundreds of small meteorites over the Nubian Desert. As surveys become more sophisticated and sensitive, more of these harmless objects will be detected before entering the atmosphere.

    More information about CNEOS, asteroids, and near-Earth objects can be found at:




    For more information about NASA’s Planetary Defense Coordination Office, visit:


    For asteroid and comet news and updates, follow @AsteroidWatch on Twitter.

    Source : www.jpl.nasa.gov

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