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    what was the commercial revolution? a trade war between european countries following the colonization of the new world the decrease in global trade between europe, the americas, and africa an enormous change in the rules of commerce due to the columbian exchange the replacement of colonialism with mercantilism

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    get what was the commercial revolution? a trade war between european countries following the colonization of the new world the decrease in global trade between europe, the americas, and africa an enormous change in the rules of commerce due to the columbian exchange the replacement of colonialism with mercantilism from EN Bilgi.

    Commercial Revolution

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    Commercial Revolution

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    The Commercial Revolution consisted of the creation of a European economy based on trade, which began in the 11th century and lasted until it was succeeded by the Industrial Revolution in the mid-18th century. Beginning with the Crusades, Europeans rediscovered spices, silks, and other commodities rare in Europe. This development created a new desire for trade, and trade expanded in the second half of the Middle Ages (roughly 1000 to 1500 AD). Newly forming European states, through voyages of discovery, were looking for alternative trade routes in the 15th and 16th centuries, which allowed the European powers to build vast, new international trade networks. Nations also sought new sources of wealth and practiced mercantilism and colonialism. The Commercial Revolution is marked by an increase in general commerce, and in the growth of financial services such as banking, insurance and investing.

    Contents

    1 Origins of the Commercial Revolution

    1.1 Maritime Republics and Communes

    2 Colonialism and Mercantilism

    2.1 Geopolitical factors

    2.2 Monetary factors

    2.3 Technological factors

    2.4 Important people

    2.5 Key Features 2.6 Inflation 2.7 Banks 2.8 Managing risk

    2.8.1 Joint stock companies and stock exchanges

    2.8.2 Insurance companies

    2.9 Economic theory

    2.10 Trade monopolies

    2.11 Triangular trade

    3 Law 4 Effects 5 See also 6 Notes 7 References

    Origins of the Commercial Revolution[edit]

    The term itself was used by Karl Polanyi in his Politically, the centralized state was a new creation called forth by the Commercial Revolution...".[1] Later the economic historian Roberto Sabatino Lopez,[2] used it to shift focus away from the English Industrial Revolution.[3] In his best-known book, (1971, with numerous reprints), Lopez argued that the key contribution of the medieval period to European history was the creation of a commercial economy between the 11th and the 14th century, centered at first in the Italo-Byzantine eastern Mediterranean, but eventually extending to the Italian city-states and over the rest of Europe. This kind of economy ran from approximately the 14th century through the 18th century.[4] Walt Whitman Rostow placed the beginning "arbitrarily" in 1488, the year the first European sailed around the Cape of Good Hope.[5] Most historians, including scholars such as Robert Sabatino Lopez, Angeliki Laiou, Irving W. Raymond, and Peter Spufford indicate that there was a commercial revolution of the 11th through 13th centuries, or that it began at this point, rather than later.[6][7][8][9]

    Maritime Republics and Communes[edit]

    See also: Maritime Republics and Medieval communes

    The Venetian Empire.

    Italy first felt huge economic changes in Europe from the 11th to the 13th centuries. Typically there was:

    a rise in population―the population doubled in this period (the demographic explosion)

    an emergence of large cities (Venice, Florence and Milan had over 100,000 inhabitants by the 13th century in addition to many others such as Genoa, Bologna and Verona, which had over 50,000 inhabitants)

    the rebuilding of the great cathedrals

    substantial migration from country to city (in Italy the rate of urbanization reached 20%, making it the most urbanized society in the world at that time)

    an agrarian revolution

    the development of commerce

    In recent writing on the city states, American scholar Rodney Stark emphasizes that they married responsive government, Christianity and the birth of capitalism.[10] He argues that Italy consisted of mostly independent towns, who prospered through commerce based on early capitalist principles and kept both direct Church control and imperial power at arm's length.

    Cambridge University historian and political philosopher Quentin Skinner[11] has pointed out how Otto of Freising, a German bishop who visited central Italy during the 12th century, commented that Italian towns had appeared to have exited from feudalism, so that their society was based on merchants and commerce. Even northern cities and states were also notable for their Maritime republics, especially the Republic of Venice and Genoa.[12] Compared to absolutist monarchies or other more centrally controlled states, the Italian communes and commercial republics enjoyed relative political freedom conducive to academic and artistic advancement. Geographically, and because of trade, Italian cities such as Venice became international trading and banking hubs and intellectual crossroads.

