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    what led to genocide in cambodia? the war in vietnam complicated politics in cambodia, and a civil war ensued. khmer rouge took over cambodia and persecuted its enemies. educated cambodians attempted a government takeover from khmer rouge. massacres increased because reeducation camps were failing.

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    get what led to genocide in cambodia? the war in vietnam complicated politics in cambodia, and a civil war ensued. khmer rouge took over cambodia and persecuted its enemies. educated cambodians attempted a government takeover from khmer rouge. massacres increased because reeducation camps were failing. from EN Bilgi.

    Cambodia

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    Cambodia

    "It is important for me that the new generation of Cambodians and Cambodian Americans become active and tell the world what happened to them and their families ... I want them never to forget the faces of their relatives and friends who were killed during that time. The dead are crying out for justice."

    -Dith Pran, Children of Cambodia's Killing Fields: Memoirs by Survivors

    Lasting for four years (between 1975 and 1979), the Cambodian Genocide was an explosion of mass violence that saw between 1.5 and 3 million people killed at the hands of the Khmer Rouge, a communist political group. The Khmer Rouge had taken power in the country following the Cambodian Civil War. During their brutal four-year rule, the Khmer Rouge was responsible for the deaths of nearly a quarter of Cambodians.

    The Cambodian Genocide was the result of a social engineering project by the Khmer Rouge, attempting to create a classless agrarian society. The regime would ultimately collapse when the neighboring Vietnam invaded, establishing an occupation that would last more than a decade.

    Cambodia before the Genocide

    Eight years before the genocide began, Cambodia was engaged in a bloody civil war. The war pitted the Cambodian monarchy, and later the Cambodian Republic, and its allies, including the United States, against the Cambodian communists. The communists received support from the neighboring Vietcong.

    The Cambodian monarchy promoted a strong sense of nationalism and loyalty to the government, but was also seen as corrupt and ineffectual. This corruption would breed several underground groups with the shared goal of overthrowing the government. Early on, right-wing and leftist groups, including leaders of what would become the Khmer Rouge, were allies.

    Income inequality was rampant. Cambodians living in the urban areas enjoyed relative wealth and comfort while the majority of Cambodians toiled on farms in the rural communities. This obvious division of class made Cambodia especially susceptible to revolution. Ultimately, the Khmer Rouge would take power in 1975, installing Pol Pot as the leader of the country.

    For more information on Cambodia prior to the genocide, check out: Cambodia Before 1975: Pre-genocide Cambodia to 1975 (Holocaust Memorial Trust)

    The Cambodian Genocide

    Once the Khmer Rouge took power, they instituted a radical reorganization of Cambodian society. This meant the forced removal of city dwellers into the countryside, where they would be forced to work as farmers, digging canals and tending to crops. Gross mismanagement of the country’s economy led to shortages of food and medicine, and untold numbers of people succumbed to disease and starvation. Families were also split up. The Khmer Rouge created labor brigades, assigning groups depending on age and gender. This policy resulted in hundreds of thousands of Cambodians starving to death.

    Religious and ethnic minorities faced particular persecution. Christian and Buddhist groups were targeted for repression but it was the Cham Muslim group that was most affected by the genocide. As many as 500,000 people, or 70% of the total Cham population, were exterminated. Because the Khmer Rouge placed a heavy emphasis on the rural peasant population, anyone considered an intellectual was targeted for special treatment. This meant teachers, lawyers, doctors, and clergy were the targets of the regime. Even people wearing glasses were the target of Pol Pot’s reign of terror.

    There is difficulty establishing a definitive number of victims of the Cambodian Genocide. The Cambodians kept methodical records of prisoners and executions. However, because Cambodia’s enemy, Vietnam, invaded and released the records, there is speculation they could have been exaggerated. In addition, estimating the total number of people who starved is difficult. Estimates range from 1.5 to 3 million people having died at the hands of the Khmer Rouge, with the consensus being approximately 2 million.

