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    what would happen if the hadron collider exploded

    James

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    What would happen if one were to blow up the Large Hadron Collider?

    Answer (1 of 19): In fact just about ten years ago exactly, in September 2008, the Large Hadron Collider did explode! Not the whole thing, but a good deal of the accelerator was damaged and took a year to repair. How did this happen? The LHC uses superconducting magnets, cooled to 1.9 degrees Ke...

    What would happen if one were to blow up the Large Hadron Collider?

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    Sort Max Williams

    Armchair physicist with a love for explanation and argumentUpvoted by

    Elizabeth H. Simmons

    , studied Physics at Harvard UniversityAuthor has 1.4K answers and 2.8M answer views4y

    If you mean in terms of science-fiction explosions, black holes, white holes, space-time vortices, deadly beams of radiation etc, then nothing at all.

    If you mean in terms of more down-to-earth environmental hazards, then also nothing. It wouldn’t make a dirty bomb or a nuclear explosion.

    If you mean in terms of a terrible waste of human life, effort and money, then it would be a terrible waste of human life, effort and money: a great tragedy. Possibly the worst tragedy the world has ever seen - it would be up there with 9/11, but wouldn’t (probably) catalyse any pointless wars in the middle eas

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    John Conway

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    David Tregurtha

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    Ravino Juwono

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    Originally Answered: What would happen if the Large Hadron Collider exploded?

    In fact just about ten years ago exactly, in September 2008, the Large Hadron Collider did explode! Not the whole thing, but a good deal of the accelerator was damaged and took a year to repair.

    How did this happen? The LHC uses superconducting magnets, cooled to 1.9 degrees Kelvin above absolute zero. The innermost portions of the magnet, including the superconducting wire and the steel yoke, are the parts at that temperature. They are cooled by liquid helium, and then surrounded by an insulating vacuum layer.

    Each magnet is connected to the next in the chain like bulbs on a string of lights. I

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    David Filmer

    Works at Daimler AG (company)Author has 3.1K answers and 9.5M answer views1y

    Originally Answered: What happens if the Hadron Collider blows up?

    The LHC exploded in September 2008, shortly after it became operational. A large portion of the accelerator was damaged, and it took more than a year to repair.

    What happened was that it cost something like 35 million euro, so that was a bad day.

    Krister Sundelin

    E-learning Producer (2020–present)Author has 22.2K answers and 73M answer views1y

    Originally Answered: What would happen if the Hadron Collider exploded?

    Q: What would happen if the Hadron Collider exploded?

    A: A number of fuses would go out.

    Basically, the Large Hadron Collider is a long vacuum tube surrounded by powerful electromagnets chilled by helium. The amount of explosive stuff is a small hydrogen tank the size of a fire extinguisher that feeds the collider with the protons needed.

    So there’s very little that can explode. So the closest thing you will get is a short circuit somewhere along the electromagnet’s power supply followed by a number of fuses going out.

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    Alec Cawley

    A very rusty first degree in Physics. But I have kept up with the subject at a Pop Sci level and consider I have some talent at explaining.Upvoted by

    Jerzy Michał Pawlak

    , PhD in High Energy Physics (experimental) and

    Elizabeth H. Simmons

    , studied Physics at Harvard UniversityAuthor has 50.5K answers and 56M answer viewsUpdated 4y

    You would break a very delicate, if very large, piece of scientific equipment. If seriously damaged while operating, there is enough energy in the system to cause a moderately sized industrial explosion. One comparison was with the energy of a standard rail locomotive travelling at full speed. But other than that, nothing special would happen.

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    Jan Soloven

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    First off, you don’t need to, it has already done so on its own at least once

    (see the clip from Wired magazine, below). Second, your question implies that it is basically a large bomb waiting to be detonated, but no, it isn’t that at all; it’s basically a long circular tube, a bunch of powerful electromagnets and a lot of computers. Third, what would you use to blow it up? Even if you were Kim Jong Un lobbing your largest nuclear warhead (10 Kilotons) on your first successful ICBM launch, it wouldn’t even dent the Large Hadron Collider. It has a diameter of about 5.5 miles and is buried as fa

    Source : www.quora.com

    Large Hadron Collider: What happened to the scientist who stuck his head inside a particle accelerator — Quartz

    Bugorski was checking malfunctioning equipment on the U-70 synchrotron—the largest particle accelerator in the Soviet Union—when a safety mechanism failed.

    PROTON CRUSH <3

    This is what happened to the scientist who stuck his head inside a particle accelerator

    REUTERS/ISEEI KATO

    Amazing things are happening in particle science.

    By Joel Frohlich

    PhD student, University of California—Los Angeles

    Published April 21, 2017Last updated September 4, 2018This article is more than 2 years old.

    What would happen if you stuck your body inside a particle accelerator? The scenario seems like the start of a bad Marvel comic, but it happens to shed light on our intuitions about radiation, the vulnerability of the human body, and the very nature of matter. Particle accelerators allow physicists to study subatomic particles by speeding them up in powerful magnetic fields and then tracing the interactions that result from collisions. By delving into the mysteries of the universe, colliders have entered the zeitgeist and tapped the wonders and fears of our age.

