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    Brain Map Frontal Lobes

    This page of the Acquired Brain Injury Outreach Service website outlines the function of the frontal lobes.

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    Acquired Brain Injury Outreach Service (ABIOS)

    Brain Map Frontal Lobes

    Brain Map Frontal Lobes

    The frontal lobes are located directly behind the forehead. The frontal lobes are the largest lobes in the human brain and they are also the most common region of injury in traumatic brain injury. The frontal lobes are important for voluntary movement, expressive language and for managing higher level executive functions. Executive functions refer to a collection of cognitive skills including the capacity to plan, organise, initiate, self-monitor and control one’s responses in order to achieve a goal. The frontal lobes are considered our behaviour and emotional control centre and home to our personality. There is no other part of the brain where lesions can cause such a wide variety of symptoms.

    Damage to the frontal lobes can result in:

    Loss of simple movement of various body parts (Paralysis)

    Inability to plan a sequence of complex movements needed to complete multi-stepped tasks, such as making coffee (Sequencing)

    Loss of spontaneity in interacting with others

    Inability to express language (Broca's Aphasia)

    Loss of flexibility in thinking and persistence of a single idea or behaviour (Perseveration)

    Inability to focus on a task and to filter out distractions (Attention)

    Mood fluctuations (Emotional lability)

    Difficulty problem solving

    Difficulty inhibiting or controlling a response or impulse (Disinhibition)

    Reduced motivation, initiation and persistence on activities (Adynamia)

    Reduced awareness/insight into difficulties

    Changes in social behaviour

    Changes in personality

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    Last updated: 21 January 2021

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    Frontal lobe: Functions, structure, and damage

    The frontal lobe is a part of the brain that controls key functions relating to consciousness and communication, memory, attention, and other roles. Damage can result from trauma or a medical condition. In this article, learn more about the functions of the frontal lobe, the effects of damage, and possible treatments.

    What does the frontal lobe do?

    Medically reviewed by Seunggu Han, M.D. — Written by Zawn Villines on June 29, 2017

    The frontal lobe of the brain is vital to our consciousness, as well as functions that appear uniquely human, such as spoken language.

    It is one of four paired lobes in the brain’s cerebral cortex, and it plays vital roles in memory, attention, motivation, and numerous other daily tasks.

    The frontal lobe, similarly to the other lobes of the cerebral cortex, is actually made up of two, paired lobes. Together, these comprise two-thirds of the human brain

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    What is the frontal lobe?

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    The frontal lobe is located near the forehead and plays a vital role in motivation and memory.

    The frontal lobe is part of the brain’s cerebral cortex. Individually, the paired lobes are known as the left and right frontal cortex.

    As the name implies, the frontal lobe is located near the front of the head, under the frontal skull bones and near the forehead. It was the last region of the brain to evolve, making it a relatively new addition to the structure.

    All mammals have a frontal lobe, though the size and complexity vary between species. Most research suggests that primates have larger frontal lobes than many other mammals.

    The two sides of the brain largely control operations on the opposite sides of the body. The frontal lobe is no exception.

    So, the left frontal lobe affects muscles on the right side of the body. Similarly, the right frontal lobe controls muscles on the left side of the body. This can determine how the body is affected by a brain injury.

    The brain is a complex organ, with billions of cells called neurons

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    working together. Much of what these neurons do and how they work is not fully understood.

    The frontal lobe works alongside other brain regions to control how the brain functions overall. Memory formation, for example, depends on sensory input, which depends on numerous areas of the brain. As such, it is a mistake to attribute any one role of the brain to a single region.

    What is more, the brain may “rewire” itself to compensate for an injury. This does not mean the frontal lobe can recover from all injuries, but that other brain regions may change in response to an injury to the frontal lobe.

    Functions of the frontal lobe

    The frontal lobe plays a key role in future planning, including self-management and decision-making.

    People with frontal lobe damage often struggle with gathering information, remembering previous experiences, and making decisions based on this input.

    Some of the many other functions the frontal lobe plays in daily functions include:

    Speech and language production: Broca’s area, a region in the frontal lobe, helps put thoughts into words. Damage to this area can undermine the ability to speak, to understand language, or to produce speech that makes sense.Some motor skills: The frontal lobe houses the primary motor cortex, which helps coordinate voluntary movements, including walking and running.Comparing objects: The frontal lobe helps categorize and classify objects, in addition to distinguishing one item from another.Forming memories: Virtually every brain region plays a role in memory, so the frontal lobe is not unique. However, research suggests it plays a key role in forming long-term memories.Understanding and reacting to the feelings of others: The frontal lobe is vital for empathy.Forming personality: The complex interplay of impulse control, memory, and other tasks helps form a person’s key characteristics. Damage to the frontal lobe can radically alter personality.Reward-seeking behavior and motivation: Most of the brain’s dopamine-sensitive neurons are in the frontal lobe. Dopamine is a brain chemical that helps support feelings of reward and motivation.Managing attention, including selective attention: When the frontal lobe cannot properly manage attention, then conditions, such as attention deficit disorder (ADHD), may develop.

    Effects of damage to the frontal lobe

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    Damage to the frontal lobe may result in symptoms such as poor coordination.

