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    what was the effect on china of the boxer rebellion? it led china to the verge of collapse. it made china a communist country. it gave europe a bigger role in china. it made china a major world power.

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    Boxer Rebellion

    Boxer Rebellion, officially supported peasant uprising (1900) that attempted to drive all foreigners from China. ‘Boxers’ was a name that foreigners gave to a Chinese secret society known as the Yihequan (‘Righteous and Harmonious Fists’). Learn more about the Boxer Rebellion here.

    Boxer Rebellion

    Chinese history Print

    By The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica • Edit History

    Boxer Rebellion See all media

    Date: 1900 - September 1901

    Location: China

    Participants: Boxer China Qing dynasty

    Major Events: Siege of the International Legations

    Key People: Adna R. Chaffee Erich von Falkenhayn Liu Kunyi Cixi Yamagata Aritomo

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    Boxer Rebellion, officially supported peasant uprising of 1900 that attempted to drive all foreigners from China. “Boxers” was a name that foreigners gave to a Chinese secret society known as the Yihequan (“Righteous and Harmonious Fists”). The group practiced certain boxing and calisthenic rituals in the belief that this made them invulnerable. It was thought to be an offshoot of the Eight Trigrams Society (Baguajiao), which had fomented rebellions against the Qing dynasty in the late 18th and early 19th centuries. Their original aim was the destruction of the dynasty and also of the Westerners who had a privileged position in China.

    In the late 19th century, because of growing economic impoverishment, a series of unfortunate natural calamities, and unbridled foreign aggression in the area, the Boxers began to increase their strength in the provinces of North China. In 1898 conservative, antiforeign forces won control of the Chinese government and persuaded the Boxers to drop their opposition to the Qing dynasty and unite with it in destroying the foreigners. The governor of the province of Shandong began to enroll Boxer bands as local militia groups, changing their name from Yihequan to Yihetuan (“Righteous and Harmonious Militia”), which sounded semiofficial. Many of the Qing officials at this time apparently began to believe that Boxer rituals actually did make them impervious to bullets, and, in spite of protests by the Western powers, they and Cixi, the ruling empress dowager, continued to encourage the group.

    Christian missionary activities helped provoke the Boxers; Christian converts flouted traditional Chinese ceremonies and family relations; and missionaries pressured local officials to side with Christian converts—who were often from the lower classes of Chinese society—in local lawsuits and property disputes. By late 1899 the Boxers were openly attacking Chinese Christians and Western missionaries. By May 1900, Boxer bands were roaming the countryside around the capital at Beijing. Finally, in early June an international relief force of some 2,100 men was dispatched from the northern port of Tianjin to Beijing. On June 13 the empress dowager ordered imperial forces to block the advance of the foreign troops, and the small relief column was turned back. Meanwhile, in Beijing the Boxers burned churches and foreign residences and killed suspected Chinese Christians on sight. On June 17 the foreign powers seized the Dagu forts on the coast in order to restore access from Beijing to Tianjin. The next day the empress dowager ordered that all foreigners be killed. The German minister was murdered, and the other foreign ministers and their families and staff, together with hundreds of Chinese Christians, were besieged in their legation quarters and in the Roman Catholic cathedral in Beijing.

    Imperial viceroys in the central Yangtze River (Chang Jiang) valley and in South China ignored government orders and suppressed antiforeign outbreaks in their jurisdiction. They thus helped establish the myth that the war was not the policy of the Chinese government but was a result of a native uprising in the northeast, the area to which the disorders were mainly confined.

    An international force of some 19,000 troops was assembled, most of the soldiers coming from Japan and Russia but many also from Britain, the United States, France, Austria-Hungary, and Italy. On August 14, 1900, that force finally captured Beijing, relieving the foreigners and Christians besieged there since June 20. While foreign troops looted the capital, the empress dowager and her court fled westward to Xi’an in Shaanxi province, leaving behind a few imperial princes to conduct the negotiations. After extensive discussions, a protocol was finally signed in September 1901, ending the hostilities and providing for reparations to be made to the foreign powers.

