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    what kind of native american creation did researchers in alabama recently uncover after examining of thousands of photographs taken underground?


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    Native American Creation Stories

    The American Yawp Reader

    Native American Creation Stories

    The American Yawp Reader Native American Creation Stories Native American Creation Stories

    These two Native American creation stories are among thousands of accounts for the origins of the world. The Salinian and Cherokee, from what we now call California and the American southeast respectively, both exhibit the common Native American tendency to locate spiritual power in the natural world. For both Native Americans and Europeans, the collision of two continents challenged old ideas and created new ones as well.

    Salinan Indian Creation Story

    When the world was finished, there were as yet no people, but the Bald Eagle was the chief of the animals. He saw the world was incomplete and decided to make some human beings. So he took some clay and modeled the figure of a man and laid him on the ground. At first he was very small but grew rapidly until he reached normal size. But as yet he had no life; he was still asleep. Then the Bald Eagle stood and admired his work. “It is impossible,” said he, “that he should be left alone; he must have a mate.” So he pulled out a feather and laid it beside the sleeping man. Then he left them and went off a short distance, for he knew that a woman was being formed from the feather. But the man was still asleep and did not know what was happening. When the Bald Eagle decided that the woman was about completed, he returned, awoke the man by flapping his wings over him and flew away.

    The man opened his eyes and stared at the woman. “What does this mean?” he asked. “I thought I was alone!” Then the Bald Eagle returned and said with a smile, “I see you have a mate! Have you had intercourse with her?” “No,” replied the man, for he and the woman knew nothing about each other. Then the Bald Eagle called to Coyote who happened to be going by and said to him, “Do you see that woman?” Try her first!” Coyote was quite willing and complied, but immediately afterwards lay down and died. The Bald Eagle went away and left Coyote dead, but presently returned and revived him. “How did it work?” said the Bald Eagle. “Pretty well, but it nearly kills a man!” replied Coyote. “Will you try it again?” said the Bald Eagle. Coyote agreed, and tried again, and this time survived. Then the Bald Eagle turned to the man and said, “She is all right now; you and she are to live together.”

    John Alden Mason, The Ethnology of the Salinan Indians (Berkeley: 1912), 191-192.

    Available through the Internet Archive

    Cherokee creation story

    The earth is a great island floating in a sea of water, and suspended at each of the four cardinal points by a cord hanging down from the sky vault, which is of solid rock. When the world grows old and worn out, the people will die and the cords will break and let the earth sink down into the ocean, and all will be water again. The Indians are afraid of this.

    When all was water, the animals were above in Gälûñ’lätï, beyond the arch; but it was very much crowded, and they were wanting more room. They wondered what was below the water, and at last Dâyuni’sï, “Beaver’s Grandchild,” the little Water-beetle, offered to go and see if it could learn. It darted in every direction over the surface of the water, but could find no firm place to rest. Then it dived to the bottom and came up with some soft mud, which began to grow and spread on every side until it became the island which we call the earth. It was afterward fastened to the sky with four cords, but no one remembers who did this.

    At first the earth was flat and very soft and wet. The animals were anxious to get down, and sent out different birds to see if it was yet dry, but they found no place to alight and came back again to Gälûñ’lätï. At last it seemed to be time, and they sent out the Buzzard and told him to go and make ready for them. This was the Great Buzzard, the father of all the buzzards we see now. He flew all over the earth, low down near the ground, and it was still soft. When he reached the Cherokee country, he was very tired, and his wings began to flap and strike the ground, and wherever they struck the earth there was a valley, and where they turned up again there was a mountain. When the animals above saw this, they were afraid that the whole world would be mountains, so they called him back, but the Cherokee country remains full of mountains to this day.

    When the earth was dry and the animals came down, it was still dark, so they got the sun and set it in a track to go every day across the island from east to west, just overhead. It was too hot this way, and Tsiska’gïlï’, the Red Crawfish, had his shell scorched a bright red, so that his meat was spoiled; and the Cherokee do not eat it. The conjurers put the sun another hand-breadth higher in the air, but it was still too hot. They raised it another time, and another, until it was seven handbreadths high and just under the sky arch. Then it was right, and they left it so. This is why the conjurers call the highest place Gûlkwâ’gine Di’gälûñ’lätiyûñ’, “the seventh height,” because it is seven hand-breadths above the earth. Every day the sun goes along under this arch, and returns at night on the upper side to the starting place.

