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    what happens to red blood cells when placed in a hypotonic solution

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    Physiology, Osmosis

    In physiology, osmosis (Greek for push) is the net movement of water across a semipermeable membrane.[1][2] Across this membrane, water will tend to move from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration. It is important to emphasize that ideal osmosis requires only the movement of pure water across the membrane without any movement of solute particles across the semipermeable membrane. Osmosis can still occur with some permeability of solute particles, but the osmotic effect becomes reduced with greater solute permeability across the semipermeable membrane. It is also true that, at a specific moment in time, water molecules can move towards either the higher or lower concentration solutions, but the net movement of water will be towards the higher solute concentration. The compartment with the highest solute and lowest water concentration has the greatest osmotic pressure. Osmotic pressure can be calculated with the van 't Hoff equation, which states that osmotic pressure depends on the number of solute particles, temperature, and how well a solute particle can move across a membrane. Its measured osmolality can describe the osmotic pressure of a solution. The osmolality of a solution describes how many particles are dissolved in the solution. The reflection coefficient of a semipermeable membrane describes how well solutes permeate the membrane. This coefficient ranges from 0 to 1. A reflection coefficient of 1 means a solute is impermeable. A reflection coefficient of 0 means a solute can freely permeable, and the solute can no generate osmotic pressure across the membrane.[2] The compartment with the greatest osmotic pressure will pull water in and tend to equalize the solute concentration difference between the compartments. The physical driving force of osmosis is the increase in entropy generated by the movement of free water molecules. There is also thought that the interaction of solute particles with membrane pores is involved in generating a negative pressure, which is the osmotic pressure driving the flow of water.[3]  Reverse osmosis occurs when water is forced to flow in the opposite direction. In reverse osmosis, water flows into the compartment with lower osmotic pressure and higher water concentration. This flow is only possible with the application of an external force to the system. Reverse osmosis is commonly used to purify drinking water and requires the input of energy. [4] The concept of osmosis should not be confused with diffusion. Diffusion is the net movement of particles from an area of high to low concentration. One can think of osmosis as a specific type of diffusion. Both osmosis and diffusion are passive processes and involve the movement of particles from an area of high to low concentration.[2][5]

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    Physiology, Osmosis

    Michael J. Lopez; Carrie A. Hall.

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    Last Update: March 27, 2021.

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    Introduction

    In physiology, osmosis (Greek for push) is the net movement of water across a semipermeable membrane.[1][2] Across this membrane, water will tend to move from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration. It is important to emphasize that ideal osmosis requires only the movement of pure water across the membrane without any movement of solute particles across the semipermeable membrane. Osmosis can still occur with some permeability of solute particles, but the osmotic effect becomes reduced with greater solute permeability across the semipermeable membrane. It is also true that, at a specific moment in time, water molecules can move towards either the higher or lower concentration solutions, but the net movement of water will be towards the higher solute concentration. The compartment with the highest solute and lowest water concentration has the greatest osmotic pressure. Osmotic pressure can be calculated with the van 't Hoff equation, which states that osmotic pressure depends on the number of solute particles, temperature, and how well a solute particle can move across a membrane. Its measured osmolality can describe the osmotic pressure of a solution. The osmolality of a solution describes how many particles are dissolved in the solution. The reflection coefficient of a semipermeable membrane describes how well solutes permeate the membrane. This coefficient ranges from 0 to 1. A reflection coefficient of 1 means a solute is impermeable. A reflection coefficient of 0 means a solute can freely permeable, and the solute can no generate osmotic pressure across the membrane.[2] The compartment with the greatest osmotic pressure will pull water in and tend to equalize the solute concentration difference between the compartments. The physical driving force of osmosis is the increase in entropy generated by the movement of free water molecules. There is also thought that the interaction of solute particles with membrane pores is involved in generating a negative pressure, which is the osmotic pressure driving the flow of water.[3]  Reverse osmosis occurs when water is forced to flow in the opposite direction. In reverse osmosis, water flows into the compartment with lower osmotic pressure and higher water concentration. This flow is only possible with the application of an external force to the system. Reverse osmosis is commonly used to purify drinking water and requires the input of energy. [4] The concept of osmosis should not be confused with diffusion. Diffusion is the net movement of particles from an area of high to low concentration. One can think of osmosis as a specific type of diffusion. Both osmosis and diffusion are passive processes and involve the movement of particles from an area of high to low concentration.[2][5]

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    Cellular

    The rate of osmosis always depends on the concentration of solute. The process is illustrated by comparing an environmental or external solution to the internal concentration found in the body. A hypertonic solution is any external solution that has a high solute concentration and low water concentration compared to body fluids. In a hypertonic solution, the net movement of water will be out of the body and into the solution. A cell placed into a hypertonic solution will shrivel and die by a process known as plasmolysis. An isotonic solution is any external solution that has the same solute concentration and water concentration compared to body fluids. In an isotonic solution, no net movement of water will take place. A hypotonic tonic solution is any external solution that has a low solute concentration and high water concentration compared to body fluids. In hypotonic solutions, there is a net movement of water from the solution into the body. A cell placed into a hypotonic solution will swell and expand until it eventually burst through a process known as cytolysis.  These three examples of different solute concentrations provide an illustration of the spectrum of water movement based on solute concentration through the process of osmosis. The body, therefore, must regulate solute concentrations to prevent cell damage and control the movement of water where needed.

