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    AP Gov Questions chapter 10 Flashcards

    Study with Quizlet and memorize flashcards terms like Outline the negative and positive roles that interest groups play in America, Explain how interest groups form, Create a profile of the kind of person most likely to be represented by an interest group and more.

    AP Gov Questions chapter 10

    Outline the negative and positive roles that interest groups play in America

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    Interest groups represent people before their government. Interest groups articulate their members' concerns, presenting them directly and forcefully in the political process. Interest groups are vehicles for political participation. They provide a means by which like-minded citizens can pool their resources and channel their energies into collective political action. Interest groups help educate their members, the public at large, and government officials. Interest groups bring new issues into the political limelight through a process called agenda building. Finally, interest groups engage in program monitoring. Lobbies follow government programs that are important to their constituents keeping abreast of developments in Washington and the communities where the policies are implemented. When a program is not operating as it should, concerned interest groups push administrators to change it in ways that promote the group's goals.

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    Explain how interest groups form

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    Pluralists assume that when a political issue arises, interest groups with relevant policy concerns begin to lobby. New interest groups form as a matter of course when the need arises. The quality of interest group leadership is a crucial factor if an interest group will form or not.

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    Outline the negative and positive roles that interest groups play in America

    Interest groups represent people before their government. Interest groups articulate their members' concerns, presenting them directly and forcefully in the political process. Interest groups are vehicles for political participation. They provide a means by which like-minded citizens can pool their resources and channel their energies into collective political action. Interest groups help educate their members, the public at large, and government officials. Interest groups bring new issues into the political limelight through a process called agenda building. Finally, interest groups engage in program monitoring. Lobbies follow government programs that are important to their constituents keeping abreast of developments in Washington and the communities where the policies are implemented. When a program is not operating as it should, concerned interest groups push administrators to change it in ways that promote the group's goals.

    Explain how interest groups form

    Pluralists assume that when a political issue arises, interest groups with relevant policy concerns begin to lobby. New interest groups form as a matter of course when the need arises. The quality of interest group leadership is a crucial factor if an interest group will form or not.

    Create a profile of the kind of person most likely to be represented by an interest group

    People who have money, are educated, and know how the system operates are more confident that their actions can make a difference. Together, these attributes give people more incentive to devote their time and ample resources to organizing and supporting interest groups

    Describe the major resources interest groups use in their efforts to influence policy, particularly PACs

    A groups most significant resources are its members, lobbyists, and money, including funds that can be contributed to political candidates. one of the most valuable resources an interest group can have is a large active membership. They maintain membership, attract new members, and there is the free-rider problem. There are also lobbyists. Lobbyists make sure that the people in government know what their members want and that their organizations know what the government is doing. Lobbyists can be full-time employees of their organization or employees of public relations or law firms who are hired on retainer. PAC pool campaign contributions from group members and donate the money to candidates for political office. Greatest growth has come from corporations.

    List the tactics used by interest groups and lobbyists to win the support of policy makers

    Direct lobbying- relies on personal contact with policymakers, Grass-root lobbying- involves an interest group's rank-and file members and may include people outside the organization who sympathize with its goals. Information campaigns- organized efforts to gain public attention to gain public backing, Coalition backing- which several organizations band together for the purpose of lobbying

    Account for the recent increase in interest groups

    Due to the growing population of America, the need for interest groups in order to get your opinion heard has become increasingly important. No longer can just one person make a change in the world, they have to have other people who feel similar as them in order to get the governments attention and to create a change. Also, people are becoming increasingly cynical of how much of a difference their vote really makes

    Asses the impact of interest groups on democracy and government, is there a bias towards some sectors of society?

    All significant interests in the population should be adequately represented by interest groups. Government should listen to the views of all major interests as it develops policy. However, some sectors of society are much better represented than others. However, some interest groups derive support from other sources than their membership, making them not quite so bias. Interest groups are key to democracy because they partially set the political agenda

    Source : quizlet.com

    Public Interest Groups and the Road to Survival on JSTOR

    Anthony J. Nownes, Allan J. Cigler, Public Interest Groups and the Road to Survival, Polity, Vol. 27, No. 3 (Spring, 1995), pp. 379-404

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    JOURNAL ARTICLE

    Anthony J. Nownes and Allan J. Cigler

    Polity

    , pp. 379-404 (26 pages)

    Published By: The University of Chicago Press

    https://www.jstor.org/stable/3235004

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    This article revisits questions raised by the late Jack Walker in his landmark study of group organization and maintenance and applies them to public interest groups. Data from 62 interviews with public interest group leaders support the conclusion that there are distinct strategies for starting and maintaining such groups. Patrons are crucial for initial mobilization, but the key to long-term public interest group survival is the ability to maintain a large membership base that can be tapped for dues and large contributions.