    As far back as 2008, the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), operated by the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), was charged with creating microscopic black holes that would allow physicists to detect extra dimensions. To many, this sounds like the plot of a disastrous science-fiction movie. It came as no surprise when two people filed a lawsuit to stop the LHC from operating, lest it produce a black hole powerful enough to destroy the world. But physicists argued that the idea was absurd and the lawsuit was rejected.

    Then, in 2012, the LHC detected the long-sought Higgs boson, a particle needed to explain how particles acquire mass. With that major accomplishment, the LHC entered popular culture; it was featured on the album cover of Super Collider (2013) by the heavy metal band Megadeth, and was a plot point in the US television series The Flash (2014-).

    Yet, despite its accomplishments and glamour, the world of particle physics is so abstract that few understand its implications, meaning or use. Unlike a NASA probe sent to Mars, CERN’s research doesn’t produce stunning, tangible images. Instead, the study of particle physics is best described by chalkboard equations and squiggly lines called Feynman diagrams. Aage Bohr, the Nobel laureate whose father Niels invented the Bohr model of the atom, and his colleague Ole Ulfbeck have even gone as far as to deny the physical existence of subatomic particles as anything more than mathematical models.

    Which returns us to our original question: What happens when a beam of subatomic particles traveling at nearly the speed of light meets the flesh of the human body? Perhaps because the realms of particle physics and biology are conceptually so far removed, it’s not only laypeople who lack the intuition to answer this question, but also some professional physicists. In a 2010 YouTube interview with members of the physics and astronomy faculty at the University of Nottingham, several academic experts admitted that they had little idea what would happen if one were to stick a hand inside the proton beam at the LHC. Professor Michael Merrifield put it succinctly: “That’s a good question. I don’t know is the answer. Probably be very bad for you.” Professor Laurence Eaves was also cautious about drawing conclusions. “[B]y the scales of energy we notice, it wouldn’t be that noticeable,” he said, likely with a bit of British understatement. “Would I put my hand in the beam? I’m not sure about that.”

    Such thought experiments can be useful tools for exploring situations that can’t be studied in the laboratory. Occasionally, however, unfortunate accidents yield case studies: opportunities for researchers to study scenarios that can’t be experimentally induced for ethical reasons. Case studies have a sample size of one and no control group. But, as the neuroscientist V. S. Ramachandran has pointed out in Phantoms in the Brain (1998), it takes only one talking pig to prove that pigs can talk. On Sept. 13, 1848, for example, an iron rod pierced through the head of the US railway worker Phineas Gage and profoundly changed his personality, offering early evidence of a biological basis for personality.

    And on July 13, 1978, a Soviet scientist named Anatoli Bugorski stuck his head in a particle accelerator. On that fateful day, Bugorski was checking malfunctioning equipment on the U-70 synchrotron—the largest particle accelerator in the Soviet Union—when a safety mechanism failed and a beam of protons traveling at nearly the speed of light passed straight through his head, Phineas Gage-style. It’s possible that, at that point in history, no other human being had ever experienced a focused beam of radiation at such high energy. Although proton therapy—a cancer treatment that uses proton beams to destroy tumors—was pioneered before Bugorski’s accident, the energy of these beams is generally not above 250 million electron volts (a unit of energy used for small particles). Bugorski might have experienced the full wrath of a beam with more than 300 times this much energy, 76 billion electron volts.

    Proton radiation is a rare beast indeed. Protons from the solar wind and cosmic rays are stopped by Earth’s atmosphere, and proton radiation is so rare in radioactive decay that it was not observed until 1970. More familiar threats, such as ultraviolet photons and alpha particles, do not penetrate the body past skin unless a radioactive source is ingested. Russian dissident Alexander Litvinenko, for instance, was killed by alpha particles that do not so much as penetrate paper when he unknowingly ingested radioactive polonium-210 delivered by an assassin. But when Apollo astronauts protected by spacesuits were exposed to cosmic rays containing protons and even more exotic forms of radiation, they reported flashes of visual light, a harbinger of what would welcome Bugorski on the fateful day of his accident. According to an interview in Wired magazine in 1997, Bugorski immediately saw an intense flash of light but felt no pain. The young scientist was taken to a clinic in Moscow with half his face swollen, and doctors expected the worst.

    Source : qz.com

    what would happen if a particle accelerator explodes – Particles Zone

    0

    Question: what would happen if a particle accelerator explodes

    Keywords: explosion,

    particle accelerator

    Asked by exit354cup to Edoardo on 13 Jun 2019.

    0

    Edoardo Vescovi answered on 13 Jun 2019: last edited 13 Jun 2019 9:36 pm

    It doesn’t blow up. I describe what it is before saying why.

    In short, a particle accelerator is a machine that accelerates particles to high speed. The goal is making them hit each other, produce new particles and measure their properties (mass, electric charge, speed, how fast spinning like a toy top, …) as they fly off from the accelerator. Think of coloured billiard balls hitting head-on, turning into other colours in a split second and bouncing back to you.