    Boxer Rebellion: battle

    International forces advancing toward Boxer soldiers outside the Imperial Palace in Beijing during the Boxer Rebellion; chromolithograph by Kasai Torajirō, 1900.

    Source : www.britannica.com

    COMMUNISM IN CHINA Flashcards

    Start studying COMMUNISM IN CHINA. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools.

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    What contributed to the downfall of China's republic?

    Chiang Kai-shek seized power as a dictator.

    Warlords overthrew president Sun Yat-sen.

    China's presidents did not have enough power.

    Nationalists attacked the republican government.

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    China's presidents did not have enough power.

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    What is the current state of relations between the Communists and Nationalists in China?

    The two parties now divide power equally between East and West.

    The civil war between the two parties has never truly ended.

    All of China is now Communist, including formerly Nationalist areas.

    The people elect a leader from either party every four years.

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    The civil war between the two parties has never truly ended.

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    Terms in this set (10)

    What contributed to the downfall of China's republic?

    Chiang Kai-shek seized power as a dictator.

    Warlords overthrew president Sun Yat-sen.

    China's presidents did not have enough power.

    Nationalists attacked the republican government.

    China's presidents did not have enough power.

    What is the current state of relations between the Communists and Nationalists in China?

    The two parties now divide power equally between East and West.

    The civil war between the two parties has never truly ended.

    All of China is now Communist, including formerly Nationalist areas.

    The people elect a leader from either party every four years.

    The civil war between the two parties has never truly ended.

    If the imperial dynasty had continued to rule China, it is most likely that

    the economy would have improved rather than weakened.

    European nations would have gotten more of a foothold in China.

    revolutionary groups would not have gained any power in the country.

    Communism would not have received support among the poor.

    European nations would have gotten more of a foothold in China.

    Which statement accurately describes China after the Civil War?

    The People's Republic of China was on the island of Taiwan.

    The island of Taiwan became known as the Republic of China.

    The Republic of China was under the rule of Mao Zedong.

    The People's Republic of China was led by Chiang Kai-shek.

    The island of Taiwan became known as the Republic of China.

    As a result of the Long March, China's Communist Party

    grew stronger and more determined.

    chose Mao Zedong as its new leader.

    became weaker and lost the civil war.

    decided to retreat from the Nationalists.

    grew stronger and more determined.

    What was the effect on China of the Boxer Rebellion?

    It led China to the verge of collapse.

    It made China a Communist country.

    It gave Europe a bigger role in China.

    It made China a major world power.

    It led China to the verge of collapse.

    What best describes the "Three Principles of the People"?

    the agreement signed after the Revolution of 1911

    Sun Yat-sen's ideas for governing China

    the declaration that helped overthrow the emperor

    the foundations of the Communist Party

    Sun Yat-sen's ideas for governing China

    Sun Yat-sen promoted nationalism in China because he

    wanted China to develop better relations with other nations.

    hoped it would strengthen the country's imperial dynasty.

    hoped it would instill a Communist belief system in citizens.

    wanted the Chinese people to feel pride in their country.

    wanted the Chinese people to feel pride in their country.

    What is the most likely reason Chiang Kai-shek was able to rule as a dictator?

    Chinese warlords' strong rule demonstrated that democracy was ineffective.

    The Nationalist Party had violently rejected republican rule under Sun Yat-sen.

    The Communist Party supported Chiang Kai-shek and totalitarian government.

    China was ready for a powerful leader after chaos at the end of the republic.

    China was ready for a powerful leader after chaos at the end of the republic.

    During World War II, what happened between the Communists and Nationalists in China?

    They continued their civil war but also fought together in World War II.

    Their civil war raged while they avoided involvement in World War II.

    Both sides reached a permanent truce and fought together in World War II.

    Both sides agreed to stop fighting each other until World War II ended.

    Both sides agreed to stop fighting each other until World War II ended.

