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    what was one positive result of the british raj’s rule in india? india had a developed infrastructure, including railroads and communications. the standard of living greatly increased for many indian citizens. indian employees received the same wages as their british counterparts. a rising number of indian officials held leadership positions in government.

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    CommerceList of Commerce ArticlesInfrastructure In India During British Rule

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    Infrastructure meaning

    Infrastructure can be referred to as the basic physical operations of a nation or a business such as communication, transportation, water, sewage, etc. This operation can be a highly expensive investment and an important aspect of the economic development of a country.

    Infrastructure in India

    During the colonial period in India, the basic infrastructure such as water transport, railways, posts and telegraphs, and ports were developed, but to serve the colonial interest rather than serving the common people. Roads constructed were not fit for modern India, could not connect rural areas, and the shortage of well-constructed roads, especially in the rainy season, was the drawback.

    However, in the year 1850, the introduction of the railways was one of the most important contributions by the British. This initiative transformed the Indian economy in two ways. One, it led people to travel long distances and break the geographical barrier, and second, it commercialised Indian agriculture that adversely influenced the self-sufficiency of the village economies in India.

    With the development of railways and roads, the colonial regulation also took steps for the improvement of the sea lanes and inland trade. However, for the postal services, though it was useful assistance for the society, it remained insufficient.

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    Solved Questions

    Q.1. What objectives did British intend to achieve through their policies of infrastructure development in India? (NCERT)OrBriefly discuss the various reasons for the development of infrastructure by the British government.Answer(A) Explanation ● During British rule, there was some infrastructural development in areas such as railways, ports, water transport, posts, and telegraphs.

    ● However, the motive behind this development was simply to foster the colonial interest of the British government.

    ●     They were never interested in the growth of the Indian economy.

    (B) Reasons for the development of infrastructure1. Railways

    ● Railways were developed to move finished goods physically from Britain to different interior parts of colonial India.

    ● Britishers wanted to widen the size of the market for their goods.

    2. Roads

    ● Roads were developed to mobilise the British Army within India.

    ● Roads were developed to facilitate the transportation of raw materials from different parts of the country to the nearest railway station or to the port to send it to Britain.

    3. Ports ● Ports were developed to export raw materials and import finished goods from Britain.4. Communication

    ● Posts and telegraphs were developed to maintain law and order.

    ● The expensive system of the electric telegraph in India was developed to enhance administrative efficiency.

    Q.2. What were the positive signs in railways under the British rule? What was the motive of constructing railways by the British government?Answer:(A) Explanation ● British rulers introduced railways in India in 1850.

    ●     Railway began its operations in 1853.

    (B) Positive signs in the railway under the British rule i. Cheap and rapid movement of people from one place to another

    ii. Increased commercialisation of Indian agriculture

    iii. Development of India’s industrial sector due to the expansion of railways

    iv. Increased volume of export (but it did not give many advantages to Indian people)

    (C) Motives for constructing railways i. To have effective control and administration over the Indian territory

    ii. To earn profit through foreign trade by linking major ports with railways

    iii. Profitable investment in India

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    Q.3. Discuss any positive contributions by the British in India? Discuss.OrWhat were the positive contributions made by the British rule in India?Answer(a) Explanation ● Britishers misused India in various ways.

    ● However, there were many instances where the motives initiated by the British rule yielded positive effects.

    ●     Their exploitative policies and programs also had some positive impacts in India.

    (b) Following are some of the positive impacts:(1) Commercial agriculture ● It changed the outlook of the farmers.

    ●     Farming proved to be a profitable venture rather than merely a means of subsistence.

    (2) Spread of railways and roadways ●     It opened up new opportunities for social and economic growth.(3) Expanding means of transport ● It helped as a support system to combat the spread of famines.

    ●     Food supplies could be rushed to the drought-hit areas.

    (4) Transition from a barter system to a monetary system ● The economy shifted from a barter system to a monetary system.

    ●     It facilitated the division of labour, specialisation, and large-scale production.

    (5) Administration ● The British Raj in India left a legacy of an effective and efficient system of administration.

    Source : byjus.com

    India under British rule unit 1 Flashcards

    Study with Quizlet and memorize flashcards terms like Which statement best describes the Mughals who once lived in India? In the 1700s, the Mughals were Hindu rulers who opposed trade with Britain and other European nations. In the 1700s, the Mughals were Muslim rulers who allowed the East India Company to establish trading posts. In the 1800s, the Mughals were Indian nationalists who fought for freedom from British rule. In the 1800s, the Mughals were Indian loyalists who supported British rule and fought on behalf of the viceroy., What was one positive result of the British raj's rule in India? India had a developed infrastructure, including railroads and communications. The standard of living greatly increased for many Indian citizens. Indian employees received the same wages as their British counterparts. A rising number of Indian officials held leadership positions in government., The British established the East India Company to acquire oil and other natural resources in Asia. spices and other goods found in Asia. soldiers for their armies and navies. workers for their factories and mills and more.

