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    what happened when spain’s government could not overcome social and economic problems during the great depression? citizen groups revolted against the government. the head of the government gave his resignation. a new leader seized control from the military rulers. the army led a rebellion against the government.

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    Authoritarianism, Fascism, and Dictators Flashcards

    Start studying Authoritarianism, Fascism, and Dictators. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools.

    Authoritarianism, Fascism, and Dictators

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    How did the secret police in a totalitarian government most likely get their name?

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    The police investigated and punished people with no warning.

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    How was the rebellion in Spain different from that in Italy?

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    The new Spanish ruler seized power without popular support from citizens.

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    Terms in this set (10)

    How did the secret police in a totalitarian government most likely get their name?

    The police investigated and punished people with no warning.

    How was the rebellion in Spain different from that in Italy?

    The new Spanish ruler seized power without popular support from citizens.

    Why did Japanese soldiers kill so many civilians in Nanking, China?

    Commanders encouraged their soldiers to be as brutal as possible.

    What actions characterize authoritarian governments? Check all that apply.

    -Leaders often seize power by illegitimate means.

    -A single leader or a very powerful group rules.

    -Leaders refuse to tolerate dissenting views.

    What was Benito Mussolini's attitude toward personal liberties?

    The state should decide which personal liberties were needed.

    Who fought on the side of the Republicans in the Spanish Civil War?

    international volunteers

    When Benito Mussolini came into power, he promised to

    solve Italy's economic problems.

    What is the most likely reason that Italy and Germany supported the Nationalists in the Spanish Civil War?

    Italy and Germany wanted to promote the spread of fascism.

    What happened when Spain's government could not overcome social and economic problems during the Great Depression?

    The army led a rebellion against the government.

    How did Benito Mussolini attempt to increase Italy's power?

    by seizing control of new land

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    Francisco Franco

    Francisco Franco

    From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

    Jump to navigation Jump to search

    For other uses, see Francisco Franco (disambiguation).

    In this Spanish name, the first or paternal surname is and the second or maternal family name is .

    Generalissimo Francisco Franco

    Head of State of Spain[note 2]

    In office

    1 October 1936[note 1] – 20 November 1975

    Preceded by Miguel Cabanellas

    (President of the National Defence Junta of the Nationalist side)

    José Miaja

    (President of the Defence Council of the Republican side)

    Succeeded by Juan Carlos I

    (King of Spain)

    Prime Minister of Spain[note 3]

    In office

    30 January 1938[note 1] – 9 June 1973

    Deputy

    Francisco Gómez-Jordana

    Agustín Muñoz Grandes

    Luis Carrero Blanco Preceded by

    Francisco Gómez-Jordana

    (President of the Technical State Junta of the Nationalist side)

    José Miaja

    (President of the Defence Council of the Republican side)

    Succeeded by Luis Carrero Blanco

    Personal details

    Born 4 December 1892

    Ferrol, Galicia, Kingdom of Spain

    Died 20 November 1975 (aged 82)

    Madrid, Spanish State

    Resting place Mingorrubio Cemetery, El Pardo, Madrid, Spain

    Political party FET y de las JONS

    Spouse(s) Carmen Polo ​(m. 1923)​

    Children María del Carmen

    Parents

    Nicolás Franco (father)

    María del Pilar Bahamonde (mother)

    Relatives Nicolás Franco (brother)

    Ramón Franco (brother)

    Francisco Franco (cousin)

    Ricardo de la Puente (cousin)

    Residence(s) El Pardo, Madrid

    Education Infantry Academy of Toledo

    Signature

    Nickname(s) Caudillo

    Military service

    Allegiance Kingdom of Spain

    (1907–1931) Spanish Republic (1931–1936) Spanish State (1936–1975)

    Branch/service Spanish Armed Forces

    Years of service 1907–1975

    Rank Captain general of the Army

    Captain general of the Air Force

    Captain general of the Navy

    Commands All ()

    Battles/wars 2nd Melillan Campaign (WIA)

    Rif War Revolution of 1934 Spanish Civil War Ifni War Part of a series on Fascism show Core tenets show Topics show Ideas show People show Literature show Organizations show History show Lists show Variants show Movements show Related topics Politics portal vte

    Francisco Franco Bahamonde (Spanish: [fɾanˈθisko ˈfɾaŋko βa.aˈmonde]; 4 December 1892 – 20 November 1975) was a Spanish general who led the Nationalist forces in overthrowing the Second Spanish Republic during the Spanish Civil War and thereafter ruled over Spain from 1939 to 1975 as a dictator, assuming the title . This period in Spanish history, from the Nationalist victory to Franco's death, is commonly known as Francoist Spain or the Francoist dictatorship.