    Current issues are available on the Chicago Journals website: Read the latest issue. Polity is the journal of the Northeastern Political Science Association, published quarterly since 1968. As a general-interest journal, it has always sought to publish work of interest to a broad range of political scientists — work that is lively, provocative, and readable. Polity is devoted to the premise that political knowledge advances through scholarly communication across subdiscipline boundaries.

    Since its origins in 1890 as one of the three main divisions of the University of Chicago, The University of Chicago Press has embraced as its mission the obligation to disseminate scholarship of the highest standard and to publish serious works that promote education, foster public understanding, and enrich cultural life. Today, the Journals Division publishes more than 70 journals and hardcover serials, in a wide range of academic disciplines, including the social sciences, the humanities, education, the biological and medical sciences, and the physical sciences.

    This item is part of a JSTOR Collection.

    For terms and use, please refer to our

    Polity

    Source : www.jstor.org

    Interest Groups

    5.3 Interest Groups

    PLEASE NOTE: This book is currently in draft form; material is not final.

    Learning Objectives

    In this section, you will learn:

    What an interest group is.

    The ways in which interest groups try to influence public policy.

    A major source of information for journalists, and another way in which people can get involved in politics, is interest groups. Interest groupsCoalitions of like-minded individuals and businesses who unite in pursuit of particular political and policy goals. James Madison, architect of the U.S. Constitution, called them factions. are formal coalitions of individuals and organizations who unite in pursuit of common policy goals. People tend to think of them as interest groups when they share or don’t mind those goals, and “special interest groups” when they disagree with them.

    Interest groups are not new. In fact they are as old as politics. Plato and Aristotle warned about them, and James Madison had them in mind when he wrote the Constitution. Madison referred to them as factions. He warned that factions could be dangerous because they tend to pursue their issues to the exclusion of all else. Historically, Madison said, factions could undermine government as they single-mindedly pursued their own interests. Nonetheless, he also recognized that factions are an unavoidable fact of political life, and that limiting factions would in fact limit the very liberty the Constitution was trying to create. His answer was to divide power in the government by way of federalism and by checks and balances—dividing power between different branches and levels of government. His genius was to create a system of government in which power is so divided that it’s difficult for a single group to dominate the whole government, and that purposefully pits factions against each other in the practice of that government. The question remains, however, if this works, and interest groups continue to play influential roles in states around the world.

    The public tends to view interest groups (except for the ones they belong to) with suspicion and mistrust. Depending on who you talk to, people will say that this group or another has too much influence, be it the gun lobby or religious conservatives or abortion rights activists.

    Some political scientists say that interest groups aren’t all bad. In this view, interest groups are in fact a sign of a healthy political society, a sign that competition (what Madison intended) is alive and well. By that measure, you should be really concerned is when everyone is happy with a decision, because that may mean something’s not right. Elected officials can be heard to say that when everyone is equally unhappy with something they’ve done, they’ve probably done about as well as they can hope to.

    Groups have a few things in common. The people who belong to groups tend to have time, money and desire. Groups without resources tend to be less organized and less successful, so the rich tend to be overrepresented and the poor tend to be underrepresented. There are welfare rights lobbies, and student lobbies, and neither tends to be successful because they don’t have money. They also represent two groups of people—students and poor people—who tend to vote less often. Contrast that with senior citizen lobbies. As they represent retired people, they’re not all wealthy, but senior citizens have one thing in common: They vote. Elected officials know that, and behave accordingly. A state legislator came to one of my classes once and began his presentation by saying, “I don’t care what you think. I just finished talking to a group of senior citizens, and I listened to what they had to say. They vote. You guys don’t vote, so why should I listen to you?” A number of the students were incensed at his comments, but some of them got his point: If you want to be heard, you have to go out and get involved, and that includes voting.

    And yet not all groups are successful, even ones with money. As one lobbyist said, “I’ve seen large organizations with plenty of money with fairly pathetic public affairs efforts.” Having money is not enough; a successful interest group hires the right people and presents the right message.

    How Groups Work

    Groups attempt to influence policy in a number of ways:

    Lobbying is a basic form of political activity. Representatives of groups attempt to contact elected officials, often directly, to tell their side of a story. The terms lobby and lobbyistPeople hired or assigned to contact elected officials to present information about issues that are important to the client or group they represent. might come from the habit of British members of Parliament to meet in the lobby of the House of Commons before and after debate. It might also come from the interest group representatives who would try to chase down President Ulysses S. Grant in the lobby of the Willard Hotel in Washington, D.C., where he liked to enjoy a cigar and a brandy.

    Some lobbyists work for particular organizations or businesses; others, contract lobbyists, may have multiple clients. A good lobbyist tells the legislator both sides of an issue, so that the legislator can go home and anticipate the inevitable objections to his or her position. Consequently, good lobbyists are known for not lying. If a legislator were to catch a lobbyist in a lie, then the lobbyist would lose all access to the legislator. End of game; you lose. Lobbyists certainly try to persuade elected officials of the rightness of their position, but they try to do that through information.

    Source : 2012books.lardbucket.org

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