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    what part of the larynx covers the laryngeal inlet during swallowing to keep food out of the lower respiratory passages?

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    Larynx

    Larynx

    The larynx is defined as an instrument à cordes et à vent – that is, not to be classed purely either as a stringed instrument or a wind instrument.

    From: Encyclopedia of Language & Linguistics (Second Edition), 2006

    Related terms:

    Mucous MembraneExhalationMammalsEsophagusPharynxReflexesVocalizationBronchiCartilagePalate

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    Larynx

    B. Kirby, in Feline Soft Tissue and General Surgery, 2014

    Surgical anatomy

    The larynx is situated between the pharynx and first tracheal cartilage ring. It serves as a conduit for passage of air between the pharynx and trachea. The larynx functions in phonation, regulation of airflow through its lumen, and protection of the lower airway during swallowing. The larynx consists of a set of complicated cartilages, ligaments, and muscles (Figs 52-1 and 52-2). The five laryngeal cartilages are the epiglottis, thyroid cartilage, cricoid cartilage, and paired arytenoid cartilages. The epiglottis is the most rostral of the laryngeal cartilages. It is triangular in shape and composed of flexible fibrocartilage. It is attached by a fold of mucous membrane to the root of the tongue.1 The epiglottis, together with the laryngeal adductors, covers the laryngeal opening during swallowing, allowing food and fluid to pass over it and into the esophagus.1 The thyroid cartilage is the largest of the laryngeal cartilages. It is U-shaped, continuous ventrally and forms approximately two-thirds of the circumference of the larynx. It is attached cranially to the hyoid bone and articulates dorsally with the cricoid cartilage. The cricoid cartilage is signet ring shaped, with its broader part dorsad. Its caudal border is connected to the first tracheal ring. It articulates with the arytenoid cartilages on each side in addition to its thyroid cartilage articulation. The paired arytenoid cartilages are pyramidal in shape, with the base and sides nearly equilateral triangles. The arytenoid cartilages articulate with the cricoid and thyroid cartilages.

    The vocal folds, thyroarytenoid muscles, and cricoarytenoid dorsalis and lateralis muscles attach to the arytenoid cartilages. Movements produced by these muscles and the vocal folds, open and close the rima glottidis, the laryngeal airway. There are two pairs of tissue folds at the cranial end of the feline larynx; the false vocal cords that lie more cranially and laterally, while the true vocal cords lie more caudally and nearer the median plane. The laryngeal ventricles are reported to lie between the true and false vocal cords on each side.2 However, laryngeal ventricles are also reported not to exist in feline species.3 To the author's knowledge, eversion of laryngeal ventricles has not been described in the cat, though this is commonly observed in dogs with brachycephalic upper airway syndrome.

    The false and true vocal cords are most easily visualized by ventral laryngotomy.2 The false vocal cords, often appearing tannish in color, extend from the arytenoid cartilages to the epiglottis. The true vocal cords, appearing as whitish bands, extend from the arytenoid cartilages to the thyroid cartilages. Conflicting reports of the presence of muscle in feline vocal cords exist, with one report stating that feline vocal cords do not contain muscle, in contrast to the dog and horse,4 while another report cites extremely rapid twitching of the vocalis muscle running within the vocal folds as the mechanism of purring.5 The feline cuneiform and corniculate processes are inconspicuous when viewed per os (Fig. 52-3A), while these structures are easily identified in dogs (Fig. 52-3B).2 The larynx is elevated and depressed by action of the thyrohyoideus and sternothyroideus muscles, respectively. The laryngeal lumen is lined by mucous membrane.

    The larynx is innervated by branches of the vagus. The vagus gives rise to the cranial laryngeal nerve which separates into an internal and external branch.6 The cricothyroid muscle is innervated by the external branch, while the internal branch provides sensory innervation to the laryngeal muscles and mucosal surfaces.6,7 The recurrent laryngeal nerves separate from the vagus at the thoracic inlet. The right recurrent laryngeal nerve passes around the subclavian artery before coursing cranially and traveling up the neck, while the left recurrent laryngeal nerve passes around the aortic arch on the left side before coursing cranially.4 The recurrent laryngeal nerves terminate as caudal laryngeal nerves, innervating ipsilateral thyroarytenoideus, arytenoideus, and cricoarytenoideus muscles. The cricoarytenoideus dorsalis muscle is the only intrinsic laryngeal muscle responsible for abduction of the vocal cords, thus its critical role in respiratory dysfunction in laryngeal paralysis.