    Born in Ferrol, Galicia, into an upper-class military family, Franco served in the Spanish Army as a cadet in the Toledo Infantry Academy from 1907 to 1910. While serving in Morocco, he rose through the ranks to become a brigadier general in 1926 at age 33, which made him the youngest general in Spain. Two years later, Franco became the director of the General Military Academy in Zaragoza. As a conservative and monarchist, Franco regretted the abolition of the monarchy and the establishment of the Second Republic in 1931, and was devastated by the closing of his academy; nevertheless, he continued his service in the Republican Army.[2] His career was boosted after the right-wing CEDA and PRR won the 1933 election, empowering him to lead the suppression of the 1934 uprising in Asturias. Franco was briefly elevated to Chief of Army Staff before the 1936 election moved the leftist Popular Front into power, relegating him to the Canary Islands. Initially reluctant, he joined the July 1936 military coup, which, after failing to take Spain, sparked the Spanish Civil War.

    During the war, he commanded Spain's African colonial army and later, following the deaths of much of the rebel leadership, became his faction's only leader, being appointed Generalissimo and head of state in 1936. He consolidated all nationalist parties into the FET y de las JONS (creating a one-party state). Three years later the Nationalists declared victory, which extended Franco's dictatorship over Spain through a period of repression of political opponents. His dictatorship's use of forced labor, concentration camps and executions led to between 30,000 and 50,000 deaths.[10][11] Combined with wartime killings, this brings the death toll of the White Terror to between 100,000 and 200,000.[12][13]

    In post-civil war Spain, Franco developed a cult of personality around his rule by founding the . During World War II he maintained Spanish neutrality but supported the Axis—whose members Italy and Germany had supported him during the Civil War—damaging the country's international reputation in various ways. During the start of the Cold War, Franco lifted Spain out of its mid-20th century economic depression through technocratic and economically liberal policies, presiding over a period of accelerated growth known as the "Spanish miracle". At the same time, his regime transitioned from a totalitarian state to an authoritarian one with limited pluralism. He became a leader in the anti-Communist movement, garnering support from the West, particularly the United States.[14][15] As the dictatorship relaxed its hard-line policies, Luis Carrero Blanco became Franco's , whose role expanded after Franco began struggling with Parkinson's disease in the 1960s. In 1973, Franco resigned as prime minister—separated from the office of head of state since 1967—due to his advanced age and illness. Nevertheless, he remained in power as the head of state and as commander-in-chief. Franco died in 1975, aged 82, and was entombed in the Valle de los Caídos. He restored the monarchy in his final years, being succeeded by Juan Carlos, King of Spain, who led the Spanish transition to democracy.

    Source : en.wikipedia.org

    Cuban Revolution

    Cuban Revolution, armed uprising in Cuba that overthrew the government of Fulgencio Batista on January 1, 1959. The revolution’s leader, Fidel Castro, went on to rule Cuba from 1959 to 2008. As a result of the Spanish-American War, control of Cuba passed from Spain to the United States on January 1, 1899, and it was governed by direct U.S. military administration until May 20, 1902. During these years, Cubans filled more public offices than they had under Spanish rule, and much was done for public works, sanitation, and education. Most notable of all, yellow fever was eradicated where it had

    Cuban Revolution

    Cuban history

    By The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica • Edit History

    Cuban Revolution, armed uprising in Cuba that overthrew the government of Fulgencio Batista on January 1, 1959. The revolution’s leader, Fidel Castro, went on to rule Cuba from 1959 to 2008.

