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    what was the name of the ibm computer that defeated chess grandmaster garry kasparov in a historic match that took place 25 years ago?

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    get what was the name of the ibm computer that defeated chess grandmaster garry kasparov in a historic match that took place 25 years ago? from EN Bilgi.

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    Deep Blue

    Overview

    Transforming the World

    Cultural Impacts The Team In Their Words

    On May 11, 1997, an IBM computer called IBM ® Deep Blue ® beat the world chess champion after a six-game match: two wins for IBM, one for the champion and three draws. The match lasted several days and received massive media coverage around the world. It was the classic plot line of man vs. machine. Behind the contest, however, was important computer science, pushing forward the ability of computers to handle the kinds of complex calculations needed to help discover new medical drugs; do the broad financial modeling needed to identify trends and do risk analysis; handle large database searches; and perform massive calculations needed in many fields of science.

    Since the emergence of artificial intelligence and the first computers in the late 1940s, computer scientists compared the performance of these “giant brains” with human minds, and gravitated to chess as a way of testing the calculating abilities of computers. The game is a collection of challenging problems for minds and machines, but has simple rules, and so is perfect for such experiments.

    Over the years, many computers took on many chess masters, and the computers lost.

    IBM computer scientists had been interested in chess computing since the early 1950s. In 1985, a graduate student at Carnegie Mellon University, Feng-hsiung Hsu, began working on his dissertation project: a chess playing machine he called ChipTest. A classmate of his, Murray Campbell, worked on the project, too, and in 1989, both were hired to work at IBM Research. There, they continued their work with the help of other computer scientists, including Joe Hoane, Jerry Brody and C. J. Tan. The team named the project Deep Blue. The human chess champion won in 1996 against an earlier version of Deep Blue; the 1997 match was billed as a “rematch.”

    The champion and computer met at the Equitable Center in New York, with cameras running, press in attendance and millions watching the outcome. The odds of Deep Blue winning were not certain, but the science was solid. The IBMers knew their machine could explore up to 200 million possible chess positions per second. The chess grandmaster won the first game, Deep Blue took the next one, and the two players drew the three following games. Game 6 ended the match with a crushing defeat of the champion by Deep Blue.

    The match’s outcome made headlines worldwide, and helped a broad audience better understand high-powered computing. The 1997 match took place not on a standard stage, but rather in a small television studio. The audience watched the match on television screens in a basement theater in the building, several floors below where the match was actually held. The theater seated about 500 people, and was sold out for each of the six games. The media attention given to Deep Blue resulted in more than three billion impressions around the world.

    Deep Blue had an impact on computing in many different industries. It was programmed to solve the complex, strategic game of chess, so it enabled researchers to explore and understand the limits of massively parallel processing. This research gave developers insight into ways they could design a computer to tackle complex problems in other fields, using deep knowledge to analyze a higher number of possible solutions. The architecture used in Deep Blue was applied to financial modeling, including marketplace trends and risk analysis; data mining—uncovering hidden relationships and patterns in large databases; and molecular dynamics, a valuable tool for helping to discover and develop new drugs.

    Ultimately, Deep Blue was retired to the Smithsonian Museum in Washington, DC, but IBM went on to build new kinds of massively parallel computers such as IBM Blue Gene ®. [Read more about this Icon of Progress.]

    The Deep Blue project inspired a more recent grand challenge at IBM: building a computer that could beat the champions at a more complicated game, .

    Over three nights in February 2011, this machine—named Watson—took on two of the all-time most successful human players of the game and beat them in front of millions of television viewers. The technology in Watson was a substantial step forward from Deep Blue and earlier machines because it had software that could process and reason about natural language, then rely on the massive supply of information poured into it in the months before the competition. Watson demonstrated that a whole new generation of human - machine interactions will be possible.

