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    Traffic Incident Management Quick Clearance Laws: A National Review of Best Practices

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    A National Review of Best Practices

    This publication may contain dated technical, contact, and link information.

    Move Over Laws

    At the time of this investigation, all but seven States have enacted Move Over laws (see Figure 1). A Move Over law typically requires motorists to change lanes and/or slow down when approaching an authorized emergency vehicle that is parked or otherwise stopped on a roadway. Although these general requirements are consistent, State Move Over laws differ significantly in the specific provisions defining when drivers are obligated to take action and what action they are required to take.

    FIGURE 1. States with Move Over Laws Currently Enacted

    A review of the purpose and intent, model language, observed content trends and anomalies, and implementation challenges and resolutions for Move Over laws is provided below. As appropriate, excerpts from model law and State Move Over legislation are included.

    Purpose and Intent

    The proliferation of Move Over laws among U.S. States can largely be explained by the common interest in ensuring response personnel safety, and the concurrent targeted national public awareness campaigns.

    As reported previously, an estimated 225 responders have been killed after being struck by vehicles along the highway since 2003 (Bureau of Labor Statistics 2008, Towing and Recovery Association of America 2008). ResponderSafety.com reports that two emergency responders per day, on average, are fatally or non-fatally struck by passing vehicles. A recent Ohio State Highway Patrol investigation (Law Enforcement Stops and Safety Subcommittee 2006) found that 55 percent of officer-involved, struck-by incidents involved serious injuries or fatalities and 60 percent occurred on high-speed, high volume interstate highways. Move Over laws may reduce both the frequency of responder struck-by incidents, as well as the severity of such incidents when they do occur by requiring drivers to provide a buffer area between responders and moving traffic and travel at reduced speeds.

    While the primary intent is to ensure responder safety, Move Over laws may also serve to reduce the frequency and severity of secondary crashes involving approaching motorists and expedite the overall incident clearance process, reducing associated congestion and delay.

    Since Move Over laws are relatively new, little documented evidence to date exists regarding the impact of such laws in enhancing responder safety or the effectiveness of associated public awareness campaigns in achieving compliance from the motoring public. Anecdotally, responders have expressed concern over the lack of Move Over law awareness among drivers and the subsequent ability of these laws to enhance responder safety and realize additional associated benefits.

    Model Language

    Move Over laws are commonly included as extensions to pre-existing laws directing a driver to slow and pull to the side of the road to allow emergency vehicles with warning devices activated to pass. These laws have been modified to include driver guidance when approaching and passing stationary emergency vehicles along the roadside.

    Laws are only effective when enforceable. Citations based on early versions of Move Over laws were often dismissed or failed judicial review because of inadequate, ineffective wording in the State's legislation. In response to this shortcoming and as part of a broader effort to improve responder safety, the NCUTLO, working closely with the NHTSA and NCSL, published the Incident Responders' Safety Model Law. Model Move Over law language is included in Section 7 as follows:

    Section 7. Road User Duties Approaching Incidents

    When in or approaching an incident, every driver shall maintain a speed no greater than is reasonable and prudent under the conditions, including actual and potential hazards then existing.

    When in or approaching an incident area, every driver shall obey the directions of any authorized official directing traffic and all applicable traffic control devices.

    Except for emergency vehicles in the incident area, when in or approaching an incident area every driver shall reduce speed and vacate any lane wholly or partially blocked.

    (d) If a violation of this section results in a serious injury or death to another person, in addition to any other penalty imposed by law, the violator's driver's license shall be suspended for a period of at least (180) days one year and not more than (2 5) years and the violator may be sentenced up to one year in jail.

    Note the more recent changes in (d) that encourage more severe sanctions for Move Over law violators. Additional guidance for Section 7 defines an "incident" as "an emergency road user occurrence, a natural disaster, or a special event" and an "incident area" as "an area of highway where authorized officials impose a temporary traffic control zone in response to a road user incident, natural disaster, or special event."

    Both the International Association of Chiefs of Police (IACP) and the National Sheriffs' Association (NSA) have adopted resolutions in support of uniformity in Move Over laws.

    Source : ops.fhwa.dot.gov



    A new "Move Over" law in Mississippi will require drivers to move at least one lane away when they approach emergency vehicles that are parked on the roadside with lights flashing. If drivers don't make room, they risk getting ticketed.

    The law, which takes effect July 1, is intended to protect ambulance crews, state troopers and other law enforcement or medical personnel. The Legislature included tow trucks and highway maintenance vehicles in the law. An often-ignored Mississippi law already requires motorists to get out of the way of approaching emergency vehicles - usually accomplished by pulling over to the right-hand edge of a road or a street.

    Supporters describe the "Move Over" law as a continuation of the Legislature's attempts the past few years to make the roadways safer. In addition to motorists yielding right of way to moving emergency vehicles, the state has laws to protect road construction crews from speeders. It also mandates car seats for children and requires adults to buckle up - all in the name of public safety.

    The new law means a motorist passing an emergency vehicle on the side of the road must slow down and yield the right of way by changing lanes, thus keeping at least one lane between them where possible. If a lane change is impossible because of road or traffic conditions, a motorist must slow down and be prepared to stop, if needed, to prevent collisions.

    Violators may be fined up to $250 for failing to comply and up to $1,000 if there is damage to the official vehicle or injury to any driver or passenger of an official vehicle. Nearly three dozen states - Alabama the most recent in 2006 - require motorists to slow down or move over to other lanes of traffic where possible when they see law enforcement officers or emergency personnel along highways.

    Tennessee and Missouri in 2006 increased the penalties under their "Move Over" laws. Kansas enacted both a road crew protection and "Move Over" laws in 2006. Georgia, Florida, Kentucky, North Carolina, Texas, Indiana and Illinois are among states that have enacted similar laws within the past decade.

