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    Intelligence Testing

    Intelligence Testing

    LEARNING OBJECTIVES

    Explain the purposes and types of intelligence testing (including the Wechsler and Stanford-Binet intelligence tests and the Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children)

    Figure 1. Starting from early primary school years, researchers and clinicians assess intelligence through standardized test batteries (i.e., IQ tests), as these tests are intended to be suitable for a wide age range.

    Intelligence is among the oldest and longest studied topics in all of psychology. The development of assessments to measure this concept is at the core of the development of psychological science itself.

    When might an IQ test be used? What do we learn from the results, and how might people use this information? While there are certainly many benefits to intelligence testing, it is important to also note the limitations and controversies surrounding these tests. For example, IQ tests have sometimes been used as arguments in support of insidious purposes, such as the eugenics movement (Severson, 2011). The infamous Supreme Court Case, Buck vs. Bell, legalized the forced sterilization of some people deemed “feeble-minded” through this type of testing, resulting in about 65,000 sterilizations (Buck vs. Bell, 274 U.S. 200; Ko, 2016). Today, only professionals trained in psychology can administer IQ tests, and the purchase of most tests requires an advanced degree in psychology. Other professionals in the field, such as social workers and psychiatrists, cannot administer IQ tests.

    In psychology, human intelligence is commonly assessed by IQ scores that are determined by IQ tests. However, there are critics of IQ tests who, while they do not dispute the stability of IQ test scores or the fact that they predict certain forms of achievement rather effectively, do on the other hand argue that to base a concept of intelligence on IQ test scores alone is to ignore many important aspects of mental ability.

    For instance, individual differences in general intelligence are one of the strongest predictors of occupational attainment, social mobility, and job performance. People with higher general intelligence in childhood or early adulthood also tend to have better overall physical health, and have a longer life expectancy. Further, children with higher childhood IQ have a lower risk of developing dementia and of being diagnosed with schizophrenia spectrum disorder, major depression, or any anxiety disorder in adulthood. Understanding how differential IQ levels become associated with these life outcomes is crucial not only from a scientific point of view, but also for developing public policy and determining effective interventions.

    Why Measure Intelligence?

    The value of IQ testing is most evident in educational or clinical settings. Children who seem to be experiencing learning difficulties or severe behavioral problems can be tested to ascertain whether the child’s difficulties can be partly attributed to an IQ score that is significantly different from the mean for his or her age group. Without IQ testing—or another measure of intelligence—children and adults needing extra support might not be identified effectively. While IQ tests have sometimes been used as arguments in support of insidious purposes, such as the eugenics movement (Severson, 2011), the following case study demonstrates the usefulness and benefits of IQ testing.

    WHY TEST IQ?

    Candace, a 14-year-old girl experiencing problems at school in Connecticut, was referred for a court-ordered psychological evaluation. She was in regular education classes in ninth grade and was failing every subject. Candace had never been a stellar student but had always been passed to the next grade. Frequently, she would curse at any of her teachers who called on her in class. She also got into fights with other students and occasionally shoplifted. When she arrived for the evaluation, Candace immediately said that she hated everything about school, including the teachers, the rest of the staff, the building, and the homework. Her parents stated that they felt their daughter was picked on because she was of a different race than the teachers and most of the other students. When asked why she cursed at her teachers, Candace replied, “They only call on me when I don’t know the answer. I don’t want to say, ‘I don’t know’ all the time and look like an idiot in front of my friends. The teachers embarrass me.” She was given a battery of tests, including an IQ test. Her score on the IQ test was 68.

    What does Candace’s score say about her ability to excel or even succeed in regular education classes without assistance? Why were her difficulties never noticed or addressed?

    Types of IQ Tests and Tasks

    There are a wide variety of IQ tests that use slightly different tasks and measures to calculate an overall IQ score. The most commonly used test series is the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) and its counterpart, the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC). Other commonly used tests include the original and updated version of Stanford-Binet, and the Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children. We will discuss all of these.

    Stanford-Binet Intelligence Test

    Source : courses.lumenlearning.com

    What kind of professional would be most qualified to administer an intelligence test? •A social

    Find an answer to your question What kind of professional would be most qualified to administer an intelligence test? •A social worker who operates in a high sc…

    04/12/2021 Health College answered

    What kind of professional would be most qualified to administer an intelligence test?

