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    what is the result when a single cell reproduces by mitosis

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    What is mitosis?

    Mitosis is a process where a single cell divides into two identical daughter cells (cell division). 

    In: FACTS In the Cell

    What is mitosis?

    Mitosis is a process where a single cell divides into two identical daughter cells (cell division).

    During mitosis one cell? divides once to form two identical cells.

    The major purpose of mitosis is for growth and to replace worn out cells.

    If not corrected in time, mistakes made during mitosis can result in changes in the DNA? that can potentially lead to genetic disorders?.

    Mitosis is divided into five phases:

    1. Interphase:

    The DNA in the cell is copied in preparation for cell division, this results in two identical full sets of chromosomes?.

    Outside of the nucleus? are two centrosomes, each containing a pair of centrioles, these structures are critical for the process of cell division.

    During interphase, microtubules extend from these centrosomes.

    2. Prophase: 

    The chromosomes condense into X-shaped structures that can be easily seen under a microscope.

    Each chromosome is composed of two sister chromatids, containing identical genetic information.

    The chromosomes pair up so that both copies of chromosome 1 are together, both copies of chromosome 2 are together, and so on.

    At the end of prophase the membrane around the nucleus in the cell dissolves away releasing the chromosomes.

    The mitotic spindle, consisting of the microtubules and other proteins, extends across the cell between the centrioles as they move to opposite poles of the cell.

    3. Metaphase:

    The chromosomes line up neatly end-to-end along the centre (equator) of the cell.

    The centrioles are now at opposite poles of the cell with the mitotic spindle fibres extending from them.

    The mitotic spindle fibres attach to each of the sister chromatids.

    4. Anaphase:

    The sister chromatids are then pulled apart by the mitotic spindle which pulls one chromatid to one pole and the other chromatid to the opposite pole.

    5. Telophase:

    At each pole of the cell a full set of chromosomes gather together.

    A membrane forms around each set of chromosomes to create two new nuclei.

    The single cell then pinches in the middle to form two separate daughter cells each containing a full set of chromosomes within a nucleus. This process is known as cytokinesis.

    Illustration showing the five stages of mitosis.

    Image credit: Genome Research Limited

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    This page was last updated on 2021-07-21

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    What is a stem cell?

    FACTS

    A stem cell is a cell with the unique ability to develop into specialised cell types in the body. In the future they may be used to replace cells and tissues that have been damaged or lost due to disease.

    What is a cell? FACTS

    Cells are the basic building blocks of living things. The human body is composed of trillions of cells, all with their own specialised function.

    What is DNA? FACTS

    DNA or deoxyribonucleic acid is a long molecule that contains our unique genetic code. Like a recipe book it holds the instructions for making all the proteins in our bodies.

    What is a chromosome?

    FACTS

    Chromosomes are bundles of tightly coiled DNA located within the nucleus of almost every cell in our body. Humans have 23 pairs of chromosomes.

    What is a genetic disorder?

    FACTS

    A genetic disorder is a disease that is caused by a change, or mutation, in an individual’s DNA sequence.

    What is meiosis? FACTS

    Meiosis is a process where a single cell divides twice to produce four cells containing half the original amount of genetic information. These cells are our sex cells – sperm in males, eggs in females.

    Mitosis versus meiosis

    FACTS

    Cells divide and reproduce in two ways, mitosis and meiosis. Mitosis results in two identical daughter cells, whereas meiosis results in four sex cells. Below we highlight the keys differences and similarities between the two types of cell division.

    Source : www.yourgenome.org

    Review 3

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    11 Qs

    Show Answers See Preview 1. Multiple-choice 30 seconds 5 pts Q.

    Before mitosis begins, which happens before the nucleus starts dividing?

    answer choices

    The cytoplasm separates.

    The DNA replicates

    The sister chromatids separate.

    The homologous chromosomes cross over.

    2. Multiple-choice 45 seconds 5 pts Q.

    Why is meiosis important for sexual reproduction?

    answer choices

    It allows the zygote formed from fertilization to have triple the chromosome number of the organism.

    It allows gametes to have twice the original number of chromosomes of the organism.

    It allows gametes to have half the original number of chromosomes of the organism.

    It allows the zygote formed from fertilization to have half the original number of chromosomes of the organism.

    3. Multiple-choice 30 seconds 5 pts Q.

    What process produces the most variation within a species?

    answer choices

    asexual reproduction

    sexual reproduction mitosis cloning 4. Multiple-choice 30 seconds 5 pts Q.

    How does the amount of energy resulting from fermentation compare with that of aerobic respiration?

    answer choices

    Aerobic respiration results in less energy.

    Aerobic respiration results in more energy.

    Each process results in equal amounts of energy.

    Each process results in variable amounts of energy.

    5. Multiple-choice 30 seconds 5 pts Q.

    During which phase of the cell cycle is the cell growing and preparing for cellular division?

    answer choices cytokinesis anaphase prophase interphase 6. Multiple-choice 30 seconds 5 pts Q.

    What is the result when a single cell reproduces by mitosis?

    answer choices

    two cells with genetic material identical to the parent cell

    two cells with half the genetic material of the parent cell

    four cells with half the genetic material of the parent cell

    four cells with genetic material of the parent cell

    7. Multiple-choice 45 seconds 5 pts Q.

    How are sexual and asexual reproduction different?

    answer choices

    Sexual reproduction produces offspring identical to the parents, but asexual reproduction produces offspring with traits from both parents.

