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    Electric eel

    Electric eel

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    For other uses, see Electric eel (disambiguation).

    Electric eel

    Scientific classification

    Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Chordata

    Class: Actinopterygii

    Order: Gymnotiformes

    Family: Gymnotidae Genus: T. N. Gill, 1864 Type species (Linnaeus, 1766) Species

    is a genus of Neotropical freshwater fish in the family Gymnotidae, commonly called electric eels. They are known for their ability to stun their prey by generating electricity. Despite their name, electric eels are not closely related to the true eels (Anguilliformes) but are members of the neotropical knifefish order (Gymnotiformes), which is more closely related to the catfish.

    It was believed to be a monotypic genus for over two centuries, until the unexpected 2019 discovery of two additional species.

    Contents

    1 Species 2 Taxonomic history 3 Physiology 4 Behavior 4.1 Bionics

    5 In zoos and private collections

    6 References 7 Further reading

    Species[edit]

    Comparison between the 3 species of .

    There are currently three described species:[1]

    (Linnaeus, 1766)

    de Santana, Wosiacki, Crampton, Sabaj, Dillman, Mendes-Júnior and Castro e Castro, 2019

    de Santana, Wosiacki, Crampton, Sabaj, Dillman, Castro e Castro, Bastos and Vari, 2019 This species is the strongest bioelectricity generator in nature, capable of generating 860 V.[1][2]

    Populations in the upper Negro and Orinoco drainages have not yet been taxonomically analyzed.[1]

    Taxonomic history[edit]

    The genus is so unusual that it has been reclassified several times. When the species now defined as was originally described by Carl Linnaeus in 1766, he used the name , placing it in the same genus as (banded knifefish) which he had described several years earlier. It was only about a century later, in 1864, that electric eels were moved to their own genus by Theodore Gill.[3]

    Later, electric eels were considered sufficiently distinct to have their own family, Electrophoridae, but they have since been merged back into the family Gymnotidae, alongside .[4][5][6]

    In September 2019, C. David de Santana et al. published work strongly suggesting division of into three species based on DNA divergence, ecology and habitat, anatomy and physiology, and electrical ability. The proposed three species are , sp. nov., and sp. nov.[7]

    Physiology[edit]

    Anatomy of electric eel's organs that produce electricity

    Electric eels are air-breathers.[8]

    Electric eels have three pairs of abdominal organs that produce electricity: the main organ, Hunter's organ, and Sachs' organ. These organs make up four fifths of their body, and give electric eels the ability to generate two types of electric organ discharges: low voltage and high voltage. These organs are made of electrocytes, lined up so a current of ions can flow through them and stacked so each one adds to a potential difference.[9]

    When eels identify prey, their brain sends a signal through the nervous system to the electrocytes. This opens the ion channels, allowing sodium to flow through, reversing the polarity momentarily. By causing a sudden difference in electric potential, it generates an electric current in a manner similar to a battery, in which stacked plates each produce an electric potential difference.[9] Electric eels are also capable of controlling their prey's nervous systems with their electrical abilities; by controlling their victim's nervous system and muscles via electrical pulses, they can keep prey from escaping or force it to move so they can locate its position.[10][11]

    In 1839, Michael Faraday extensively tested the electrical properties of an electric eel imported from Suriname. For a span of four months, he carefully and humanely measured the electrical impulses produced by the animal by pressing shaped copper paddles and saddles against the specimen. Through this method, he determined and quantified the direction and magnitude of electric current, and proved the animal's impulses were in fact electrical by observing sparks and deflections on a galvanometer.[12]

    Shocks to humans are rarely fatal,[8] however the experience has been described as "very unpleasant" and compared to accidentally touching an electric fence.[13]

    Behavior[edit]

    It was previously thought that electric eels were solitary animals. However, a study published in January 2021 showed that the most powerful species, the Volta electric eel () of the Amazon, are capable of hunting in packs. Groups of the animals were observed to coordinate their activities after targeting a shoal of tetras, then herding them and launching joint strikes on the closely-packed fish.[14][15][16][17][18]

    Source : en.wikipedia.org

    What did they call the electric eel before electricity was invented?

    Answer (1 of 4): Electricity was discovered, not invented: it's been around for as long as lightning and, more importantly, static. The word "electricity" comes from the Greek elektron meaning "amber," the petrified tree sap that, if you rub it, attracts dust due to static charge: a phenomenon na...

    What did they call the electric eel before electricity was invented?