    In all species studied, the left recurrent laryngeal nerve is more commonly involved than the right in laryngeal paralysis. The left recurrent laryngeal nerve has a longer course and fewer nerve fibers compared to the right,4 which is postulated to account for its susceptibility to injury and the more common occurrence of left laryngeal hemiplegia. Interestingly, experimental left recurrent laryngeal denervation by resection of 30 mm length of the nerve in cats did not result in clinical signs of respiratory obstruction up to one month after surgery.8 At one month, functional electrical stimulation of the laryngeal adductors restored mobility of the vocal folds and improved vocalization.8

    Source : www.sciencedirect.com

    Larynx Anatomy: Gross Anatomy, Functional Anatomy of the Larynx, Laryngeal Tissue

    The larynx is located within the anterior aspect of the neck, anterior to the inferior portion of the pharynx and superior to the trachea. Its primary function is to protect the lower airway by closing abruptly upon mechanical stimulation, thereby halting respiration and preventing the entry of foreign matter into the airway.

    Drugs & Diseases > Anatomy

    Larynx Anatomy 

    Updated: Dec 07, 2017

    Author: Rishi Vashishta, MD; Chief Editor: Thomas R Gest, PhD  more...

    12 Share Email Print Feedback Sections Larynx Anatomy

    Sections Larynx Anatomy

    Gross Anatomy

    Functional Anatomy of the Larynx

    Laryngeal Tissue

    Pathophysiologic Variants

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    Gross Anatomy

    The larynx is located within the anterior aspect of the neck, anterior to the inferior portion of the pharynx and superior to the trachea. Its primary function is to protect the lower airway by closing abruptly upon mechanical stimulation, thereby halting respiration and preventing the entry of foreign matter into the airway. Other functions of the larynx include the production of sound (phonation), coughing, the Valsalva maneuver, and control of ventilation, and acting as a sensory organ.

    The larynx is composed of 3 large, unpaired cartilages (cricoid, thyroid, epiglottis); 3 pairs of smaller cartilages (arytenoids, corniculate, cuneiform); and a number of intrinsic muscles (see the image and video below). The hyoid bone, while technically not part of the larynx, provides muscular attachments from above that aid in laryngeal motion. [1, 2, 3, 4, 5]

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    Sections Larynx Anatomy

    Gross Anatomy

    Functional Anatomy of the Larynx

    Laryngeal Tissue

    Pathophysiologic Variants

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    Mastering A&P II Chapter 22

    Start studying Mastering A&P II Chapter 22 - The Respiratory System. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools.

    Mastering A&P II Chapter 22 - The Respiratory System

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    Chronic bronchitis is a component of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, or COPD, in smokers. What is the other main component of this disease?

    tuberculosis asthma laryngitis emphysema

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    emphysema

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    Viral sinusitis may be caused by a direct extension of an upper respiratory infection involving the __________.

    pharynx larynx trachea bronchi

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    pharynx

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    1/48 Created by NnekaBabyPLUS

    Terms in this set (48)

    Chronic bronchitis is a component of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, or COPD, in smokers. What is the other main component of this disease?

    tuberculosis asthma laryngitis emphysema emphysema

    Viral sinusitis may be caused by a direct extension of an upper respiratory infection involving the __________.

    pharynx larynx trachea bronchi pharynx

    Drag the appropriate labels to their respective targets.

    Laryngopharynx Nasopharynx Nasal cavity Oropharynx Larynx

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    Vocal fold Uvula Trachea Nostril Vestibular fold Epiglottis

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    Pleural cavity Heart

    Pericardial membranes

    Right lung Parietal pleura Thoracic wall Left lung Visceral pleura

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    Hyoid bone Epiglottis Thyroid cartilage

    Laryngeal prominence

    Tracheal cartilages Cricoid cartilage

    Cricothyroid ligament

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    Epiglottis Vestibular fold Arytenoid cartilage Thyroid cartilage Vocal fold

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    Capillaries Alveolus

    Respiratory bronchiole

    Terminal bronchiole Elastic fibers

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    Capillary Alveolar pores

    Respiratory membrane

    Alveoli

    Nucleus of Type I cell

    Type II cell Macrophage

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    Right middle lobe Right inferior lobe Right superior lobe Left inferior lobe Left superior lobe Trachea Diaphragm Heart Cardiac notch

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    Nasal cavity Diaphragm Right lung Left lung Left main bronchus Pharynx Trachea

    The palatine tonsils are found in which of the following regions?

    oropharynx nasopharynx larynx laryngopharynx

    The palatine tonsils are found in the part of the pharynx that is shared with the oral cavity and is known as the oropharynx.

    Which of the following is NOT a function of the nasal conchae?

    increasing the mucosal surface area exposed to air

    reclaiming heat and moisture from expired air

    routing air and food into proper channels

    filtering, heating, and moistening incoming air during inhalation

    routing air and food into proper channels

    While the nasal conchae are used for routing air, they are not involved in routing food. This passage near the nasal conchae, which are coated with membrane that has a rich blood supply, cleans, humidifies, and warms incoming air.

    Source : quizlet.com

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    James 11 month ago
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