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    what medieval crown was used at the coronation of holy roman emperors?

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    Imperial Crown of the Holy Roman Empire

    The Imperial Crown of the Holy Roman Empire

    The Imperial Crown of the Holy Roman Empire (German: Reichskrone) was the hoop crown (German: Bügelkrone) of the Holy Roman Emperor from the 11th century to the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire in 1806. The crown was used in the coronation of the King of the Romans, the title assumed by the Emperor-elect immediately after his election. It was made in the late 10th or early 11th century. Unlike many other crowns, it has an octagonal rather than a circular shape, and is constructed from eight hinged plates. The plate in the front of the crown is surmounted by a cross, with a single arch linking it to a plate at the rear of the crown. The crown is now exhibited at the Hofburg in Vienna.

    History

    The crown was made probably somewhere in Western Germany, either under Otto I (with additions by Conrad II), by Conrad II or Conrad III during the late 10th and early 11th centuries. The first preserved mention of it is from the 12th century—assuming it is the same crown, which seems very probable.

    Most of the Kings of the Romans of the Holy Roman Empire were crowned with it. Along with the Imperial Cross (German: Reichskreuz), the Imperial Sword (German: Reichsschwert), and the Holy Lance (German: Heilige Lanze), the crown was the most important part of the Imperial Regalia (German: Reichskleinodien). During the coronation, it was given to the new king along with the sceptre (German: Reichszepter) and the Imperial Orb (German: Reichsapfel). The Imperial Regalia of the Holy Roman Empire, especially the Imperial Crown, were kept from 1349–1421 in Bohemia (now in the Czech Republic), where the Carlstein Castle was built to protect them. Between 1424–1796 they were all kept in Nuremberg, Franconia—and could only leave the city for the coronation. Currently, the crown and the rest of the Imperial Regalia are exhibited at the Hofburg in Vienna—officially "until there is again a Holy Roman Emperor of the German Nation".

    An identical copy is in Aachen in Germany in the Krönungssaal of Charlemagne's former palace, now the town hall. There are also copies of the crown and regalia in the historic museum of Frankfurt, as most of the later Emperors were crowned in the cathedral of the city, as well in the fortress of Trifels in the Electorate of the Palatinate, where the Imperial Crown was stored in medieval times. The newest authorised copy is kept in the Czech castle of Karlštejn along with a copy of the Crown of Saint Wenceslas.

    Appearance

    The Imperial Crown does not look like most more modern crowns. The crown does not have a round shape, but an octagonal one. Instead of a ring, it has eight hinged plates which are arched at the top. Two strips of iron, riveted with golden rivets to the plates, hold the crown together and give it its octagonal shape. At what point these iron strips were installed is unknown. Before the addition of the rings the plates were held together by long golden pins thus making it possible to separate the plates and the arch for easier transport.

    Each plate of the crown is made out of a high carat gold, around 22 carats, which gives the crown a "buttery" colour, and is studded with pearls and precious stones. The stones are not cut into facets (a technique still unknown when the crown was made), but rather polished into rounded shapes. This technique is an ancient one and gemstones like this are described as being "en cabochon", which are still made to this day. The pearls and the stones were put into openings that were cut into the metal, and fastened with thin wires. The effect was that when the light shone in, the stones looked as if they would shine from within.

    The crown is decorated with 144 precious stones (including sapphires, emeralds and amethysts) (green and blue precious stones being proper to emperors in Byzantine imperial protocol) and about the same number of pearls. Similar gem-studded styles of decoration were used for precious objects of a number of types at this period, in particular religious ones such as reliquaries, crux gemmata or, processional or altar crosses such as the Cross of Lothair, and book-covers such as that of the Codex Aureus of St. Emmeram and Codex Aureus of Echternach.

    Four smaller plaques bear pictorial representations of figures and scenes from the Bible and inscriptions in cloisonné enamel, in the Byzantine senkschmelz style. The four plates, called 'picture-plates' (Bildplatten) each shows representations from the Old Testament. Each of these enamelled plates is surrounded by blue sapphires and pearls in raised filigree settings. The Front Right Plate shows Christ in Majesty between two cherubim beneath the inscription in red enamel P[er] ME REGES REGNANT "By me kings reign" (Proverbs 8:15). The Back Right Plate shows the Prophet Isaiah standing and speaking to King Hezekiah, who is shown sitting on his bed. Isaiah holds a scroll with the words, "Behold, I will add fifteen years to your life" (II Kings 20:6). Above both Isaiah and Hezekiah is the inscription in red enamel ISAIAS P[ro]PHETA · EZECHIAS REX "Prophet Isaiah - King Hezekiah". The Front Left Plate shows King Solomon holding a scroll with the words, "Fear the Lord and flee from evil" (Proverbs 3:7), beneath an inscription in red enamel REX SALOMON "King Solomon". The Back Left Plate shows King David holding a scroll with the words, "The renowned king delights in doing justice" (Psalm 99:4), beneath the inscription in red enamel REX DAVID "King David".

    Source : www.holyromanempireassociation.com

    Imperial Crown of the Holy Roman Empire

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    Imperial Crown of the Holy Roman Empire

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    Imperial Crown of the Holy Roman Empire

    Heraldic depictions Details

    Country Holy Roman Empire

    Made c. 962

    Owner Imperial Treasury

    The Imperial Crown of the Holy Roman Empire (German: ), a hoop crown (German: ) with a characteristic octagonal shape, was the coronation crown of the Holy Roman Emperor, probably from the late 10th century until the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire in 1806. The crown was used in the coronation of the King of the Romans, the title assumed by the Emperor-elect immediately after his election. It is now kept in the Imperial Treasury () at the Hofburg in Vienna, Austria.

