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    The Chain of Survival

    The Chain of Survival from Sudden Cardiac Arrest

    The Chain of Survival

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    The Chain of Survival from Sudden Cardiac Arrest

    Sudden cardiac arrest (SCA) is a sudden and unexpected pulseless condition caused by a disturbance in the heart’s electrical activity. The electrical disturbance may be due to a heart attack, a severe imbalance of electrolytes, an inherited genetic mutation that predisposes the heart to electric abnormalities, an electric shock (e.g., from lightning), or blunt force trauma to the chest leading to commotio cordis. Symptoms include an almost instantaneous loss of consciousness and collapse. The treatment goal for SCA is to restore a healthy heart rhythm and good neurological outcome. (Graham R, 2015)

    SCA strikes approximately 326,200 (Mozaffarian D, 2015) to 395,000 (Graham R, 2015) individuals outside hospitals each year in the U.S., including an estimated 6,328 people less than 18 years of age (Mozaffarian D, 2015). On average, about one in 10 victims survives (Graham R: 6%; Mozaffarian D: 10.6%), though some high performing communities have achieved survival rates of more than 60% for specific types of cardiac arrest (Graham R, 2015).

    The majority of people who survive SCA invariably receive immediate help from bystanders at the scene. The time between the onset of arrest and the provision of care determines the likelihood of survival. If treatment is not provided within 10 minutes, the survival rate is close to zero. Because minutes count, the public plays a crucial role in saving lives threatened by SCA. (Graham R, 2015)

    The “Chain of Survival” refers to the chain of events that must occur in rapid succession to maximize the chances of survival from SCA. When the Chain of Survival metaphor was first created and described, it included early recognition, early access, early CPR, early defibrillation and early advanced life support (Newman M, 1989, 1990). The metaphor was a simple way to educate the public about its vital role in helping SCA victims, suggesting that each link is critical and interdependent, and the Chain of Survival is only as strong as its weakest link.

    The concept was later adopted by the American Heart Association (Cummins R, 1991) and other health organizations. Subsequently, the Chain of Survival was revisited to emphasize the importance of early recognition and response (Newman M, Bahr R, 1998).

    As post-resuscitation care options expanded to include mild therapeutic hypothermia and other treatments, another link, integrated post-cardiac arrest care, was added to the Chain (Hazinski M, 2010).

    Today, the links in the American Heart Association version of the Chain of Survival are:

    Immediate recognition of cardiac arrest and activation of the emergency response system

    Early CPR with an emphasis on chest compressions

    Rapid defibrillation

    Effective advanced life support

    Integrated post-cardiac arrest care.

    Bystanders can help save lives by addressing the first three links in the Chain of Survival. Action steps for bystanders are described below.

    BYSTANDERS1. Immediate recognition of cardiac arrest and activation of the emergency response system

    Action steps

    Recognize the emergency and decide to act.

    Call 9-1-1 or the local emergency number, activate the on-site emergency response system (e.g., by phone or text), and send someone to retrieve the nearest automated external defibrillator (AED). If the rescuer is alone, he or she should retrieve the AED immediately.

    Notes

    A medical emergency can be ambiguous, confusing and frightening, which can delay effective action (Braslow A). Nevertheless, it is critical to make the decision to help and take action immediately.

    If the victim is unresponsive, not breathing or not breathing normally, he or she could be in cardiac arrest. The SCA victim may experience several seconds of seizure activity and agonal breathing, or gasping. The rescuer should suspect cardiac arrest if the victim is not breathing normally or only gasping.

    2. Early CPR with an emphasis on chest compressions

    Action steps

    Start CPR immediately.

    Notes

    Decreasing the time between cardiac arrest onset and the first chest compression is critical to survival (Graham, 2015).

    If the bystander is not trained in CPR, he or she should provide hands-only or compression-only CPR by pushing hard and fast on the center of the chest at a rate of at least 100 compressions per minute.

    For adult victims, the compression depth should be at least two inches. For young victims (age 1-8) the compression depth should be about two inches, or about one-third the diameter of the chest.

    The rescuer should allow the chest to recoil completely between compressions.

    The rescuer should continue CPR until an AED is ready for use or EMS providers take over care of the victim.