    India under British rule unit 1

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    Which statement best describes the Mughals who once lived in India?

    In the 1700s, the Mughals were Hindu rulers who opposed trade with Britain and other European nations.

    In the 1700s, the Mughals were Muslim rulers who allowed the East India Company to establish trading posts.

    In the 1800s, the Mughals were Indian nationalists who fought for freedom from British rule.

    In the 1800s, the Mughals were Indian loyalists who supported British rule and fought on behalf of the viceroy.

    Click card to see definition 👆

    In the 1700s, the Mughals were Muslim rulers who allowed the East India Company to establish trading posts.

    Click again to see term 👆

    What was one positive result of the British raj's rule in India?

    India had a developed infrastructure, including railroads and communications.

    The standard of living greatly increased for many Indian citizens.

    Indian employees received the same wages as their British counterparts.

    A rising number of Indian officials held leadership positions in government.

    Click card to see definition 👆

    India had a developed infrastructure, including railroads and communications.

    Click again to see term 👆

    1/10 Created by veronica5849

    Terms in this set (10)

    Which statement best describes the Mughals who once lived in India?

    In the 1700s, the Mughals were Hindu rulers who opposed trade with Britain and other European nations.

    In the 1700s, the Mughals were Muslim rulers who allowed the East India Company to establish trading posts.

    In the 1800s, the Mughals were Indian nationalists who fought for freedom from British rule.

    In the 1800s, the Mughals were Indian loyalists who supported British rule and fought on behalf of the viceroy.

    In the 1700s, the Mughals were Muslim rulers who allowed the East India Company to establish trading posts.

    What was one positive result of the British raj's rule in India?

    India had a developed infrastructure, including railroads and communications.

    The standard of living greatly increased for many Indian citizens.

    Indian employees received the same wages as their British counterparts.

    A rising number of Indian officials held leadership positions in government.

    India had a developed infrastructure, including railroads and communications.

    The British established the East India Company to acquire

    oil and other natural resources in Asia.

    spices and other goods found in Asia.

    soldiers for their armies and navies.

    workers for their factories and mills

    spices and other goods found in Asia.

    Which statement best explains the concept of "home rule" advocated by the nationalists in India?

    Under home rule, Indian citizens would be ruled by the East India Company and its private army.

    Under home rule, Indian citizens would remain part of the British empire but would govern themselves.

    Under home rule, Indian citizens would be ruled by British civil servants and a viceroy who represented the British monarch.

    Under home rule, Indian citizens would sever all ties to Great Britain and assume complete control of the government.

    Under home rule, Indian citizens would remain part of the British empire but would govern themselves.

    Which statement best describes the economy of India in the late 1700s?

    In the late 1700s, British farmers produced cotton that was shipped to Indian factories to produce textiles.

    In the late 1700s, Indian farmers produced cotton that was shipped to British factories to produce textiles.

    In the late 1700s, taxes were lowered to promote struggling manufacturing and trade industries in India.

    In the late 1700s, taxes were raised to gain revenue from the growing manufacturing industries in India

    In the late 1700s, Indian farmers produced cotton that was shipped to British factories to produce textiles

    The Indian National Congress was founded in 1885 to

    draft soldiers into the military.

    write and pass new legislation.

    lobby for equal status for Indians.

    provide support for the British raj.

    lobby for equal status for Indians.

    What was one negative consequence of the British raj's rule in India?

    Sanitation and public health continued to suffer.

    The legal system saw few modern improvements.

    Only a few thousand Indians got a higher education.

    Civil servants were segregated from ordinary Indians.

    Civil servants were segregated from ordinary Indians.

    What was one cause of the Sepoy Rebellion in India?

    The British outlawed many Indian traditions.

    The British instituted the caste system.

    The British began to collect taxes.

    The British opened trade posts.

    The British outlawed many Indian traditions.

    One of the three main goals of the East India Company was to

    build up the Indian economy.

    create a new British colony in Asia.

    spread British influence and power.

    establish rulers known as viceroys

    spread British influence and power.

    Beginning in the 1800s, the British government appointed viceroys in India to

    represent the interests of the crown.

    command a private company army.

    set up trade posts and textile factories.

    oppose the government known as the raj.