    Summary of Red Blood Cell Placed into Hypertonic, Isotonic, and Hypotonic SolutionsHypertonic

    A hypertonic solution has a higher solute concentration compared to the intracellular solute concentration. When placing a red blood cell in any hypertonic solution, there will be a movement of free water out of the cell and into the solution. This movement occurs through osmosis because the cell has more free water than the solution. After the solutions are allowed to equilibrate, the result will be a cell with a lower overall volume. The remaining volume inside the cell will have a higher solute concentration, and the cell will appear shriveled under the microscope. The solution will be more dilute than originally. The overall process is known as plasmolysis.

    Source : www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov

    What would happen to red blood cells in a hypotonic solution?

    Click here👆to get an answer to your question ✍️ What would happen to red blood cells in a hypotonic solution?

    Question

    What would happen to red blood cells in a hypotonic solution?

    A

    They would shrink due to osmotic water loss.

    B

    They would rupture due to the influx of water.

    C

    They would retain their shape due to the cell wall.

    D

    They would swell but avoid rupturing due to the cell wall.

    E

    They would pump out excess water with the contractile vacuole.

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    Correct option is B)

    A blood cell placed in hypotonic solution would gain water as water will enter cell from surrounding hypotonic medium by the process of osmosis causing the cell to swell up. If the cell was placed in hypertonic solution, water would have moved out of the cell causing it to shrink. Red blood cells do not have the cell wall and contractile vacuoles and hence, would not be able to maintain their shape leading to their rupture. Thus, the correct answer is B.

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    Tonicity: hypertonic, isotonic & hypotonic solutions (article)

    Osmosis and tonicity. Hypertonic, isotonic, and hypotonic solutions and their effect on cells.

    Introduction

    Have you ever forgotten to water a plant for a few days, then come back to find your once-perky arugula a wilted mess? If so, you already know that water balance is very important for plants. When a plant wilts, it does so because water moves out of its cells, causing them to lose the internal pressure—called turgor pressure—that normally supports the plant.

    Why does water leave the cells? The amount of water outside the cells drops as the plant loses water, but the same quantity of ions and other particles remains in the space outside the cells. This increase in solute, or dissolved particle, concentration pulls the water out of the cells and into the extracellular spaces in a process known as osmosis.

    Formally, osmosis is the net movement of water across a semipermeable membrane from an area of lower solute concentration to an area of higher solute concentration. This may sound odd at first, since we usually talk about the diffusion of solutes that are dissolved in water, not about the movement of water itself. However, osmosis is important in many biological processes, and it often takes place at the same time that solutes diffuse or are transported. Here, we’ll look in more detail at how osmosis works, as well as the role it plays in the water balance of cells.

    How it works

    Why does water move from areas where solutes are less concentrated to areas where they are more concentrated?

    This is actually a complicated question. To answer it, let’s take a step back and refresh our memory on why diffusion happens. In diffusion, molecules move from a region of higher concentration to one of lower concentration—not because they’re aware of their surroundings, but simply as a result of probabilities. When a substance is in gas or liquid form, its molecules will be in constant, random motion, bouncing or sliding around one another. If there are lots of molecules of a substance in compartment A and no molecules of that substance in compartment B, it’s very unlikely—impossible, actually—that a molecule will randomly move from B to A. On the other hand, it’s extremely likely that a molecule will move from A to B. You can picture all of those molecules bouncing around in compartment A and some of them making the leap over to compartment B. So, the net movement of molecules will be from A to B, and this will be the case until the concentrations become equal.

    In the case of osmosis, you can once again think of molecules—this time, water molecules—in two compartments separated by a membrane. If neither compartment contains any solute, the water molecules will be equally likely to move in either direction between the compartments. But if we add solute to one compartment, it will affect the likelihood of water molecules moving out of that compartment and into the other—specifically, it will reduce this likelihood.

    Why should that be? There are some different explanations out there. The one that seems to have the best scientific support involves the solute molecules actually bouncing off the membrane and physically knocking the water molecules backwards and away from it, making them less likely to cross

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    Regardless of the exact mechanisms involved, the key point is that the more solute water contains, the less apt it will be to move across a membrane into an adjacent compartment. This results in the net flow of water from regions of lower solute concentration to regions of higher solute concentration.

    Illustration of osmosis. A beaker is divided in half by a semi-permeable membrane. In the left—initial—image, the water level is equal on both sides, but there are fewer particles of solute on the left than on the right. In the right—final—image, there has been a net movement of water from the area of lower to the area of higher solute concentration. The water level on the left is now lower than the water level on the right, and the solute concentrations in the two compartments are more equal.

    Image credit: OpenStax Biology

    This process is illustrated in the beaker example above, where there will be a net flow of water from the compartment on the left to the compartment on the right until the solute concentrations are nearly balanced. Note that they will not become perfectly equal in this case because the hydrostatic pressure exerted by the rising water column on the right will oppose the osmotic driving force, creating an equilibrium that stops short of equal concentrations.

    Osmolarity

    Osmolarity describes the total concentration of solutes in a solution. A solution with a low osmolarity has fewer solute particles per liter of solution, while a solution with a high osmolarity has more solute particles per liter of solution. When solutions of different osmolarities are separated by a membrane permeable to water, but not to solute, water will move from the side with lower osmolarity to the side with higher osmolarity.

    Three terms—hyperosmotic, hypoosmotic, and isoosmotic—are used to describe relative osmolarities between solutions. For example, when comparing two solution that have different osmolarities, the solution with the higher osmolarity is said to be hyperosmotic to the other, and the solution with lower osmolarity is said to be hypoosmotic. If two solutions have the same osmolarity, they are said to be isoosmotic.

    Source : www.khanacademy.org

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