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    Boxer Rebellion

    In 1900, in what became known as the Boxer Rebellion (or the Boxer Uprising), a secret Chinese organization called the Society of the Righteous and Harmonious Fists led an uprising in northern China against the spread of Western and Japanese influence in the region.

    Boxer Rebellion

    Author: History.com Editors Updated: Jun 7, 2019 Original: Nov 9, 2009

    Contents

    Boxer Rebellion: Background

    Boxer Rebellion: 1900

    Boxer Rebellion: Aftermath

    In 1900, in what became known as the Boxer Rebellion (or the Boxer Uprising), a Chinese secret organization called the Society of the Righteous and Harmonious Fists led an uprising in northern China against the spread of Western and Japanese influence there. The rebels, referred to by Westerners as Boxers because they performed physical exercises they believed would make them able to withstand bullets, killed foreigners and Chinese Christians and destroyed foreign property. From June to August, the Boxers besieged the foreign district of Beijing (then called Peking), China’s capital, until an international force that included American troops subdued the uprising. By the terms of the Boxer Protocol, which officially ended the rebellion in 1901, China agreed to pay more than $330 million in reparations.

    Boxer Rebellion: Background

    By the end of the 19th century, the Western powers and Japan had forced China’s ruling Qing dynasty to accept wide foreign control over the country’s economic affairs. In the Opium Wars (1839-42, 1856-60), popular rebellions and the Sino-Japanese War (1894-95), China had fought to resist the foreigners, but it lacked a modernized military and suffered millions of casualties.

    Did you know? America returned the money it received from China after the Boxer Rebellion, on the condition it be used to fund the creation of a university in Beijing. Other nations involved later remitted their shares of the Boxer indemnity as well.

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    By the late 1890s, a Chinese secret group, the Society of Righteous and Harmonious Fists (“I-ho-ch’uan” or “Yihequan”), had begun carrying out regular attacks on foreigners and Chinese Christians. (The rebels performed calisthenics rituals and martial arts that they believed would give them the ability to withstand bullets and other forms of attack. Westerners referred to these rituals as shadow boxing, leading to the Boxers nickname.) Although the Boxers came from various parts of society, many were peasants, particularly from Shandong province, which had been struck by natural disasters such as famine and flooding. In the 1890s, China had given territorial and commercial concessions in this area to several European nations, and the Boxers blamed their poor standard of living on foreigners who were colonizing their country.

    Boxer Rebellion: 1900

    In 1900, the Boxer movement spread to the Beijing area, where the Boxers killed Chinese Christians and Christian missionaries and destroyed churches and railroad stations and other property. On June 20, 1900, the Boxers began a siege of Beijing’s foreign legation district (where the official quarters of foreign diplomats were located.) The following day, Qing Empress Dowager Tzu’u Hzi (or Cixi, 1835-1908) declared a war on all foreign nations with diplomatic ties in China.

    As the Western powers and Japan organized a multinational force to crush the rebellion, the siege stretched into weeks, and the diplomats, their families and guards suffered through hunger and degrading conditions as they fought to keep the Boxers at bay. By some estimates, several hundred foreigners and several thousand Chinese Christians were killed during this time. On August 14, after fighting its way through northern China, an international force of approximately 20,000 troops from eight nations (Austria-Hungary, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Russia, the United Kingdom and the United States) arrived to take Beijing and rescue the foreigners and Chinese Christians.

    Boxer Rebellion: Aftermath

    The Boxer Rebellion formally ended with the signing of the Boxer Protocol on September 7, 1901. By terms of the agreement, forts protecting Beijing were to be destroyed, Boxer and Chinese government officials involved in the uprising were to be punished, foreign legations were permitted to station troops in Beijing for their defense, China was prohibited from importing arms for two years and it agreed to pay more than $330 million in reparations to the foreign nations involved.

    The Qing dynasty, established in 1644, was weakened by the Boxer Rebellion. Following an uprising in 1911, the dynasty came to an end and China became a republic in 1912.

    Source : www.history.com

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