    Contents

    1 History

    1.1 Heraldic crown of the German Empire

    1.2 Preservation 2 Design 3 Commemoration 4 See also 5 References

    History[edit]

    See also: Coronation of the Holy Roman Emperor

    Charlemagne wearing the Imperial Crown, by Albrecht Dürer, ca. 1512, Germanisches Nationalmuseum in Nuremberg. The picture is anachronistic, since the crown was made a century and a half after Charlemagne's death.

    The crown of eight hinged golden plates was probably made in Western Germany for the Imperial coronation of Otto I in 962, with later additions by Conrad II.[1] The first preserved mention of it is from the 12th century, assuming (as is probable) it is the same crown.[]

    Most Kings of the Romans were crowned with it until the end of the Holy Roman Empire. The crown was the most important item of the Imperial Regalia (German: ), which also included the Imperial Cross (German: ), the Imperial Sword (German: ), and the Holy Lance (German: ). During the coronation, it was given to the new king along with the sceptre (German: ) and the Imperial Orb (German: ).

    Heraldic crown of the German Empire[edit]

    Heraldic crown of the German Empire

    The Imperial Crown was the inspiration for the German State Crown designed in 1871 for the arms of the German Empire and its Emperor. The latter, however, had four half-arches supporting a small orb and cross, rather than the single arch and front cross of the original.

    The changes were made to differentiate the Wilhelmine crown from the one kept in Vienna (outside the German Empire), while simultaneously invoking the powerful legacy of the Holy Roman Empire.[2] A now-lost wooden model was made, but no actual crown was produced until the Empire's demise in 1918.

    As a result it remained a heraldic crown only, even though it was also represented as if a real crown existed on that model, e.g. at the Niederwalddenkmal (1871-1883), in Hermann Wislicenus's "Apotheose of Empire" painting at the Imperial Palace of Goslar (ca. 1880), or on the Weidendammer Bridge in Berlin (1896).

    Preservation[edit]

    Main article: Imperial Regalia

    The Crown was held in various locations during the first few centuries after its creation, including Limburg Abbey, Harzburg Castle, the Imperial Palace of Goslar, Trifels Castle, the Imperial Palace of Haguenau [de], Waldburg Castle, Krautheim Castle, Kyburg Castle, Rheinfelden Castle, and the Alter Hof in Munich.

    In 1349, Charles IV took the Imperial Regalia to the Karlštejn Castle near Prague, which he had just built for that purpose. in 1424, with Bohemia suffering the troubles of the Hussite Wars, Sigismund had them relocated to Visegrád and then to Nuremberg, where they were permanently kept in the except for the time of coronations (in Aachen until 1531, then in Frankfurt from 1562).

    In 1796, as the war with revolutionary France was threatening the entire fabric of the Empire, the Regalia were brought for safety to Saint Emmeram's Abbey in Regensburg, and from there in 1800 to the Imperial capital in Vienna, where the Empire was abolished on 6 August 1806.

    The crown and other Regalia remained in Vienna until the of March 1938, when they were brought back to Nuremberg (this time in the ) by Nazi Germany in line with their promotion of the city as repository of mythicized ancient German traditions. During World War II the crown was placed in the Historischer Kunstbunker, an underground vault of Nuremberg Castle. The American military recovered it with other treasures in August 1945,[3] and returned it to the Oesterreichische Nationalbank in allied-occupied Austria in January 1946. It has been kept permanently in Vienna since that date.[2] The Crown and Regalia were again on display at the Hofburg in 1954. The current display dates from a comprehensive refurbishment of the Hofburg's Treasury Vault in 1983-1987.[4]

    Design[edit]

    Source : en.wikipedia.org

    Imperial Crown

    Imperial Crown, also called Crown Of Charlemagne, crown created in the 10th century for coronations of the Holy Roman emperors. Although made for Otto the Great (912–973), it was named for Charlemagne, the first Holy Roman emperor. The crown is made of eight round-topped plaques of gold hinged together and kept rigid by an interior ring of iron; it is decorated with jewels and enamel in the Byzantine style. It was designed to surmount or incorporate a mitre, which was worn with the points at the sides, and therefore is crossed only by a single arch, from front to back.

    Imperial Crown

    crown of Holy Roman emperor

    Alternate titles: Crown of Charlemagne

    By The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica • Edit History

    Imperial Crown, also called Crown Of Charlemagne, crown created in the 10th century for coronations of the Holy Roman emperors. Although made for Otto the Great (912–973), it was named for Charlemagne, the first Holy Roman emperor.

    The crown is made of eight round-topped plaques of gold hinged together and kept rigid by an interior ring of iron; it is decorated with jewels and enamel in the Byzantine style. It was designed to surmount or incorporate a mitre, which was worn with the points at the sides, and therefore is crossed only by a single arch, from front to back. In the 11th century the present arch, with its cresting of small round-topped plaques, replaced the original, and a jeweled cross, meant originally to hang upon the breast, was fastened to the front plate of the crown. The rim was adorned with side pendants that have been lost.

    Another crown, more in keeping with Renaissance taste, was made for the emperor in 1602. It incorporates the imperial mitre in the form of two plates of gold, which rise up within the circlet on each side of the central arch and curve in toward it, giving the crown the appearance of a helmet or kamelaukion. Both crowns are preserved in the national treasury in Vienna.

    Source : www.britannica.com

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