    Source : en.wikipedia.org

    What was the Commercial Revolution? a trade war between European countries following the colonization

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    The Commercial Revolution: Economic Impact of Exploration and Colonization on Europe

    Near the end of the Middle Ages, European commerce increased and helped spur the Industrial Revolution. Discover how mercantilism and the New World...

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    The Commercial Revolution: Economic Impact of Exploration and Colonization on Europe

    Instructor: Jessica Whittemore

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    Near the end of the Middle Ages, European commerce increased and helped spur the Industrial Revolution. Discover how mercantilism and the New World influenced the Commercial Revolution, and understand how the Commercial Revolution influenced banks, joint-stock companies, and inflation. Updated: 09/19/2021

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    Introduction to Commercial Revolution

    Growing up in the United States' school system, I don't remember being taught much about Europe after the explorers hit the scene. In fact, as soon as good old Chris Columbus and his cronies made shore, Europe almost ceased to exist in our textbooks. When European countries were mentioned, they were usually typecast as the bad guys. Textbooks went from Europeans exploring to England playing the villain in the American Revolution. After that, Europe got little to no mention until the World Wars.

    In treating Europe like this, our textbooks completely skipped one of the defining periods of the modern world, known as the Commercial Revolution. For those of you who have no idea what this is, I'm guessing your history classes were a lot like mine! Never fear; today's lesson will catch us up to speed on 16th century Europe during the Commercial Revolution. Now, since it'd be impolite to mention any of our teachers' names, I'll simply invite you to join me as we fill in the gaps left by Mr. Smith, Ms. Jones, Mr. John Deer and Ms. Jane Doe.

    For starters, the Commercial Revolution was a period of European economic expansion, which began in the 16th century. The catalyst for this expansion was Europe's discovery and colonization of the Americas. As trade routes grew between the New World colonies and Old World Europe, the European continent was transformed. Although there were many factors that led to this, today we're going to highlight mercantilism, banking and joint-stock companies.

    Quiz Course 64K views

    Mercantilism

    If we all had textbooks, this is where I'd tell you to turn to Chapter 1, entitled Mercantilism. Mercantilism is an economic system used to unify and increase the power and monetary wealth of a country by strict government regulation of trade and foreign trading monopolies. Under this system, colonies existed merely for the benefit of their mother country. Like a young girl forced to fork over her babysitting money to her parents, all wealth accumulated by a colony went to its European parent.

    Also under mercantilism, colonies were only allowed to import from or export to the European country that governed them. For instance, if Jamestown, governed by England, wanted to import wool from the Dutch, they could not. Even if the Dutch price was substantially cheaper, Jamestown was stuck buying wool from England. Further hamstringing the Jamestown colonists, all the goods produced by the colonies went to England. England then sold the goods to other countries at a substantial markup, which the crown, not the colonists, kept! In other words, the colonies did the work, while England reaped the profit.

    Again, it's like a poor kid squeezing fresh lemons for eight hours, only to have her parents commandeer the lemonade stand! For those of us growing up in the American school system, this ill-treatment of the colonists is a familiar tale. However, we weren't told how the system of mercantilism transformed Europe.

    Industry and Population Growth

    First, the Commercial Revolution changed Europe from a local economy to a global one. Before the revolution, most goods were produced for family use or to be sold within local towns and villages. Other than a few traveling merchants, there was really no way to peddle goods to a larger population. However, once trade routes blossomed between European countries and their colonies, a whole new market opened up. Realizing there was money to be made, people began producing goods to be sold outside of their small communities. In other words, the incentive for profit replaced simply producing for survival.

    These new markets and their high demand for goods led to large businesses replacing individual production of goods. As money poured in from this new global trade, Europe continued to transform. The Commercial Revolution also caused a population explosion. Simply put, as wealth flooded the continent, it allowed for larger families. In turn, these larger families created a work force to sustain and grow Europe's new global economy. Of course, as these new markets opened up, European business owners needed a way to deal with all their money! This brings us to the formation of banks and joint-stock companies.

    Banks and Joint-Stock Companies

    The Commercial Revolution created the need for more banks within Europe. These banks provided money-lending services to parties interested in getting in on the blossoming trade. They also began issuing bills of exchange. These worked like our modern-day checking accounts. Rather than lugging around piles of gold, banks allowed merchants to deposit their earnings and receive a bill of exchange. Merchants could then turn these documents in when they needed to withdraw their gold. Not only was this more convenient, it was much safer than carrying gold along trade routes.

    Source : study.com

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