    Source : www.sca-aware.org

    Cardiac chain of survival Flashcards

    Start studying Cardiac chain of survival. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools.

    Cardiac chain of survival

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    What are the 5 steps in the adult cardiac chain of survival?

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    1) recognize emergency and call 9-1-1 and EMS

    2) early CPR

    3) early defibrilation

    4) advanced life support

    5) integrated post cardiac arrest care

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    what does early CPR help with?

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    help to circulate oxygen to brain and other vital organs

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    1/7 Created by caraann10

    Terms in this set (7)

    What are the 5 steps in the adult cardiac chain of survival?

    1) recognize emergency and call 9-1-1 and EMS

    2) early CPR

    3) early defibrilation

    4) advanced life support

    5) integrated post cardiac arrest care

    what does early CPR help with?

    help to circulate oxygen to brain and other vital organs

    what happens in early defibrillation?

    electrical shot delivered by an AED may restore a regular heart rythem

    where does early advanced life support happen?

    given on way to the hospital

    When does pediactric cardiac arrest usually happen as a result of?

    often occurs by preventable injury such as trauma, drowning, chocking, or electrician

    What are the 5 steps in the pediactric chain of cardiac survival?

    1) prevention 2) early CPR

    3) activation of the EMS system

    4) early advanced life support

    5) integrated post cardiac arrest care

    how many out of 5 cardiac arrests in the US happen outside the hospital?

    4 out of 5

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    Cardiac Smart: What is the Chain of Survival?

    Click here to find out what is meant by the chain of survival in thecontext of heart disease. Cardiac Smart: What is the Chain of Survival?

    What is the Chain of Survival?

    DEC 07

    Date: December 7th, 2018

    A heart attack victim has little chances of survival unless immediate medical assistance is provided. The victim should be offered assistance in a certain order.

    This is known as ‘chain of survival’. What exactly is involved in the chain of survival? How does it help a heart attack victim? You will know the answers in this article.

    The Chain of Survival: An Overview

    The concept of chain of survival has an important bearing when it comes to saving the life of a heart attack victim. It was introduced in 1991 when the Advanced Cardiac Life Support Subcommittee and the Emergency Cardiac Care Committee published an article titled: Improving Survival from Sudden Cardiac Arrest: The Chain of Survival Concept.

    The committee members had identified different principles that should be adopted when assisting a cardiac arrest victim. The chain of survival consists of four vital steps, or links, that should be performed by anyone who has learned basic cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) skills. These four links together form the chain of command.

    Let’s take a look at the four crucial links of the chain of survival that increases the odds of a heart attack victim surviving the ordeal.

    Step 1. Provide Early Assistance

    Immediate assistance is the first link in the chain of survival. A heart attack victim should be offered immediate assistance. The death clock starts ticking for a victim right after a heart attack. The sooner the victim receives assistance, the more the chances of survival.

    Step 2. Perform CPR

    The first thing you should do when you see a person suffering from a heart attack is to call the emergency number. In case the victim is not breathing and there is no pulse, you should start administering CPR. This is the next important link in the chain of survival.

    Performing CPR greatly increase the odds of a person surviving a heart attack. You should continue to perform CPR until the person again starts to breathe or the medical team arrives.

    Step 3. Perform Defibrillation

    The third important link in the chain of survival is defibrillation. This refers to using an automatic external defibrillator (AED) device. The device is used to deliver an electrical shock to the heart. Using the AED device can help restore normal heart rhythm.

    Step 4:  Advanced Medical Assistance

    The last link in the chain of survival is receiving assistance by trained emergency medical service (EMS) personnel. There is no substitution for advanced medical assistance. The heart attack victim’s condition needs to be stabilized through the administration of oxygen, medication, and other advanced protocols.

    Conclusion

    The Chain of Survival refers to critical steps that can increase the odds of survival of a heart attack victim. CPR is an important lifesaving technique that can be used in different types of life-threatening emergencies.

    CPR can increase the chances of survival in case of a stroke or cardiac arrest. In addition, the technique can also help a heart attack victim suffering from tachyarrhythmia or abnormal heart rhythm. You can learn more about CPR and first aid through CPR classes online.

    Source : www.onlinecprcertification.net

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