    •A social worker who operates in a high school or middle school.

    •A professional trained in psychology

    •An employee of the Social Security administration.

    •A board-certified psychiatrist.

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    I'd day the second option, psychology

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    •A board-certified psychiatrist.

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    Psych chapter 7 Flashcards

    Start studying Psych chapter 7. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools.

    Psych chapter 7

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    Which statistic is a measure of how data are dispersed in a population and can be used to give context to larger data sets?

    Click card to see definition 👆

    standard deviation

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    A(n) ________ is a basic sound unit of a given language.

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    phoneme

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    1/25 Created by nenaritchie22

    Terms in this set (25)

    Which statistic is a measure of how data are dispersed in a population and can be used to give context to larger data sets?

    standard deviation

    A(n) ________ is a basic sound unit of a given language.

    phoneme

    A ________ is the smallest unit of language that conveys some type of meaning.

    morpheme

    What kind of professional would be most qualified to administer an intelligence test?

    A professional trained in psychology.

    what did the Minnesota Study of Twins Reared Apart suggest about intelligence? The findings from this study ________.

    revealed a genetic component to intelligence

    Which option is NOT one of the Wechsler tests of intelligence?

    Wechsler Adolescent Intelligence Measure (WAIM)

    Aram is proficient in playing a number of instruments and can easily learn new songs and rhythms. This exemplifies ________ intelligence from the multiple intelligences theory.

    musical

    What impact did Genie's early isolation have on her ability to acquire language? She never developed a(n) ________.

    mastery of the grammatical aspects of language

    Knowing what a dinosaur is because you looked through a book with pictures of dinosaurs and watched the film Jurassic Park is an example of a natural concept that was developed through ________ experience.

    indirect

    What is the confirmation bias?

    focusing on information that confirms your existing beliefs

    Which concept is a type of mental set where you cannot perceive an object being used for something other than what it was designed for?

    functional fixedness

    Anwar is hiking in the woods and he gets lost. He spends several days trying to find his way back to his basecamp, but he has the knowledge to gather wood, start a fire, and keep himself warm at night. He is also able to identify local berries and mushrooms growing that he can eat without being poisoned. Anwar is demonstrating ________ intelligence from the triarchic theory.

    practical

    Nima excels at working with numbers in subjects such as calculus and algebra. This exemplifies ________ intelligence from the multiple intelligences theory.

    logical-mathematical

    Who developed the triarchic theory of intelligence?

    Robert Sternberg

    Which pair of individuals is most likely to have the highest similarity in their IQ scores?

    Marcus and Maria are identical twins who were separated at birth and raised in different families.

    ________ are categories or groupings of linguistic information, images, ideas, or memories, such as life experiences.

    concepts

    Jake is sympathetic and considerate of his friends' moods. He really identifies with their feelings and readily understands their point of view. He is well-known around campus, and he has great relationships with his classmates and professors. Which area of the multiple intelligences model does this exemplify?

    interpersonal

    Kai cuts her foot while hiking. She forgot to pack bandages, but she has a tube of superglue and uses that to seal the wound. Kai's ability to invent a solution uses the ________ intelligence component of the triarchic theory of intelligence.

    creative

    The type of intelligence that involves seeing complex relationships and solving problems is ________ intelligence.

    fluid

    In Howard Gardner's Multiple Intelligences Theory, ________ intelligence and ________ intelligence are often combined into a single type: emotional intelligence.

    interpersonal; intrapersonal

    What is the Flynn effect?

    The observation that each generation has a significantly higher IQ than the previous generation.

    Which term refers to the vocabulary of a language, or the words contained within that language?

    lexicon

    An intelligence score that falls below ________ indicates significant cognitive delays, and may be indicative of an intellectual disability.

    70

    Rudy is amazing in all of his school classes, except math. He struggles to understand basic arithmetic concepts, confuses mathematical symbols like "+" and "=", and gets very frustrated and upset at the thought of doing math homework. Rudy has a normal level of cognitive functioning in other areas, and reads and writes with ease. Rudy's parents may want to have him evaluated to see if he suffers from ________.

    dyscalculia

    The practice of administering, scoring, and interpreting an assessment tool in the same manner is called ________.

    standardization

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