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    what major vietnamese city was renamed to ho chi minh city in honor of the leader of north vietnam after the war?

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    Ho Chi Minh

    Ho Chi Minh (1890-1969) was a Vietnamese Communist revolutionary leader who was Chairman and First Secretary of the Workers' Party of Vietnam, and later became Prime Minister and President of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam during the Vietnam War.

    Ho Chi Minh

    Author: History.com Editors Updated: Apr 16, 2021 Original: Jul 6, 2010 Getty Images

    Contents

    Who Was Ho Chi Minh?

    Ho Chi Minh: Founding of the Viet Minh and North Vietnam

    Ho Chi Minh: Toward War with the United States

    Ho Chi Minh Trail

    Ho Chi Minh and the Vietnam War

    The Fall of Saigon

    Ho Chi Minh first emerged as an outspoken voice for Vietnamese independence while living as a young man in France during World War I. Inspired by the Bolshevik Revolution, he joined the Communist Party and traveled to the Soviet Union. He helped found the Indochinese Communist Party in 1930 and the League for the Independence of Vietnam, or Viet Minh, in 1941. At World War II’s end, Viet Minh forces seized the northern Vietnamese city of Hanoi and declared a Democratic State of Vietnam (or North Vietnam) with Ho as president. Known as “Uncle Ho,” he would serve in that position for the next 25 years, becoming a symbol of Vietnam’s struggle for unification during a long and costly conflict with the strongly anti-Communist regime in South Vietnam and its powerful ally, the United States.

    Who Was Ho Chi Minh?

    Ho Chi Minh was born Nguyen Sinh Cung on May 19, 1890, in a village in central Vietnam (then part of French Indochina) in Nghe province to Hoang Thi Loan, his mother, and Nguyen Sinh Sac. Ho attended the National Academy in Hue before being expelled for protesting against emperor Bao Dai and French influence in Indochina. In 1911, he found work as a cook on a French steamer and spent the next several years at sea, traveling to Africa, the United States and Britain, among other locations.

    By 1919, he was living in France, where he organized a group of Vietnamese immigrants and petitioned delegates at the Versailles Peace Conference to demand that the French colonial government in Indochina grant the same rights to its subjects as it did to its rulers.

    Did you know? In February 1967, Ho Chi Minh responded to a personal message from U.S. President Lyndon Johnson by announcing that the North Vietnamese would never negotiate under the threat of bombing.

    Inspired by the success of Vladimir Lenin’s Bolshevik Revolution, he joined the new French Communist Party in 1920 and traveled to Moscow three years later. He soon began recruiting members of a Vietnamese nationalist movement that would form the basis of the Indochinese Communist Party (founded in Hong Kong in 1930) and traveled the world, including Brussels, Paris and Siam (now Thailand), where he worked as a representative of the Communist International organization.

    Ho Chi Minh: Founding of the Viet Minh and North Vietnam

    When Germany defeated France in 1940, during World War II, Ho saw it as an opportunity for the Vietnamese nationalist cause. Around this time, he began to use the name Ho Chi Minh (roughly translated as “Bringer of Light”). With his lieutenants Vo Nguyen Giap and Pham Van Dong, Ho returned to Vietnam in January 1941 and organized the Viet Minh, or League for the Independence of Vietnam. Forced to seek China’s aid for the new organization, Ho was imprisoned for 18 months by Chiang Kai-Shek’s anti-Communist government.

    With the Allied victory in 1945, Japanese forces withdrew from Vietnam, leaving the French-educated Emperor Bao Dai in control of an independent Vietnam. Led by Vo Nguyen Giap, Viet Minh forces seized the northern city of Hanoi and declared a Democratic State of Vietnam (known commonly as North Vietnam, or the Democratic Republic of Vietnam) with Ho as president. Bao Dai abdicated in favor of the revolution, but French military troops gained control of southern Vietnam, including Saigon, and Chiang Kai-Shek’s Chinese forces moved into the north according to the terms of an Allied agreement. Ho began negotiations with the French in efforts to achieve a Chinese withdrawal as well as eventual French recognition of Vietnam’s independence and reunification of North and South Vietnam. But in October 1946, a French cruiser opened fire on the town of Haiphong after a clash between French and Vietnamese soldiers. Despite Ho’s best efforts to maintain peace, his more militant followers called for war, which broke out that December.

