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    General Biology I (BIO 181)

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    Correlation of salivary glucose level with blood glucose level in diabetes mellitus

    Saliva is a unique fluid, which is important for normal functioning of the oral cavity. Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a disease of absolute or relative insulin deficiency characterized by insufficient secretion of insulin by pancreatic beta-cells. The diagnosis ...

    J Oral Maxillofac Pathol. 2017 Sep-Dec; 21(3): 334–339.

    doi: 10.4103/jomfp.JOMFP_222_15

    PMCID: PMC5763852 PMID: 29391704

    Correlation of salivary glucose level with blood glucose level in diabetes mellitus

    Shreya Gupta, Meghanand T Nayak, JD Sunitha, Geetanshu Dawar, Nidhi Sinha, and Neelakshi Singh Rallan

    Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer

    This article has been cited by other articles in PMC.

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    ABSTRACT

    Background:

    Saliva is a unique fluid, which is important for normal functioning of the oral cavity. Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a disease of absolute or relative insulin deficiency characterized by insufficient secretion of insulin by pancreatic beta-cells. The diagnosis of diabetes through blood is difficult in children, older adults, debilitated and chronically ill patients, so diagnosis by analysis of saliva can be potentially valuable as collection of saliva is noninvasive, easier and technically insensitive, unlike blood. The aim of the study was to correlate blood glucose level (BGL) and salivary glucose level (SGL) in DM patients.

    Methodology:

    A cross-sectional study was conducted in 120 patients, who were categorized as 40 controlled diabetics, 40 uncontrolled diabetics and 40 healthy, age- and sex-matched individuals constituted the controls. The blood and unstimulated saliva samples were collected from the patients at the different intervals for fasting, random and postprandial levels. These samples were then subjected for analysis of glucose in blood and saliva using glucose oxidase/peroxidase reagent in HITACHI 902(R) Automatic analyzer, and the results were recorded.

    Results:

    The mean SGLs were higher in uncontrolled and controlled diabetic groups than in nondiabetic group. A highly statistically significant correlation was found between fasting saliva glucose and fasting blood glucose in all the groups.

    Conclusion:

    With increase in BGL, increase in SGL was observed in patients with diabetes suggesting that SGL can be used for monitoring glycemic level in DM.

    Keywords: Blood glucose, diabetes mellitus, fasting, glucose, postprandial hyperglycemia, saliva

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    INTRODUCTION

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is perhaps one of the oldest diseases known to humankind. Egyptian manuscript reported it for the first time about 3000 years ago.[1] DM is a combination of heterogeneous disorders commonly presenting with glucose intolerance as well as hyperglycemia, as a result of lack of insulin, defective insulin action, or both.[2] Diabetes has become a common global health problem worldwide. It has turned out to be one of the leading reasons of death and disability.[3]

    The International Diabetes Federation's most recent estimates indicate that around 8.3% of adults (382 million individuals) are suffering from this disease.[4]

    The main concern is that this figure is set to rise further by 592 million in not more than 25 years. With 175 million of undiagnosed cases at present, an enormous crowd with diabetes are rolling in the direction of complications unprepared.[4] Prevention, well-timed diagnosis and management are important in patients with DM.[5]

    For this reason, the investigative procedures must be customarily employed to diagnose and monitor diabetes. The most consistently employed procedures are blood investigations. These are invasive procedures and offer a great deal of discomfort and anxiety, especially to pediatric and geriatric patients. Considering this, there is a critical need for the development of noninvasive procedure for diagnosing and monitoring diabetes.[6]

    Saliva is only one of its kind and curiosity in it as a diagnostic media has vastly developed.[7]

    The aim of our study was to evaluate the “Correlation of salivary glucose level with blood glucose level in diabetes mellitus.”

    Source of data and sample size

    The present study was conducted in the Department of Oral Pathology and Microbiology, Teerthanker Mahaveer Dental College and Research Centre, Moradabad, on individuals with ages ranging from 20 to 75 years.

    Inclusion criteria:

    Patients diagnosed with DM in age range 20–75 years

    Age- and gender-matched healthy individuals for control.

    Exclusion criteria:

    Patients having any other systemic diseases and on regular medication for the same

    Pregnant women

    Mentally compromised

    Uncooperative patients.

    The present study included 120 patients who were categorized into 3 groups, each consisting of 40 patients.

    Group A: Patients with controlled DM

    Group B: Patients with uncontrolled DM

    Group C: Age- and sex-matched healthy nondiabetic individuals (control).

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    METHODOLOGY

    Saliva and blood samples were collected from the patients at the different intervals; after 8 h of fasting, that is, in the morning before 9 am; postprandial, after 2 h of having food and randomly, that is, at any time of the day.

    Salivary sample collection

    The unstimulated whole saliva was used for the estimation of salivary glucose. Unstimulated whole saliva (2 ml) was collected by draining method with study participants sitting straight in a comfortable position in a calm isolated room.

    Blood sample collection

    A volume of 2 ml of peripheral venous blood was collected from the antecubital vein with syringe into a sterile test-tube.

    Source : www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov

    What is the relationship between diabetes, glucose in food, saliva, microvilli, blood transport of glucose, beta cells of pancreas, diabetes

    Answer to: What is the relationship between diabetes, glucose in food, saliva, microvilli, blood transport of glucose, beta cells of pancreas,...

    Health & Medicine

    What is the relationship between diabetes, glucose in food, saliva, microvilli, blood transport...

    What is the relationship between diabetes, glucose in food, saliva, microvilli, blood transport... Question:

    What is the relationship between diabetes, glucose in food, saliva, microvilli, blood transport of glucose, beta cells of pancreas, elevated blood glucose, glomerulus, and glucose in urine?

    Diabetes

    Diabetes is an abnormal condition that leads to increased blood glucose levels. If these levels are not monitored regularly, it can lead to severe ailments. The hormone insulin plays a key role in transporting glucose to cells from the bloodstream and uses it for energy production. There are 2 types of diabetes:

    Type I Diabetes, also known as juvenile diabetes, is a chronic condition in which the pancreas does not produce an adequate amount of insulin, or no insulin at all.

    Type 2 Diabetes is caused by sustained elevated glucose levels in the blood which leads to impairment of insulin activity.

    Answer and Explanation:

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    The source for increased blood sugar is the glucose that comes from the food we eat. After digesting the complex food into sugars, it enters the...

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    Type 1 Diabetes: Risk Factors, Signs & Treatment

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    Chapter 13 / Lesson 7

    11K

    Type 1 diabetes, also known as juvenile diabetes, is a chronic condition that destroys cells in the pancreas, leaving the body unable to produce sufficient insulin. Learn the definition of type 1 diabetes, and explore this disease's risk factors, signs, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment options. Understand that while type 1 diabetes cannot be cured, the prognosis for patients can be positive if the disease is managed properly.

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