    Take LHC for example. It is today’s most famous accelerator in CERN in Switzerland. It is a circular tube with nothing — even air — inside. You see pictures here https://cds.cern.ch/record/1211045. Tiny particles fly in circles at 186 000 miles/second. They’re protons, the same particles that made up atoms in anything around us. I’m no expert in precise numbers, but read that there are 100 billion protons travelling together in one direction, the same number in the opposite, and they collide head-on at some special areas along the ring.

    They cannot possibly cause an explosion, despite number and speed. When they collide, all energy goes into new particles, which fall then on the detectors. If protons go off tangent, the tube stops them, because a nail-sized piece of it contains an extremely huge number of atoms.

    Let’s see what else can fail.

    1) Liquid helium cools the tube down. Pipes break (they did in 2008), release a giant amount of gas and helium doesn’t burn.

    2) A fire breaks out in the electric system. I guess a damaged connection may set wires on fire and release toxic smoke, but no explosion.

    3) An electric black-out shuts the tube down. The worst I can think of is 1) and 2).

    4) It’s true that collisions are energetic, but far more energetic collisions happen in the upper atmosphere when particles from outer space hit air. It has going on for billion years and we’re still alive.

    5) You can worry about something dangerous created in particle collisions. Unknown particles may destroy or a mini black hole suck the planet in. Again, I’m no expert, but I know that scientists checked that is impossible to the best of our knowledge.

    Comments 0

    Savannah commented on 14 Jun 2019:

    To add to what Eduardo said, the LHC is only allowed to run because scientists are super sure that it is safe – so no big explosions should ever be possible. It is true that some of the magnets failed when the LHC was first turned on in 2008 – this caused a big power outburst and literally blew some of the magnets apart! Here is an article here from the time that shows pictures of what happened to the magnets https://www.theguardian.com/science/blog/2008/dec/14/particlephysics-cern This took a lot of time and money to fix!

    .

    According to some theories of quantum physics, it is also true that smashing particles together at high energies could create mini black holes here on Earth! However, these will be so small that they will evaporate away before they can cause any damage. Here is a really interesting article that explains these quantum black holes in a simple way https://angelsanddemons.web.cern.ch/faq/black-hole

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    Harrison commented on 19 Jun 2019:

    Just to add something about black holes and the LHC. Lawsuits were filed against CERN that argued that the risk of creating a black hole, even if small, is not one that should be accepted. Happily, these lawsuits were dismissed. (See, for example, https://phys.org/news/2010-09-lhc-lawsuit-case-dismissed-court.html). When I travel and get into a conversation with a fellow traveler about what I do, occasionally the question of black hole creation at the LHC raises its head. Having a British sense of humour, I usually take the opportunity to both teach some physics and have a bit of cheeky fun. I explain that according to Einstein’s theory of gravity, there is a formula R = 2 GM / c^2, where G is Newton’s constant, M is the mass of an object and c is the speed of light, that allows one to compute the radius R below which you’d have to squeeze something to create a black hole. For the Sun, this radius, which is called the Schwarzschild radius in honor of the scientist who found the first exact solution of Einstein’s equations, literally within months of the November 1915 publication of Einstein’s gravity paper. (Sadly, Karl Schwarzschild, who was also a soldier at the front in World War I died shortly thereafter.) Putting in the numbers for the Sun, G = 6.7 x 10^-11 (in some funny units!), M = 2 x 10^30 kg, and c = 3 x 10^8 m/s, you get about 3000 meters, that is, 3 km! So, you would have to squeeze this ball of radius 700,000 km down to 3km to create a black hole from the Sun. That’s not going to happen! By the way, you’d have to squeeze the Earth so that its radius were just below a centimeter in order to create a black hole from the Earth. That too is not going to happen. Now, back to the LHC. Suppose that all of the 13TeV (trillion electron-volts) of energy could be transformed into mass in accordance with the famous formula m = E / c^2 (you surely know it as E = m c^2!). When you do the sums, you find that you would have to squeeze this energy into a ball of radius less than 100 million trillion times smaller than the smallest size that can be probed by the LHC! So, if Einstein is correct, there is simply, absolutely, no way the LHC can create a black hole. If my fellow traveler has not given up on me by then, I then have some fun at her or his expense! What if Einstein’s theory does not work at those incredibly small distances probed by the LHC, I ask? Indeed, Savannah has pointed you to a nice article at the CERN website that explains an idea of some scientists that the LHC could create quantum black holes. But, if the late Hawking is correct, these black holes would immediately evaporate! So, again, no problem. But, I ask, what if Hawking is wrong and small black holes fail to evaporate? What then? Well, the black hole would slowly sink to the center of the Earth and go back an forth until it settles at the Earth’s core. But, that would not be a problem because it would take this unimaginably small black hole, hundreds of millions of years to find a nucleus, gobble it up, and eventually grow so that the black hole is able to touch a whole bunch of nuclei at the same time, at which point it would indeed be game over as the black grew exponentially gobbling up the entire Earth. But, at least we would have several hundred million years before that happens! So relax, I say, and enjoy the plane ride!

    Source : particlesj19.imascientist.org.uk

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