    Highway Patrol officer Rusty Boyd, the patrol's public affairs officer in southwest Mississippi, said troopers are very aware of the dangers of being hit when they are outside their vehicles on the roadside. "It's a tense situation when you're standing on the side of the highway and cars are coming by possibly at 70 miles an hour just a few feet away from you," Boyd said in an interview with The Daily Leader newspaper in Brookhaven.

    While motorists were given ample warning of the mandatory seat belt law, the "Move Over" Law has been less publicized. Since 2001, at least two Mississippi law enforcement officers have died because they were struck by vehicles. Leake County Deputy Willie Perry was killed in 2001 when he was struck by a vehicle at a roadside driver's license checkpoint about six miles north of Carthage on Mississippi 35.

    Authorities said Perry and another deputy were running the license check after having pulled off the highway with the blue lights flashing on their patrol car. The second deputy was not hurt. In 2004, Clarke County Deputy Robert Goodwin was killed when he was struck by a vehicle while supervising an inmate road crew picking up trash along Mississippi 512 near Quitman. Authorities said a truck driver apparently lost control of his rig and hit Goodwin, who died at a local hospital.

    Source : www.respondersafety.com

    Driver Education Standard 4 Pre

    Find and create gamified quizzes, lessons, presentations, and flashcards for students, employees, and everyone else. Get started for free!


    Driver Education Standard 4 Pre-Ass...

    Driver Education Standard 4 Pre-Ass... 66%

    127 10th Physical Ed Mary McManus 1 year

    20 Qs

    1. Multiple-choice 45 seconds Q.

    What are the 3 components of an expressway that allows car to enter onto the road?

    answer choices Deceleration Lane Acceleration Lane Entrance Ramp Exit Ramp Merge Area 2. Multiple-choice 30 seconds Q.

    When driving in strong winds the driver should make all steering, accelerating and braking actions

    answer choices short and aburpt smooth and gentle quick and small long and fast 3. Multiple-choice 30 seconds Q.

    When stopped at a "T" intersection which vehicle must stop?

    answer choices

    The vehicle on the side (smaller) street

    The vehicle that arrives second

    The vehicle that is on the main street

    It depends on the drivers

    4. Multiple-choice 30 seconds Q.

    What part of the roadway enables you to search for traffic flow, gaps, and evaluate speed and space requirements?

    answer choices Deceleration Lane Acceleration Lane Entrance Ramp Exit Ramp Merge Area 5. Multiple-choice 30 seconds Q.

    When are roadways most dangerous during rain storms?

    answer choices First 15 minutes After 20 minutes Right after it ends

    When the road is dry

    6. Multiple-choice 30 seconds Q.

    How far in advance should you begin searching ahead of an intersection?

    answer choices 4-8 seconds 10-15 seconds 15-20 seconds 20-30 seconds 7. Multiple-choice 30 seconds Q.

    What is the name of the part of the expressway where cars can both enter and exit?

    answer choices Acceleration Lane Weave Lane Bowing Lane On Ramp 8. Multiple-choice 45 seconds Q.

    How does a driver counter act/reduce the effect of glare? (select three correct answers)

    answer choices Wear sunglasses Adjust sun visors Turn on head lights

    Look down and to the right edge of the roadway

    9. Multiple-choice 30 seconds Q.

    When stopping behind another vehicle at a traffic light you should be able to see...

    answer choices

    Where the tires of the vehicle in front of you meet the road

    The license plate of the vehicle in front of you

    The bumper stickers of the vehicle in front of you

    The mirrors of the vehicle in front of you

    10. Multiple-choice 30 seconds Q.

    The weight shifts due to sudden turns while also changing speed your vehicle is

    answer choices Roll Pitch Yaw General 11. Multiple-choice 45 seconds Q.

    Identify the 3 levels of braking that precede the need to lock up your wheels?

    answer choices Hard Soft Coasting Controlled Threshold 12. Multiple-choice 30 seconds Q.

    The series of continuous positions your vehicle will occupy while traveling toward your target is your

    answer choices Path of travel Line of sight Field of vision Target area 13. Multiple-choice 30 seconds Q.

    What helps a driver organize information into meaningful categories so decisions can be made easily?

    answer choices

    A time management system

    A vision management sytem

    A vehicle management system

    A space management system

    14. Multiple-choice 30 seconds Q.

    Which form of vision allows you to recognize light and motion?

    answer choices Peripheral Focal Paracentral Far Near 15. Multiple-choice 30 seconds Q.

    How would you explain closed zone around your vehicle?

    answer choices

    Space or area that is not available in the vehicles path of travel

    Space where you can drive without restrictions

    Open zone that is becoming closed or closed space that is becoming open

    16. Multiple-choice 45 seconds Q.

    What two options below should you be EVALUATING in the driving?

    answer choices

    Will the zone I'm entering be open or closed?

    Is my passenger paying attention to me?

    What music should I listen to?

    What lane position is the safest?

    17. Multiple-choice 30 seconds Q.

    What is the minimum recommended following distance between you and the vehicle you are following if you are driving 65 miles per hour?

    answer choices 2 seconds 4 seconds 6 seconds 8 seconds 18. Multiple-choice 30 seconds Q.

    What is the outside force that causes the car to change its motion?

    answer choices Traction Moment Gravity Inertia 19. Multiple-choice 30 seconds Q.

    What law requires you to slow down and change lanes when approaching a roadside incident where emergency personnel might be working?

    answer choices Slow down law Buffer Law Law enforcement law Move over law 20. Multiple-choice 30 seconds Q.

    Which options are ALL examples of when it is illegal to pass another vehicle?

    answer choices

    Solid lines, Hills and curves, bridges, intersections

    Source : quizizz.com

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