    Source : quizlet.com

    East India Company

    British raj, period of direct British rule over the Indian subcontinent from 1858 until the independence of India and Pakistan in 1947. The raj succeeded management of the subcontinent by the British East India Company, after general distrust and dissatisfaction with company leadership resulted in a widespread mutiny of sepoy troops in 1857, causing the British to reconsider the structure of governance in India. The British government took possession of the company’s assets and imposed direct rule. The raj was intended to increase Indian participation in governance, but the powerlessness of Indians to determine their own future without the consent

    British raj

    Indian and Pakistani history

    By Stanley A. Wolpert • Edit History

    Queen Victoria, Empress of India

    See all media Date: 1857 - 1947

    Location: India Pakistan

    Participants: British Empire India Pakistan

    Context: East India Company Government of India Acts Indian Mutiny

    Key People: Charles John Canning, Earl Canning James Andrew Broun Ramsay, marquess and 10th earl of Dalhousie Mahatma Gandhi John Laird Mair Lawrence, 1st Baron Lawrence Louis Mountbatten, 1st Earl Mountbatten

    See all related content →

    British raj, period of direct British rule over the Indian subcontinent from 1858 until the independence of India and Pakistan in 1947. The raj succeeded management of the subcontinent by the British East India Company, after general distrust and dissatisfaction with company leadership resulted in a widespread mutiny of sepoy troops in 1857, causing the British to reconsider the structure of governance in India. The British government took possession of the company’s assets and imposed direct rule. The raj was intended to increase Indian participation in governance, but the powerlessness of Indians to determine their own future without the consent of the British led to an increasingly adamant national independence movement.

    Background

    Though trade with India had been highly valued by Europeans since ancient times, the long route between them was subject to many potential obstacles and obfuscations from middlemen, making trade unsafe, unreliable, and expensive. This was especially true after the collapse of the Mongol empire and the rise of the Ottoman Empire all but blocked the ancient Silk Road. As Europeans, led by the Portuguese, began to explore maritime navigation routes to bypass middlemen, the distance of the venture required merchants to set up fortified posts.

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    India: Climax of the raj, 1858–85

    The quarter century following the bitter Indian revolt of 1857–59, though spanning a peak of British imperial power in India, ended with...

    The British entrusted this task to the East India Company, which initially established itself in India by obtaining permission from local authorities to own land, fortify its holdings, and conduct trade duty-free in mutually beneficial relationships. The company’s territorial paramountcy began after it became involved in hostilities, sidelining rival European companies and eventually overthrowing the nawab of Bengal and installing a puppet in 1757. The company’s control over Bengal was effectively consolidated in the 1770s when Warren Hastings brought the nawab’s administrative offices to Calcutta (now Kolkata) under his oversight. About the same time, the British Parliament began regulating the East India Company through successive India Acts, bringing Bengal under the indirect control of the British government. Over the next eight decades, a series of wars, treaties, and annexations extended the dominion of the company across the subcontinent, subjugating most of India to the determination of British governors and merchants.

    The Sepoy Mutiny of 1857

    In late March 1857 a sepoy (Indian soldier) in the employ of the East India Company named Mangal Pandey attacked British officers at the military garrison in Barrackpore. He was arrested and then executed by the British in early April. Later in April sepoy troopers at Meerut, having heard a rumour that they would have to bite cartridges that had been greased with the lard of pigs and cows (forbidden for consumption by Muslims and Hindus, respectively) to ready them for use in their new Enfield rifles, refused the cartridges. As punishment, they were given long prison terms, fettered, and put in jail. This punishment incensed their comrades, who rose on May 10, shot their British officers, and marched to Delhi, where there were no European troops. There the local sepoy garrison joined the Meerut men, and by nightfall the aged pensionary Mughal emperor Bahādur Shah II had been nominally restored to power by a tumultuous soldiery. The seizure of Delhi provided a focus and set the pattern for the whole mutiny, which then spread throughout northern India. With the exception of the Mughal emperor and his sons and Nana Sahib, the adopted son of the deposed Maratha peshwa, none of the important Indian princes joined the mutineers. The mutiny officially came to an end on July 8, 1859.

    Aftermath of the mutiny

    The immediate result of the mutiny was a general housecleaning of the Indian administration. The East India Company was abolished in favour of the direct rule of India by the British government. In concrete terms, this did not mean much, but it introduced a more personal note into the government and removed the unimaginative commercialism that had lingered in the Court of Directors. The financial crisis caused by the mutiny led to a reorganization of the Indian administration’s finances on a modern basis. The Indian army was also extensively reorganized.

    Another significant result of the mutiny was the beginning of the policy of consultation with Indians. The Legislative Council of 1853 had contained only Europeans and had arrogantly behaved as if it were a full-fledged parliament. It was widely felt that a lack of communication with Indian opinion had helped to precipitate the crisis. Accordingly, the new council of 1861 was given an Indian-nominated element. The educational and public works programs (roads, railways, telegraphs, and irrigation) continued with little interruption; in fact, some were stimulated by the thought of their value for the transport of troops in a crisis. But insensitive British-imposed social measures that affected Hindu society came to an abrupt end.

    Source : www.britannica.com

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