    For more information about the genocide itself, check out:

    The Cambodian Genocide Program: Resources on the history and legacy of the genocide (Yale University)

    Tuol Sleng Museum of Genocide: Museum on the former S-21 Prison site

    The Killing Fields Museum of Cambodia: Museum founded by Dara Duong, a survivor of the Killing Fields

    I Was Born into Genocide (2008): History Day project includes survivor testimonials and provides a good overview of the genocide

    The Legacy of Pol Pot: Photos and provides an overview of the genocide (Time)

    The Pol Pot Regime: Race, Power, and Genocide in Cambodia under the Khmer Rouge, 1975-79 by Ben Kiernan: Explores social themes and questions about Cambodia’s genocide

    The Center for Holocaust & Genocide Studies previously exhibited photos of prisoners at S-21 Prison. View the original exhibition.

    Testimony

    USC Shoah Foundation institute for Visual History and Education is now home to visual testimony of the Cambodian genocide.

    Pol Pot

    Pol Pot, or Brother Number One, was the leader of the Khmer Rouge. He was born Saloth Sar to farmers in rural Cambodia in 1925. Pol Pot was a bright student and spent time studying in France, where he became involved with communist groups in the early 1950s.

    After returning home in 1953, Pol Pot joined clandestine groups in Cambodia. It was during this time that he began combining Stalinist and Maoist models with a returned focus on an agrarian society. With support from rural Cambodians, North Vietnamese, and Chinese, Pol Pot was ultimately able to take control of the country in 1975.

    Source : cla.umn.edu

    Khmer Rouge: Cambodia's years of brutality

    At least two million people died as the Marxist regime tried to turn back the clock in Cambodia.

    Khmer Rouge: Cambodia's years of brutality

    Published 16 November 2018

    IMAGE SOURCE, GETTY IMAGES

    In the four years that the Khmer Rouge ruled Cambodia, it was responsible for one of the worst mass killings of the 20th Century.

    The brutal regime, in power from 1975-1979, claimed the lives of up to two million people.

    Under the Marxist leader Pol Pot, the Khmer Rouge tried to take Cambodia back to the Middle Ages, forcing millions of people from the cities to work on communal farms in the countryside.

    But this dramatic attempt at social engineering had a terrible cost.

    Whole families died from execution, starvation, disease and overwork.

    ADVERTISEMENT

    IMAGE SOURCE, GETTY IMAGES Image caption,

    Pol Pot projected an image to the world of Cambodians thriving under his radical leadership

    Communist philosophy

    The Khmer Rouge had its origins in the 1960s, as the armed wing of the Communist Party of Kampuchea - the name the Communists used for Cambodia.

    Based in remote jungle and mountain areas in the north-east of the country, the group initially made little headway.

    But after a right-wing military coup toppled head of state Prince Norodom Sihanouk in 1970, the Khmer Rouge entered into a political coalition with him and began to attract increasing support.

    In a civil war that continued for nearly five years, it gradually increased its control in the countryside.

    Khmer Rouge forces finally took over the capital, Phnom Penh, and therefore the nation as a whole in 1975.

    IMAGE SOURCE, GETTY IMAGES Image caption,

    The Khmer Rouge drew influence from China's ruling Communist Party

    During his time in the remote north-east, Pol Pot had been influenced by the surrounding hill tribes, who were self-sufficient in their communal living, had no use for money and were "untainted" by Buddhism.

    When he came to power, he and his henchmen quickly set about transforming Cambodia - now re-named Kampuchea - into what they hoped would be an agrarian utopia.

    IMAGE SOURCE, GETTY IMAGES Image caption,

    Tuol Sleng was turned from a school to a prison, torture site and death camp

    Declaring that the nation would start again at "Year Zero", Pol Pot isolated his people from the rest of the world and set about emptying the cities, abolishing money, private property and religion, and setting up rural collectives.

    Anyone thought to be an intellectual of any sort was killed. Often people were condemned for wearing glasses or knowing a foreign language.

    Ethnic Vietnamese and Cham Muslims in Cambodia were also targeted.

    Hundreds of thousands of the educated middle-classes were tortured and executed in special centres.

    The most notorious of these centres was the S-21 jail in Phnom Penh, Tuol Sleng, where as many as 17,000 men, women and children were imprisoned during the regime's four years in power.

    Hundreds of thousands of others died from disease, starvation or exhaustion as members of the Khmer Rouge - often just teenagers themselves - forced people to do back-breaking work.

    Opening up

    The Khmer Rouge government was finally overthrown in 1979 by invading Vietnamese troops, after a series of violent border confrontations.