    Ho Chi Minh: Toward War with the United States

    During the First Indochina War, the French returned Bao Dai to power and set up the state of Vietnam (South Vietnam) in July 1949, with Saigon as its capital. Armed conflict between the two states continued until a decisive battle at Dien Bien Phu ended in French defeat by Viet Minh forces. The subsequent treaty negotiations at Geneva (at which Ho was represented by his associate Pham Van Dong) partitioned Indochina and called for elections for reunification in 1956.

    Backed by the United States, the strongly anti-Communist South Vietnamese government of Ngo Dinh Diem refused to support the Geneva accords, and put off elections indefinitely. In 1959, armed conflict broke out again, as Communist guerrillas known as the Viet Cong began launching attacks on targets (including U.S. military installations) in South Vietnam. The Viet Cong appealed to North Vietnam for help, and that July the central committee of Ho’s Lao Dong (Worker’s Party) voted to link the establishment of socialism in the North to the cause of unification with the South.

    Source : www.history.com

    Ho Chi Minh City v Saigon: Why Vietnam's Biggest City Has Two Names

    Discover the history behind the two different names of Vietnam's former capital city, Ho Chi Minh City and Saigon.

    ASIA / VIETNAM / HO CHI MINH CITY / GUIDES & TIPS

    Ho Chi Minh City v Saigon: Why Vietnam's Biggest City Has Two Names

    Reunification Palace © Diego Delso / Wikimedia Commons

    Isabelle Sudron 6 December 2017

    Vietnam’s former capital has not one, but two names: Ho Chi Minh City and Saigon. Find out the intriguing story behind the city with two names here.

    Arriving in South Vietnam can be a rather confusing affair, with half of the population calling the major city ‘Ho Chi Minh City’ and the other half referring to it as ‘Saigon’. Even the airport code itself is SGN, but signs on the way into the city centre proudly welcome you to Ho Chi Minh City. So, which is it?

    FIND OUT MORE

    Ho Chi Minh City Skyline © Khuutuong / Good Free Photos | © Khuutuong

    Officially, the southern metropolis’s name is Ho Chi Minh City, and has been for many years, but there are still a number of locals and visitors alike that call it Saigon. The importance of these two differing titles goes back to the Vietnam War, which ended not so long ago in 1975. Although commonly referred to as the American War, the history is a little more complicated than just ‘Vietnam versus America’.

    The Vietnam War was actually between the North and South of Vietnam. Communist allies, such as China and the Soviet Union, supported the former, while anti-communist troops, such as America and Australia, helped the latter. In 1975, the North of Vietnam won the war and changed the name of Saigon to Ho Chi Minh City, in honour of the prime minister, a revolutionary leader of the communist party.

    The name change was not voluntary on the part of those living in the South; it was a statement of the North’s success. As you can imagine, the move was radical at the time and many Saigonese locals fled the country. However, nowadays, the two names are not used to make any kind of political statement; they are simply alternate ways of referring to the city.

    Vietnam War propaganda poster | © Dragfyre

    The Vietnamese nation seem to have moved on from the war quickly and resiliently, with people in both the North and the South happily selling prints of wartime propaganda posters and even using the era as a theme in cafés. The names, Ho Chi Minh City and Saigon, are also used interchangeably across the country, with little mention of their origin. In short, although the background of these names was once a sensitive matter, the two now appear to be synonymous.

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    Source : theculturetrip.com

    Ho Chi Minh

    Ho Chi Minh

    From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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    For other uses, see Ho Chi Minh (disambiguation).

    Hồ Chí Minh

    Portrait of Hồ Chí Minh, c. 1946

    Chairman of the Workers' Party of Vietnam

    In office

    19 February 1951 – 2 September 1969

    General Secretary Trường Chinh

    Lê Duẩn (acting)

    Preceded by Position established

    Succeeded by Position abolished

    General Secretary of the Workers' Party of Vietnam

    In office

    1 November 1956 – 10 September 1960

    Preceded by Trường Chinh

    Succeeded by Lê Duẩn

    1st President of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam

    In office

    2 September 1945 – 2 September 1969

    Preceded by Position established

    Bảo Đại (as Emperor)

    Succeeded by Tôn Đức Thắng

    1st Prime Minister of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam

    In office

    2 September 1945 – 20 September 1955

    Preceded by Position established

    Trần Trọng Kim (as Prime Minister of the Empire of Vietnam)