    Transforming the World

    Source : www.ibm.com

    Deep Blue versus Garry Kasparov

    Deep Blue versus Garry Kasparov

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    Deep Blue vs. Kasparov

    Deep Blue IBM chess computer

    Garry Kasparov

    World Chess Champion

    First match

    February 10–17, 1996: held in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

    Result: Kasparov–Deep Blue (4–2)

    Record set: First computer program to defeat a world champion in a under tournament regulations

    Second match (rematch)

    May 3–11, 1997: held in New York City, New York

    Result: Deep Blue–Kasparov (3½–2½)

    Record set: First computer program to defeat a world champion in a under tournament regulations

    Deep Blue versus Garry Kasparov was a pair of six-game chess matches between the world chess champion Garry Kasparov and an IBM supercomputer called Deep Blue. The first match was played in Philadelphia in 1996 and won by Kasparov by 4–2. A rematch was played in New York City in 1997 and won by Deep Blue by 3½–2½. The second match was the first defeat of a reigning world chess champion by a computer under tournament conditions, and was the subject of a documentary film, .

    Contents

    1 Symbolic significance

    2 Summary 3 1996 match 3.1 Game 1 3.2 Game 2 3.3 Game 3 3.4 Game 4 3.5 Game 5 3.6 Game 6 4 1997 rematch 4.1 Game 1 4.2 Game 2 4.3 Game 3 4.4 Game 4 4.5 Game 5 4.6 Game 6 5 See also 6 References 6.1 Major sources 7 Further reading

    This article uses algebraic notation to describe chess moves.

    Symbolic significance[edit]

    Deep Blue's win was seen as symbolically significant, a sign that artificial intelligence was catching up to human intelligence, and could defeat one of humanity's great intellectual champions.[1] Later analysis tended to play down Kasparov's loss as a result of uncharacteristically bad play on Kasparov's part, and play down the intellectual value of chess as a game that can be defeated by brute force.[2][3]

    In December 2016, discussing the match in a podcast with Sam Harris, Kasparov advised of a change of heart in his views of this match. Kasparov stated: "While writing the book I did a lot of research – analysing the games with modern computers, also soul-searching – and I changed my conclusions. I am not writing any love letters to IBM, but my respect for the Deep Blue team went up, and my opinion of my own play, and Deep Blue's play, went down. Today you can buy a chess engine for your laptop that will beat Deep Blue quite easily."[4]

    Deep Blue's victory switched the canonical example of a game where humans outmatched machines to the ancient Chinese game of Go, a game of simple rules and far more possible moves than chess, which requires more intuition and is far less susceptible to brute force.[5] Go is widely played in China, South Korea, and Japan, and was considered one of the four arts of the Chinese scholar in antiquity. Go programs were able to defeat only amateur players until 2016, when Google DeepMind's AlphaGo program surprisingly defeated Lee Sedol in the match AlphaGo versus Lee Sedol.[6] While Deep Blue mainly relied on brute computational force to evaluate millions of positions, AlphaGo also relied on neural networks and reinforcement learning.

    Summary[edit]

    The 1996 match

    Game # White Black Result Method of conclusion

    1 Deep Blue Kasparov 1–0 Resignation

    2 Kasparov Deep Blue 1–0 Resignation

    3 Deep Blue Kasparov ½–½ Draw by mutual agreement

    4 Kasparov Deep Blue ½–½ Draw by mutual agreement

    5 Deep Blue Kasparov 0–1 Resignation

    6 Kasparov Deep Blue 1–0 Resignation

    Kasparov–Deep Blue: 4–2

    The 1997 rematch

    Game # White Black Result Method of conclusion

    1 Kasparov Deep Blue 1–0 Resignation

    2 Deep Blue Kasparov 1–0 Resignation

    3 Kasparov Deep Blue ½–½ Draw by mutual agreement

    4 Deep Blue Kasparov ½–½ Draw by mutual agreement

    5 Kasparov Deep Blue ½–½ Draw by mutual agreement

    6 Deep Blue Kasparov 1–0 Resignation

    Deep Blue–Kasparov: 3½–2½

    1996 match[edit]

    Game 1 [edit]

    Main article: Deep Blue versus Kasparov, 1996, Game 1

    Deep Blue–Kasparov, 1996, rd 1

    a b c d e f g h 8 8 7 7 6 6 5 5 4 4 3 3 2 2 1 1 a b c d e f g h

    Final position after 37.Rxh7+[7]

    . The first game began with the Sicilian Defence, Alapin Variation. The first game of the 1996 match was the first game to be won by a chess-playing computer against a reigning world champion under normal chess tournament conditions, and in particular, classical time controls.