    One of the most infamous frontal lobe injuries happened to railroad worker Phineas Gage.

    Gage survived after a railroad spike impaled a portion of his frontal lobe. Though Gage survived, he lost his eye and much of his personality.

    Gage’s personality dramatically changed, and the once mild-mannered worker struggled to stick to even simple plans. He became aggressive in speech and demeanor and had little impulse control.

    Much of what we know about the frontal lobe comes from case reports on Gage. Those have been called into question since, however. Little is known for sure about Gage’s personality before his accident, and many stories about him may be exaggerated or false.

    Source : www.medicalnewstoday.com

    Frontal Lobe Function, Location in Brain, Damage, More

    The frontal lobes in your brain are vital for many important functions. This include voluntary movement, speech, attention, reasoning, problem solving, and impulse control. Damage is most often caused by an injury, stroke, infection, or neurodegenerative disease.

    What to Know About Your Brain’s Frontal Lobe

    Medically reviewed by Heidi Moawad, M.D. — Written by Jill Seladi-Schulman, Ph.D. on April 20, 2020

    The cerebrum is the largest part of your brain. In fact, when you’re asked to visualize what the brain looks like, the cerebrum is probably what comes to mind.

    The surface of the cerebrum appears grayish and wrinkled in many drawings. But, in fact, it’s actually a beige color and doesn’t have wrinkles; it has crevices, called sulci. It’s separated into two hemispheres, the right and the left.

    Each hemisphere has a set of four lobes. Lobes are large areas of your brain that have a certain location and are associated with a set of functions. Your lobes include the:

    frontal lobe (front section)

    parietal lobe (center section)

    temporal lobe (side section)

    occipital lobe (back section)

    Your frontal lobes are located right behind your forehead and are responsible for many functions that are vital for performing your daily activities.

    This article will take a closer look at the function of the frontal lobe as well as what happens when this area of the brain is injured.

    Interesting facts about your frontal lobe

    Check out some interesting facts about your frontal lobe:

    The frontal lobes are the largest of the lobes in your brain. They’re located at the front of your brain. It’s estimated they make up about one-third of your cerebrum.

    The frontal lobe of primates, particularly humans, is much larger than those of other species. You might say the frontal lobe is the most important area for our various “human” skills, such as reasoning and language.

    The frontal lobes are extensively connected

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    with nerve pathways to other areas of the brain, reinforcing their importance in a vast array of functions. As such, damage to the frontal lobes may cause a “ripple effect” to other parts of the brain.

    Your frontal lobes are the last areas of your brain to mature. In some cases, they may not be fully developed until your mid-30s

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    The frontal lobes are important for movement. In fact, researchers have mapped

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    the areas of the frontal lobes that control the movement of specific body parts. This map is called the motor homunculus.

    What does your frontal lobe do?

    The frontal lobe plays a role in many higher level functions of your brain. This can include:

    voluntary movements (which are movements you control) of the opposite side of your body

    sequencing of complex or multistep movements, such as getting dressed or making a cup of tea

    speech and language production in the dominant frontal lobe (opposite your dominant hand)

    attention and concentration

    working memory, which involves processing recently acquired information

    reasoning and judgment

    organization and planning

    problem-solving

    regulation of emotions and mood, including reading the emotions of others

    personality expression

    motivation, including evaluating rewards, pleasure, and happiness

    impulse control

    controlling social behaviors

    What can happen if your frontal lobe is damaged?

    A famous case of frontal lobe damage is that of Phineas Gage. In 1848, Gage was injured in an explosion that caused a railroad spike to pierce his frontal lobe. The resulting injury caused drastic changes in Gage’s personality and behavior.

    As we’ve learned, the frontal lobe is responsible for many different types of functions. Because of this, damage to the frontal lobe can cause a variety of different symptoms depending on the area that’s affected.

    Some potential symptoms of frontal lobe damage can include:

    loss of movement, either partial (paresis) or complete (paralysis), on the opposite side of the body

    difficulty performing tasks that require a sequence of movements

    trouble with speech or language (aphasia)

    poor planning or organization

    persistence with one behavior, way of thinking, or set of rules

    difficulties with higher order functions like reasoning, problem-solving, and judgment

    problems with maintaining attention or concentration

    decreases in motivation

    mood swings

    impaired ability to initiate activities or interactions

    drastic changes in personality or behavior, which can include apathy, irritability, and inappropriate social behavior

    poor impulse control or lack of inhibition

    What can cause damage to the frontal lobe?

    A variety of factors can lead to damage of your frontal lobe, such as:

    head injury stroke

    infection that affects the frontal lobe

    tumors in the frontal lobe

    multiple sclerosis

    neurodegenerative diseases, such as:

    Alzheimer’s disease Parkinson’s disease

    Huntington’s disease

    Rehabilitation and treatment

    Treatment for damage to the frontal lobe depends on what’s caused the damage to occur. If you have frontal lobe damage, your treatment plan may include a team of several types of healthcare professionals.

    Some examples of potential treatments for frontal lobe damage include:

    Physical therapy. Physical therapy can help you maintain or regain mobility, strength, and flexibility.

    Source : www.healthline.com

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