    IMAGE SOURCE, GETTY IMAGES Image caption,

    Kaing Guek Eav - known as Duch - was jailed for life for his role in running the Tuol Sleng prison

    The higher echelons of the party retreated to remote areas of the country, where they remained active for a while but gradually became less and less powerful.

    In the years that followed, as Cambodia began the process of reopening to the international community, the full horrors of the regime became apparent.

    Survivors told their stories to shocked audiences, and in the 1980s the Hollywood movie The Killing Fields brought the plight of the Khmer Rouge victims to worldwide attention.

    Pol Pot was denounced by his former comrades in a show trial in July 1997, and sentenced to house arrest in his jungle home.

    But less than a year later he was dead - denying the millions of people who were affected by this brutal regime the chance to bring him to justice.

    IMAGE SOURCE, EPA Image caption,

    Khieu Samphan was found guilty of genocide in November 2018

    The UN helped establish a tribunal to try surviving Khmer Rouge leaders, beginning work in 2009.

    Only three Khmer Rouge leaders have ever been sentenced.

    Source : www.bbc.com

    Genocide Quiz Flashcards

    Start studying Genocide Quiz. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools.

    Genocide Quiz

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    When was genocide officially labeled a crime?

    in 1941 when Lemkin moved to the United States from Poland

    in 1943 when Lemkin used genocide in a quote

    in 1945 shortly after the end of WWII

    in 1948 as defined by the UN

    Click card to see definition 👆

    in 1948 as defined by the UN

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    Which is the proper order of genocides from earliest to most recent?

    Holocaust, Cambodian, Armenian, Darfur

    Armenian, Darfur, Holocaust, Cambodian

    Armenian, Holocaust, Cambodian, Darfur

    Holocaust, Armenian, Darfur, Cambodian

    Click card to see definition 👆

    Armenian, Holocaust, Cambodian, Darfur

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    Terms in this set (10)

    When was genocide officially labeled a crime?

    in 1941 when Lemkin moved to the United States from Poland

    in 1943 when Lemkin used genocide in a quote

    in 1945 shortly after the end of WWII

    in 1948 as defined by the UN

    in 1948 as defined by the UN

    Which is the proper order of genocides from earliest to most recent?

    Holocaust, Cambodian, Armenian, Darfur

    Armenian, Darfur, Holocaust, Cambodian

    Armenian, Holocaust, Cambodian, Darfur

    Holocaust, Armenian, Darfur, Cambodian

    Armenian, Holocaust, Cambodian, Darfur

    In which country is genocide still continuing today?

    Darfur Bosnia Cambodia Guatemala Darfur

    Which is the UN definition of genocide?

    Genocide is the attempt to wipe out an entire group of people based on ethnicity.

    Genocide is the criminal intent to destroy or to cripple permanently a human group.

    Genocide is the killing of a group of people based on race, religion, or ethnicity.

    Genocide is the intentional destruction of a group of people.

    Genocide is the intentional destruction of a group of people.

    The genocides in both Cambodia and Bosnia are examples of

    a holocaust. the Holodomor. ethnic cleansing.

    religious cleansing.

    ethnic cleansing

    What led to genocide in Cambodia?

    The war in Vietnam complicated politics in Cambodia, and a civil war ensued.

    Khmer Rouge took over Cambodia and persecuted its enemies.

    Educated Cambodians attempted a government takeover from Khmer Rouge.

    Massacres increased because reeducation camps were failing.

    Khmer Rouge took over Cambodia and persecuted its enemies.

    Genocide occurred in Guatemala in 1981-1983 because

    the Guatemalans wouldn't give Mayans back the land they stole.

    the Guatemalans had not trusted the Mayans for many centuries.

    the Mayans took over the government and massacred Guatemalans.

    the Mayans demanded to be part of the Guatemalan government.

    the Mayans demanded to be part of the Guatemalan government.

    During the _________________________ , people were rounded up, shot, and buried in mass graves called the killing fields.

    Cambodian genocide

    Which is not a major factor leading to genocide?

    unequal distribution of resources.

    economic, political, or social instability.

    unequal distribution of power among classes.

    distribution of power among ethnic groups.

    distribution of power among ethnic groups.

    Because one million children were orphaned, child-headed households were a result of the genocide in

    Darfur. Bosnia. Rwanda. Cambodia. Rwanda

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