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    4 Answers Matan Shelomi

    , B.A. Biology, Harvard University (2009)

    Updated 6 years ago · Author has 4.9K answers and 24M answer views

    Electricity was discovered, not invented: it's been around for as long as lightning and, more importantly, static. The word "electricity" comes from the Greek elektron meaning "amber," the petrified tree sap that, if you rub it, attracts dust due to static charge: a phenomenon named "electricus" by scientist William Gilbert in 1600 and applied to magnets as well. The static generator was invented in 1650, the capacitor in 1744, and the "battery" in 1748, with Ben Franklin's lightning and kite experiment done in the 1750's.

    The electric eel (which is not actually an eel, but a knifefish) has bee

    Related questions More answers below

    What were electric eels used to be called?

    How do electric eels generate electricity, and is it enough to kill a person or a crocodile?

    Do people eat electric eels? What do electric eels eat?

    Who discovered the electric eel?

    What kind of damage can an electric eel do to a human?

    Mobola

    , Master of eLearning incomplete.

    Answered Feb 25, 2022 · Upvoted by

    Thomas P. Buehner

    , M.S. Biology & Complex Adaptive Systems, Heidelberg University (1988)

    What did they call the electric eel before electricity was invented? That is an interesting question. Here is what I found:

    What were electric eels called before electricity?

    NOVEMBER 30, 2020

    The fish were found from South American electric eel (such as electric catfish in Egypt and China, and electric rays in the Mediterranean).

    Hippocrates described the electrical Mediterranean torpedo with the name narkē, which is to say, the same origin as “narcosis,” which is a description of its numbing effect.

    From what we can tell, by the time Europeans described the South American electrical eel, they s

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    Vinay Singh

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    Answered 5 years ago

    Its just like questioning.Which was the highest peak before Mt.Everest was invented!!

    2.1K viewsView upvotes

    Sean Nee

    , M.A. Biology & Mathematics, University of Oxford (1994)

    Answered Feb 25, 2022 · Author has 6.5K answers and 1.2M answer views

    A knifefish, not an eel at at.

    Linnaeus called it a knifefish in 1776. See link

    Electric eel - Wikipedia

    Electrophorus is a genus of Neotropical freshwater fish in the family Gymnotidae , commonly called electric eels . They are known for their ability to stun their prey by generating electricity . Despite their name, electric eels are not closely related to the true eels (Anguilliformes) but are members of the neotropical knifefish order (Gymnotiformes), which is more closely related to the catfish . It was believed to be a monotypic genus for over two centuries, until the unexpected 2019 discovery of two additional species. Comparison between the 3 species of Electrophorus . There are currently three described species: [1] Electrophorus electricus ( Linnaeus , 1766) Electrophorus varii de Santana , Wosiacki , Crampton , Sabaj , Dillman , Mendes-Júnior and Castro e Castro , 2019 Electrophorus voltai de Santana , Wosiacki , Crampton , Sabaj , Dillman , Castro e Castro , Bastos and Vari , 2019 This species is the strongest bioelectricity generator in nature, capable of generating 860 V. [1] [2] Populations in the upper Negro and Orinoco drainages have not yet been taxonomically analyzed. [1] Taxonomic history Edit The genus is so unusual that it has been reclassified several times. When the species now defined as Electrophorus electricus was originally described by Carl Linnaeus in 1766, he used the name Gymnotus electricus , placing it in the same genus as Gymnotus carapo (banded knifefish) which he had described several years earlier. It was only about a century later, in 1864, that electric eels were moved to their own genus Electrophorus by Theodore Gill . [3] Later, electric eels were considered sufficiently distinct to have their own family, Electrophoridae, but they have since been merged back into the family Gymnotidae , alongside Gymnotus . [4] [5] [6] In September 2019, C. David de Santana et al. published work strongly suggesting division of Electrophorus electricus into three species based on DNA divergence, ecology and habitat, anatomy and physiology, and electrical ability. The proposed three species are E. electricus , E. voltai sp. nov. , and E. varii sp. nov. [7] Physiology Edit Anatomy of electric eel's organs that produce electricity Electric eels are air-breathers. [8] Electric eels have three pairs of abdominal organs that produce electricity: the main organ, Hunter's organ, and Sachs' organ. These organs make up four fifths of their body, and give electric eels the ability to generate two types of electric organ discharges : low voltage and high voltage. These organs are made of electrocytes , lined up so a current of ions can flow through them and stacked so each one adds to a potential difference. [9] When eels identify prey, their brain sends a signal through the nervous system to the electrocytes. This opens the ion channels, allowing sodium to flow through, reversing the polarity momentarily. By causing a sudden difference in electric potential , it generates an electric current in a manner similar to a battery , in which

    Source : www.quora.com

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    level 1 [deleted] · 1 yr. ago

    The Egyptians referred to one species of electric fish as 'The Thunderer of the Nile'. The actual electric eel was first described in 1799 when electricity had already begun to be studied.