    Asexual reproduction produces offspring identical to the parents, but sexual reproduction produces offspring with traits from both parents.

    Sexual reproduction only occurs in multicellular organisms, but asexual reproduction only occurs in unicellular organisms.

    Asexual reproduction only occurs in multicellular organisms, but sexual reproduction only occurs in unicellular organisms.

    8. Multiple-choice 45 seconds 5 pts Q.

    Which characteristic is present in offspring produced by sexual reproduction, but is missing in offspring produced by asexual reproduction?

    answer choices

    an identical copy of parent parent chromosome

    twice the number of parent chromosome

    only half the number of parent chromosome

    an independent assortment of parent chromosome

    9. Multiple-choice 45 seconds 5 pts Q.

    Which statement best compares aerobic and anaerobic respiration?

    answer choices

    Less ATP is generated during anaerobic respiration than during aerobic respiration.

    More water is generated during anaerobic respiration than during aerobic respiration.

    More oxygen is generated during anaerobic respiration than during aerobic respiration.

    Less lactic acid is generated during anaerobic respiration than during aerobic respiration.

    10. Multiple-choice 45 seconds 5 pts Q.

    What is NOT a difference between Mitosis and Meiosis?

    answer choices

    Mitosis is done by somatic cells while meiosis is done by sex cells

    Mitosis produces 2 identical daughter cells while meiosis produces 4 different daughter cells

    Mitosis produces diploid cells while Meiosis produces haploid cells

    Mitosis undergoes two nuclear divisions, while Meiosis undergoes one nuclear division

    11. Multiple-choice 30 seconds 5 pts Q.

    In cats, the diploid number is 38. How many chromosomes will its cell who has undergone meiosis have?

    answer choices 38 19 76 cannot be known

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    Introduction to Cell Reproduction: Mitosis and Meiosis

    Introduction to Cell Reproduction quizzes about important details and events in every section of the book.

    Introduction to Cell Reproduction

    Introduction to Cell Reproduction Biology

    Study Guide Topics

    Mitosis and Meiosis

    Topics Mitosis and Meiosis

    Mitosis and meiosis are similar processes in that they both result in the separation of existing cells into new ones. They differ, however, in their specific processes as well as in their products. The reason for these differences lies in the difference in the class of cells that each process creates. Mitosis is responsible for reproducing somatic cells and meiosis is responsible for reproducing germ cells. In this section, we will review the major differences between these two processes and explain why such differences exist.

    Mitosis

    In single-cell organisms, mitosis is the only form of cellular reproduction. One round of mitosis yields two genetically identical cells. In bacteria, this process results in an entirely new, independent organism. This is classified as asexual reproduction because it does not require sex for the creation of new organisms. In multi-cellular organisms, like ourselves, mitosis only occurs in somatic cells, which comprise all cells in an organism excluding germ cells.

    Figure %: Events of mitosis.

    Cells that undergo mitosis duplicate their chromosomes, resulting in cells with two times their normal haploid or diploid numbers (4 chromosomes). Newly-synthesized chromosomes remain closely associated with their like-chromosome. These two identical chromosomes are called sister chromatids. Once duplicated, sister chromatids separate such that one copy of each chromosome lines up on opposite ends of the cell. The cell then pinches in the center until it breaks into two different cells. A nucleus then forms around the chromosomes in each cell to yield two cells with the same original number of chromosomes as the preexisting cell.

    Meiosis

    There are two major differences between mitosis and meiosis. First, meiosis involves not one, but Two cell divisions. Second, meiosis leads to the production of germ cells, which are cells that give rise to gametes. Germ cells are different from somatic cells in a critical way. Whereas somatic cells are diploid, meaning they have two copies of each chromosome, germ cells are haploid. The haploid nature of germ cells is vital to the process of sexual reproduction.

    There are two different sex cells or gametes: sperm and eggs. Males produce sperm and females produce eggs. Because they are produced from germ cells, gametes are likewise haploid. In order to create a new individual via sexual reproduction, a sperm cell needs to activate an egg by joining it in a fertilization process. When these two haploid cells unite, a diploid cell results. This specialized cell can then develop into a new individual. The sexual reproductive process just described ensure that the resulting offspring will have an equal maternal and paternal genetic contribution.

    Figure %: Events of meiosis.

    As we mentioned earlier, higher-order cells contain homologous pairs of chromosomes--one from the father and the other from the mother. In meiosis, as in mitosis, the maternal and paternal homologues are replicated during DNA replication yielding two pairs of sister chromatids. After the first cell division, each of the resulting cells contains a pair of sister chromatids—-one maternal pair and the other paternal. Unlike mitosis, meiosis does not end after one division; it continues with a second cell division. In this division, the sister chromatids are separated yielding four total haploid cells.

    The specific events that occur during both mitosis and meiosis are much more complex than described above and will be covered in depth in the following SparkNote on cell reproduction. This is just meant to be an introduction to the general concepts behind the two processes and as a means to introduce terms that will ease understanding of more complex explanations.

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