    There is another world under this, and it is like ours in everything–animals, plants, and people–save that the seasons are different. The streams that come down from the mountains are the trails by which we reach this underworld, and the springs at their heads are the doorways by which we enter, it, but to do this one must fast and, go to water and have one of the underground people for a guide. We know that the seasons in the underworld are different from ours, because the water in the springs is always warmer in winter and cooler in summer than the outer air.

    Source : www.americanyawp.com

    Discovering ancient cave art using 3D photogrammetry: pre

    Discovering ancient cave art using 3D photogrammetry: pre-contact Native American mud glyphs from 19th Unnamed Cave, Alabama

    Discovering ancient cave art using 3D photogrammetry: pre-contact Native American mud glyphs from 19th Unnamed Cave, Alabama

    Published online by Cambridge University Press:  04 May 2022

    Jan F. Simek ,

    Stephen Alvarez  and

    Alan Cressler Show author details Jan F. Simek* Affiliation:

    Department of Anthropology, University of Tennessee, USA

    Stephen Alvarez Affiliation:

    Ancient Art Archive, Sewanee, USA

    Alan Cressler Affiliation:

    Independent Researcher, Atlanta, USA


    *Author for correspondence ✉ [email protected]

    Article Article Figures Metrics Article contents Abstract Introduction

    19th Unnamed Cave and its cave art

    Assessing chronology

    3D modelling at 19th Unnamed Cave

    Large cave art images revealed through 3D photogrammetry

    Discussion and conclusions


    Rights & Permissions

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    Since 1979, when the first cave art was documented in North America, dozens of other examples have come to light. Among these, 19th Unnamed Cave in Alabama contains hundreds of pre-contact Native American mud glyph drawings. In 2017, 3D modelling of the glyphs was initiated, ultimately enabling digital manipulation of the chamber space and revealing images that could not be perceived prior to modelling. Most surprisingly, the cave's ceiling features very large anthropomorphic glyphs that are not apparent in situ due to the tight confines of the cave. We argue that photogrammetry offers untapped potential for not simply the documentation but also the discovery of a variety of archaeological phenomena.


    Southeast USAWoodland Periodcave artphotogrammetry3D modelling

    Type Research Article Information

    Antiquity , First View , pp. 1 - 17

    DOI: https://doi.org/10.15184/aqy.2022.24

    [Opens in a new window]


    Copyright © The Author(s), 2022. Published by Cambridge University Press on behalf of Antiquity Publications Ltd.


    Since its discovery in the mid-nineteenth century, ancient cave art has captured the world's imagination. Long known from Eurasia (Leroi-Gourhan

    Reference Leroi-Gourhan

    1971; Breuil Reference Breuil

    1979), dark-zone cave art (i.e. that beyond the reach of external light) was first discovered in North America in 1979, when a cave in Tennessee was found to contain 750–800-year-old mud drawings depicting pre-Columbian Native American religious themes (Faulkner et al.

    Reference Faulkner, Deane and Earnest

    1984; Faulkner Reference Faulkner

    1986). Since then, 89 other pre-Columbian cave art sites have been identified in south-eastern North America. The earliest is nearly 7000 years old, but the majority date from AD 800 to 1600 (Faulkner & Simek

    Reference Faulkner and Simek

    1996; Simek et al.

    Reference Simek, Cressler, Douglas and Moyes


    Reference Simek, Cressler, Douglas and Holliday

    2014). South-eastern cave art comprises an ancient and longstanding Native American art practice—the only such cave art tradition known in North America. Until recently, the documented images have all been fairly small—less than 1m in maximum dimension—although some are artistically compelling (Figure 1). Here, we report the recent discovery of a number of very large rock art images, which are amongst the largest known from North America. These images were only recognised using high-resolution 3D photogrammetry, a technique that produces photorealistic digital models that can be manipulated in virtual space. Our results show how photogrammetry promises a new era of discovery of ancient cave art. The technique might also contribute to the discovery of many other unanticipated aspects of the archaeological record, for example architectural features.