    Deep Blue vs. Kasparov, Sicilian Defence, Alapin Variation ( B22)

    1.e4 c5 2.c3 d5 3.exd5 Qxd5 4.d4 Nf6 5.Nf3 Bg4 6.Be2 e6 7.h3 Bh5 8.0-0 Nc6 9.Be3 cxd4 10.cxd4 Bb4 11.a3 Ba5 12.Nc3 Qd6 13.Nb5 Qe7 14.Ne5 Bxe2 15.Qxe2 0-0 16.Rac1 Rac8 17.Bg5 Bb6 18.Bxf6 gxf6 19.Nc4 Rfd8 20.Nxb6 axb6 21.Rfd1 f5 22.Qe3 Qf6 23.d5 Rxd5 24.Rxd5 exd5 25.b3 Kh8 26.Qxb6 Rg8 27.Qc5 d4 28.Nd6 f4 29.Nxb7 Ne5 30.Qd5 f3 31.g3 Nd3 32.Rc7 Re8 33.Nd6 Re1+ 34.Kh2 Nxf2 35.Nxf7+ Kg7 36.Ng5+ Kh6 37.Rxh7+ 1–0 (Resignation)[8][9]

    Source : en.wikipedia.org

    Deep Blue defeats Garry Kasparov in chess match

    On May 11, 1997, chess grandmaster Garry Kasparov resigns after 19 moves in a game against Deep Blue, a chess-playing computer developed by scientists at IBM.

    Year 1997 Month Day May 11

    Deep Blue defeats Garry Kasparov in chess match

    On May 11, 1997, chess grandmaster Garry Kasparov resigns after 19 moves in a game against Deep Blue, a chess-playing computer developed by scientists at IBM. This was the sixth and final game of their match, which Kasparov lost two games to one, with three draws.

    Kasparov, a chess prodigy from Azerbaijan, was a skillful chess player from childhood. At 21, Kasparov played Anatoly Karpov for the world title, but the 49-game match ended indecisively. The next year, Kasparov beat Karpov to become the youngest world champion in history. With a FIDE (Federation International des Echecs) score of 2800, and a streak of 12 world chess titles in a row, Kasparov was considered the greatest chess player in history going into his match with Deep Blue.

    Chess-playing computers had existed since the 1950s, but they initially saw little success against accomplished human players. That changed in 1985, when Carnegie Mellon doctoral student Feng-hsing Hsu developed a chess-playing computer named “Chiptest” that was designed to play chess at a higher level than its predecessors. Hsu and a classmate went to work for IBM, and in 1989 they were part of a team led by developer C.J. Tan that was charged with creating a computer capable of competing against the best chess players in the world. The resulting supercomputer, dubbed Deep Blue, could calculate many as 100 billion to 200 billion positions in the three minutes traditionally allotted to a player per move in standard chess.

    Kasparov first played Deep Blue in 1996. The grandmaster was known for his unpredictable play, and he was able to defeat the computer by switching strategies mid-game. In 1997, Kasparov abandoned his swashbuckling style, taking more of a wait-and-see approach; this played in the computer’s favor and is commonly pointed to as the reason for his defeat.

    The last game of the 1997 Kasparov v. Deep Blue match lasted only an hour. Deep Blue traded its bishop and rook for Kasparov’s queen, after sacrificing a knight to gain position on the board. The position left Kasparov defensive, but not helpless, and though he still had a playable position, Kasparov resigned—the first time in his career that he had conceded defeat. Grandmaster John Fedorowicz later gave voice to the chess community’s shock at Kasparov’s loss: “Everybody was surprised that he resigned because it didn’t seem lost. We’ve all played this position before. It’s a known position.” Kasparov said of his decision, “I lost my fighting spirit.”

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