    Succeeded by Phạm Văn Đồng

    Minister of Foreign Affairs

    In office

    28 August 1945 – 2 March 1946

    Preceded by Trần Văn Chương

    (Empire of Vietnam)

    Succeeded by Nguyễn Tường Tam

    In office

    3 November 1946 – March 1947

    Preceded by Nguyễn Tường Tam

    Succeeded by Hoàng Minh Giám

    Full Member of the 2nd and 3rd Politburo

    In office

    31 March 1935 – 2 September 1969

    Personal details

    Born Nguyễn Sinh Cung

    19 May 1890

    Kim Liên, Nam Đàn, Nghệ An, Annam, French Indochina

    Died 2 September 1969 (aged 79)

    Hanoi, North Vietnam

    Resting place Ho Chi Minh Mausoleum

    Nationality Vietnamese

    Political party French Section of the Workers' International

    (1919–1921)

    French Communist Party

    (1921–1925)

    Communist Party of Vietnam

    (1925–1969)

    Spouse(s) Tăng Tuyết Minh ​(m. 1926)​ (?)

    Relations

    Bạch Liên (or Nguyễn Thị Thanh; sister)

    Nguyễn Sinh Khiêm (or Nguyễn Tất Đạt; brother)

    Nguyễn Sinh Xin (brother)

    Parent(s)

    Nguyễn Sinh Sắc (father)

    Hoàng Thị Loan (mother)

    Alma mater Communist University of the Toilers of the East

    Profession

    Politicianrevolutionarypastry chef

    Signature Vietnamese name

    Vietnamese Hồ Chí Minh

    Hán-Nôm 胡志明

    Vietnamese birth name

    Vietnamese Nguyễn Sinh Cung

    Hán-Nôm 阮生恭

    Hồ Chí Minh[a] (born Nguyễn Sinh Cung;[b][3][4] 19 May 1890 – 2 September 1969[c]), commonly known as ('Uncle Hồ')[7] or simply ,[d] also Hồ Chủ tịch ('President Hồ'), Nguyễn Tất Thành, Nguyễn Ái Quốc, Người cha già của dân tộc ('Father of the people'), was a Vietnamese revolutionary and statesman. He served as Prime Minister of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam from 1945 to 1955 and President from 1945 until his death in 1969. Ideologically a Marxist–Leninist, he served as Chairman and First Secretary of the Workers' Party of Vietnam.

    Hồ Chí Minh was born in Nghệ An province, in Central Vietnam. He led the Việt Minh independence movement from 1941 onward. Initially, it was an umbrella group for all parties fighting for Vietnam's independence, but the Communist Party gained majority support after 1945. Hồ Chí Minh led the Communist-led Democratic Republic of Vietnam in 1945, defeating the French Union in 1954 at the Battle of Điện Biên Phủ, ending the First Indochina War, and resulting in the division of Vietnam, with the Communists in control of North Vietnam. He was a key figure in the People's Army of Vietnam and the Việt Cộng during the Vietnam War, which lasted from 1955 to 1975. Ho officially stepped down from power in 1965 due to health problems and died in 1969. North Vietnam was ultimately victorious against South Vietnam and its allies, and Vietnam was officially unified in 1976. Saigon, the former capital of South Vietnam, was renamed Ho Chi Minh City in his honor.

    The details of Hồ Chí Minh's life before he came to power in Vietnam are uncertain. He is known to have used between 50[8]: 582  and 200 pseudonyms.[9] Information on his birth and early life is ambiguous and subject to academic debate. At least four existing official biographies vary on names, dates, places, and other hard facts while unofficial biographies vary even more widely.[10]

    Aside from being a politician, Ho was also a writer, a poet, and a journalist. He wrote several books, articles and poems in Chinese, Vietnamese and French.

    Contents

    1 Early life

    1.1 First sojourn in France

    1.2 In the United States

    1.3 In Britain

    2 Political education in France

    3 In the Soviet Union and China

    4 Independence movement

    4.1 Birth of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam

    5 Becoming president

    6 Vietnam War 7 Personal life 8 Death 9 Legacy

    9.1 Depictions of Hồ Chí Minh

    10 International 11 See also

    12 Explanatory notes

    13 References 13.1 Bibliography 14 Further reading 14.1 Essays 14.2 Biography

    14.3 Việt Minh, NLF and the Democratic Republic of Vietnam

    14.4 War in Vietnam

    14.5 American foreign policy

    Source : en.wikipedia.org

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