    Figure 1. Pre-contact cave art from the Southeast USA: a) petroglyphs of birds and weapons from 11th Unnamed Cave, Tennessee; b) mud glyph owl from Mud Glyph Cave, Tennessee; c) pictographs of canids from 48th Unnamed Cave, Tennessee (photographs by A. Cressler).

    19th Unnamed Cave and its cave art

    19th Unnamed Cave, Alabama (arbitrarily numbered to protect its location), was formed by solution erosion in the Carboniferous Monteagle Limestone formation found at the base of the Mississippian series in Tennessee and Alabama. The cavern comprises more than 5km of underground passageways. The entrance faces east at 219m amsl, and is approximately 10m high and 15m wide (Cressler et al.

    Reference Cressler

    1999). An intermittent stream flows out of the cave, and the vestibule has been washed clean of sediments by fluvial action emanating from inside the karst. As a result, no intact archaeological materials survive in the cave's entrance. From the vestibule, a main passage climbs to a 25 × 20m open chamber (the ‘glyph chamber’) that is bounded by flowstone formations. The mud glyphs are inscribed on the ceiling of this room, which is low—often only 0.60m from the floor—and with very few places where the space between floor and ceiling is more than 1.25m (Figure 2). A person must therefore crouch or crawl to move through this area. Sediment deposits are preserved in this chamber, and all the prehistoric artefacts so far found in the cave have been recovered from this location. The cave continues for several kilometres through predominantly low, damp passageways. It should be noted that there is a detailed and widely disseminated map of the cave passages available, but we do not show it here, as the cave is on private land, completely unprotected, and could be easily identified by vandals and looters.

    Source : www.cambridge.org

    CNN10: The big stories of the day, explained in 10 minutes

    May 13, 2022

    CNN10: The big stories of the day, explained in 10 minutes 10:00

    (CNN)May 13, 2022

    A gloomy statistic from the U.S. Centers for Disease Control points to a record number of fatal drug overdoses in America. After a bit of chess trivia, we're looking back on a historic match between a man and a machine in 1997. And a worker in Brazil breaks his own world record for company loyalty.

    1. As a bright part of an otherwise-mixed picture of U.S. economic data, the government says 428,000 was April's number of what?

    2. Problems with the supply chain and a massive recall by Abbott Nutrition have been cited as reasons for a shortage of what grocery product?

    3. What kind of Native American creation did researchers in Alabama recently uncover after examining of thousands of photographs taken underground?

    4. In what U.S. state would you find the resort area of Lowell Point, were geologists were called to assess ground stability after a landslide buried part of a road?

    5. On Tuesday, as U.S. gas prices reached a record high of $4.37 per gallon, President Joe Biden said his administration has to do all it can to reduce what ongoing economic problem?

    close dialog

    6. Name one of the two lakes featured on Wednesday's show, which detailed how their water levels have lowered amid a continued drought in the American West.

    7. Name the world's most famous cryptocurrency, which has seen a dramatic fall in its value, losing more than half of it between late last year and this week.

    8. What is the lightest metal on Earth, which is seeing growing use in electric vehicles' batteries even though mining it can have a negative environmental impact?

    9. According to the U.S. Centers for Disease Control, what was the cause of almost 108,000 American deaths in 2021 -- the highest number on record?

    10. What was the name of the IBM computer that defeated chess grandmaster Garry Kasparov in a historic match that took place 25 years ago?

    Click here to access the printable version of today's CNN 10 transcript

    CNN 10 serves a growing audience interested in compact on-demand news broadcasts ideal for explanation seekers on the go or in the classroom. The show's priority is to identify stories of international significance and then clearly describe why they're making news, who is affected, and how the events fit into a complex, international society.

    Thank you for using CNN 10


    Source : edition.cnn.com

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