    Prelude to the revolution

    Prelude to the revolution U.S. rule and the creation of the Cuban Republic

    As a result of the Spanish-American War, control of Cuba passed from Spain to the United States on January 1, 1899, and it was governed by direct U.S. military administration until May 20, 1902. During these years, Cubans filled more public offices than they had under Spanish rule, and much was done for public works, sanitation, and education. Most notable of all, yellow fever was eradicated where it had been endemic for centuries.

    A constitutional convention met at Havana from November 5, 1900, to February 21, 1901. The constitution that was adopted contained certain provisions known as the Platt Amendment; these were imposed by the U.S. as a condition for accepting the constitution and were approved by Cuba on June 12, 1901. By these provisions Cuba promised not to incur debts its current revenues could not bear, to continue the sanitary administration undertaken by the U.S. military government, to lease naval stations to the U.S., and, if necessary, to permit the U.S. to intervene in order to preserve Cuban independence and a government adequate to protect life and property.

    In May 1902 Tomás Estrada Palma became the first president of the new republic, and material prosperity came to certain segments of the Cuban population. This was due to a reciprocal trade treaty, requested by the outgoing U.S. authorities, that permitted more Cuban sugar to enter the U.S. Sugar exports would dominate the Cuban economy throughout the first half of the 20th century, and the U.S. was Cuba’s chief trading partner.

    Tomás Estrada Palma

    Tomás Estrada Palma, c. 1902.

    Library of Congress, Washington, D.C. (Digital File Number: cph 3b21821)

    Independence, instability, and continued U.S. intervention

    Estrada Palma’s administration attempted to implement progressive measures, but it was plagued by instability. His party, the Conservatives (later known as the Moderates), emerged victorious in the elections of December 1905, but the opposition Liberals accused the government of rigging the vote. This charge, along with widespread pension fraud and the failure to bring about proposed governmental reforms, triggered a revolution in July 1906. The insurrection spread rapidly, and Estrada Palma requested intervention by the U.S., which sent commissioners to mediate. The mediation failed, Estrada Palma resigned, and on September 29, 1906, U.S. Pres. Theodore Roosevelt named his secretary of war, William Howard Taft, governor of Cuba. Taft proclaimed that he would lead a provisional government to last “long enough to restore order and peace and public confidence.” Government was maintained under the Cuban flag, regular constitutional forms remained outwardly unchanged, and the insurrectionists promptly disbanded. U.S. administration ceased on January 28, 1909, and the republic was inaugurated a second time. U.S. troops were withdrawn on April 1, 1909.

    Three presidents governed Cuba from 1909 to 1925 with little distinction and much corruption. They were José Miguel Gómez (1909–13), Mario García Menocal (1913–21), and Alfredo Zayas y Alfonso (1921–25). During this period the U.S. interfered twice in Cuba and threatened to intervene several more times. During the Gómez administration the country prospered, but charges of corruption in the government rose. The government was accused of giving few offices to Afro-Cubans and also of favouring those who had supported the Spanish cause in the war for independence. Protests by Afro-Cubans against a law prohibiting political organization by race or religion led to a bloody government crackdown that claimed the lives of thousands. The Liberal party split, and in the election of 1912 the Conservative candidate, Menocal, won.

    Menocal’s administration oversaw much material progress, but with prosperity came new charges of government corruption, including accusations of nepotism. Menocal won reelection in 1916 by employing fraud and violence, and, as a result, war broke out against him in February 1917. The rebels had hoped for intervention by the U.S., but it was too occupied with the situation in Europe, and Menocal was able to put down the rebellion. Menocal’s government declared war on Germany on April 7, 1917, the day after the U.S. entered World War I.

    Until 1919 Cuba enjoyed phenomenal prosperity, thanks to the high price of sugar. By 1920, however, a severe financial crisis had struck the country, and, despite a moratorium, many banks and other business concerns went bankrupt. Zayas introduced financial reforms and was given a $50 million loan by the U.S. in January 1923. The economic situation rapidly improved, but charges of corruption against Zayas intensified, and revolts broke out against him, led in part by war veterans. When Zayas tried to get himself renominated, he ran into stiff opposition from his own party. He therefore made a pact with the Liberal candidate, Gen. Gerardo Machado y Morales, against Menocal, who ran as the Conservative candidate in the election of 1924.

    Source : www.britannica.com

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