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    A Critique of the Biological Species Concept and Recommendations for a Phylogenetic Alternative on JSTOR

    Michael J. Donoghue, A Critique of the Biological Species Concept and Recommendations for a Phylogenetic Alternative, The Bryologist, Vol. 88, No. 3 (Autumn, 1985), pp. 172-181

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    JOURNAL ARTICLE Michael J. Donoghue The Bryologist

    , pp. 172-181 (10 pages)

    Published By: American Bryological and Lichenological Society

    https://www.jstor.org/stable/3243026

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    Discussions that have accompanied biological species definitions often imply correspondence between breeding groups and morphological and ecological units. It is often assumed that the cause of such correspondences is gene flow or the lack of it. This has generated confusion because breeding, morphology, and ecology can be, and often are, uncoupled, and the effects of gene flow may be limited. Another source of confusion has been the failure to distinguish clearly between species themselves (taxa) and concepts of the species category. The biological concept fails to provide unambiguous criteria for grouping organisms (or for assigning species rank), and as a consequence, biological species may not be monophyletic. A phylogenetic species concept, which emphasizes monophyly, is more appropriate for purposes of phylogeny reconstruction, cladistic classification, and the study of evolutionary processes.

    The Society publishes a quarterly journal distributed world-wide, The Bryologist, which includes articles on all aspects of the biology of mosses, hornworts, liverworts and lichens; lists of current literature with world-wide coverage; book reviews; and news items about members and events.

    The American Bryological and Lichenological Society, Inc. is an international organization devoted to the scientific study of all aspects of the biology of bryophytes and lichen-forming fungi and is one of the nation's oldest botanical organizations, founded in 1898. Membership is open to all persons (professional and amateurs) with interest in these organisms. Approximately 500 individuals currently hold membership in the Society.

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    The Bryologist © 1985 American Bryological and Lichenological Society

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    Question: What Is An Exception To The Standard Biological Species Concept Used To Define A Species? Select One: Species That Do Not Resemble One Another Cannot Be Distinguishel Using The Concept. A. B. Species That Coevolved Cannot Be Distinguished Using The Concept. C. Asexual Species Cannot Be Distinguished Using The Concept. D. Natural Interbreeding Populations

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    Transcribed image text: What is an exception to the standard biological species concept used to define a species? Select one: Species that do not resemble one another cannot be distinguishel using the concept. a. b. Species that coevolved cannot be distinguished using the concept. c. Asexual species cannot be distinguished using the concept. d. Natural interbreeding populations cannot be distinguished using the concept. Which protist group includes members with plantlike traits such as chloroplasts and multicellularity! Select one a. Slime molds b. Algae C. None of the protists have chloroplasts. d. Amoebas How do fungi reproduce sexually? Select one: a. By the fusion of gametes from two different fungi. b. By the fusion of hyphae from two different fungi. c. By the fusion of spores from two different fungi. d. By asexual reproduction only

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    BIO EVOLUTION Flashcards

    Study with Quizlet and memorize flashcards terms like A requirement of cladistics is that a grouping must include ________., What field of science has as its goal to classify all living things into a hierarchical system of relatedness that runs from most broad to most narrow?, Which classification grouping includes the greatest number of species? and more.

    BIO EVOLUTION

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    A requirement of cladistics is that a grouping must include ________.

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    a common ancestor and all its descendants

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    What field of science has as its goal to classify all living things into a hierarchical system of relatedness that runs from most broad to most narrow?

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    Taxonomy

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    Terms in this set (25)

    A requirement of cladistics is that a grouping must include ________.

    a common ancestor and all its descendants

    What field of science has as its goal to classify all living things into a hierarchical system of relatedness that runs from most broad to most narrow?

    Taxonomy

    Which classification grouping includes the greatest number of species?

    Domain

    Of those listed below, which category of classification is the most narrow?

    Genus

    What is an exception to the standard biological species concept used to define a species?

    Asexual species cannot be distinguished using this concept.

    What term describes the failure of one species' sperm to fertilize the egg of a different species?

    Gametic incompatibility

    In many ways a mule is a superior animal to the horse or donkey. They are often stronger and can jump higher than either of their parents. Why then are they considered to be a "weak hybrid"?

    They are sterile.

    Which of the following most often should lead to allopatric speciation?

    Habitat isolation

    Which model of evolution is closest to what was originally suggested by Charles Darwin?

    Graduated model

    Which of the following best defines microevolution?

    Changes in genes within a population over time

    What defines a population in evolution?

    Interbreeding members of the same species

    What is the smallest unit that can evolve?

    The population

    Which of the following mechanisms can drive evolution?

    Genetic dift, natural slection, mutations

    What is the original source of variation that natural selection can act upon?

    Mutation

    Comparing DNA and protein sequences to find evidence of a shared evolutionary history is called ________.

    Bioinformatics

    Comparing the body structures of organisms to find evidence of a shared evolutionary history is called ________.

    Comparative anatomy

    What is the name for the study of the geographic distribution of species?

    Bio-geography

    Which of the following are considered to be fossils?

    Footpints of other impressions preserved in stone, mineralized bones, animals frozen in ice or preserved in amber,

    Which of the following is evidence for evolution?

    Bacteria becoming resistant to antibiotics, mosquitoes becoming resistant to pesticides, cells with common features and chemically similar DNA

    What is radiometric dating?

    The process of determining the age of the fossils from radioactive isotopes

    Evolution can be best defined as ________.

    change in allele frequency in a population

    Natural selection acts on ________, and ________ evolve.

    Individuals, populations

    Before Darwin published his work, Lamarck and others had suggested mechanisms for evolution. By what means did Darwin propose species evolved over time?

    Natural selection

    Individuals with variations that make them best suited to their environment will, on average, be more likely to ________.

    Survive and reproduce

    What prompted Darwin to publish his book decades after he began writing it?

    A colleague (Alfred Wallace) was about to publish a similar manuscript.

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