    It's also worth noting that electricity wasn't invented.

    228 level 2 spadingo · 1 yr. ago

    Electricity was invented by Benjamin Franklin, the first President of the oldest and greatest country in the world, the United States. Look it up

    40

    Continue this thread

    level 2 stormgoblin · 1 yr. ago

    Pretty sure it was invented by Benjamin Franklin

    44

    Continue this thread

    level 2 Squaragus_Asparagus · 1 yr. ago · edited 1 yr. ago Really like books

    Since Electric Eels are only endemic to South American River basins, I spent about two hours looking at what languages are spoken in Ecuador, Peru and Brazil and along the Amazon, I found one word for Eel but it has no translation because most of the native languages of the America’s are dead. Meaning, they have no written works remaining due to Spanish influence. The language should be in the Tupi-Guarani family of languages, with the word I found being Chinkirma.

    So your best hope is someone who knows a native word for eel. Because that is the only place before electricity it lived, in indigenous South America.

    Source: https://books.google.com/books?id=Gzc2DwAAQBAJ&pg=PA332&lpg=PA332&dq=chinkirma+eel&source=bl&ots=vMfqTmteGe&sig=ACfU3U1MTTm-AnmCEJOmMXrb0A0TRD89sg&hl=en&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwiijN3e1sPtAhUKCawKHZ4LAkEQ6AEwGHoECAoQAQ#v=onepage&q=chinkirma%20eel&f=false

    3 level 2 Agent_Scully9114 · 1 yr. ago

    Sounds like a metal album title

    2 level 2 dragondr69 · 1 yr. ago Ask Google. 1 level 2 Nastapoka · 1 yr. ago · edited 1 yr. ago

    I don't understand that, at all.

    I'm an Egyptian living a long time ago, regularly I see lightnings hit the ground. Then I feel a shock when I touch a weird long fish. And somehow, I draw the connection between the two phenomena??

    1 level 2 akamustacherides · 1 yr. ago

    Someone came up with the word.

    0 level 1 Mechwarrior57 · 1 yr. ago

    I would've called them spicy snakes

    54 level 2 agarrabrant · 1 yr. ago This is beautiful. 11 level 2 heyitscory · 1 yr. ago · edited 1 yr. ago

    https://youtu.be/RdB1LF01Vbk&t=28s

    1 level 2 alexmikli · 1 yr. ago

    Snakes are already spicy

    1 level 1 The_Ledge5648 · 1 yr. ago

    with a grain of salt

    Thunderer of the Nile

    This was before electricity was discovered, rather than invented. It was something seen from natural weather conditions, static electricity, and fish.

    31 level 1 yourfriendlyenemy · 1 yr. ago

    I'm surprised they called it thunderer. How did they know what thunder felt like? Why would they make the association between the fish, whose electricity is invisible, to loud flashes in the sky? To the naked eye the fish just magically stuns/kills its prey by giving it a seizure. If you touch it you feel it but it isn't like a Pikachu throwing cartoon lightning bolts around. How did everybody in Egypt presumably know what "thunder" felt like? That's weird.

    14 level 2 ranyond · 1 yr. ago

    As a kid I was hiding under a hay wagon and lightning struck a nearby barbwire fence. I wasn’t struck by lightning but I sure as heck felt the electricity pass through me. So possibly something like that -

    12 level 2 AnastasiaSheppard · 1 yr. ago

    If video games have taught me anything, it's that electric eels spark and crackle quite visibly when they attack you, that's probably how they knew.

    /s in case that wasn't clear

    8 level 2 [deleted] · 1 yr. ago

    It's far from unheard-of for people to survive lightning strikes or near misses without serious injury, and somebody must have put two and two together. Maybe some poor bastard experienced both and lived to tell the tale. The ancients weren't any dumber than we are, after all.

    8 level 1 Whatifthisneverends · 1 yr. ago Shocky bois 23 level 1 uswforever · 1 yr. ago

    Electric eels? That's an odd name. I'd have called them "chazwozzers"!

    10 level 1 ingsara98 · 1 yr. ago

    I think some called them angry fish but don’t quote me on that

    7 level 2 atthem77 · 1 yr. ago

    I think some called them angry fish

    - /u/ingsara98

    Source : www.reddit.com

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    James 10 month ago
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