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What is a seismologist?
What is a seismologist?
What is a seismologist? Principal functions
Seismologists are Earth scientists, specialized in geophysics, who study the genesis and the propagation of seismic waves in geological materials. These geological materials can range from a laboratory sample to the Earth as a whole, from its surface to its core.
Their research aims at interpreting the geological composition and structures of the Earth. In the case of earthquakes, seismologists evaluate the potential dangers and seek to minimize their impact through the improvement of construction standards.
The vast majority of seismologists work in petroleum exploration, where the seismic waves come from controlled sources explosions, vibrations caused by trucks).
The generated seismic waves make it possible to locate the geological structures at depth. At the Geological Survey of Canada, the Seismology and Electromagnetism Section carries out such research.
Other seismologists study the seismic waves generated by much more powerful sources: natural, like earthquakes and mining events, or artificial, like underground nuclear tests. The fundamental work of a seismologist is to locate the source, the nature, and the size (magnitude) of these seismic events. In Canada, this work is mainly carried out by the seismologists of Earthquakes Canada.
Within the study of earthquakes, several specialities exist. Certain seismologists study the relation between faults, stress and seismicity (i.e. seismo-tectonics), others interpret the mechanisms of rupture from seismic wave data (focal mechanisms), others integrate geoscientific information in order to define zones of seismicity (seismic zoning), and finally others, collaborate with engineers in an attempt to minimize the damage caused to structures (earthquake engineering).
Seismologists work in multidisciplinaryms composed of Earth scientists, technicians and professionals from the fields of computers, physics, electronics, telecommunications and civil engineering. Contacts with emergency organizations are often necessary.
Tools of the seismologist
There is no seismology without seismographs! Seismographs are the key tool of seismologists since they make it possible to collect and to record the vibrations of the Earth. Traditionally, seismographs recorded on paper (analogue recorders). This type of apparatus is becoming much less popular. Nowadays, digital instruments are preferred since they allow better definition of ground vibrations and make readings much more precise.
During field surveys, sometimes made following large seismic events, portable seismographs are deployed in order to increase the number of seismographs in the area of study. If the survey is carried out in remote locations, seismologists may use trucks, planes, or helicopters. The seismologists might even have to sleep under tents!
At all times, the seismologists use computers. These make it possible to record and visualize the movements of the Earth. Specialized software, sometimes developed by the seismologists themselves, makes it possible to interpret the seismological data.
As with any Earth scientist, curiosity and a thirst for knowledge are essential to the seismologist. Moreover, a meticulous nature, an interest in computer science, and in certain cases, in outdoor activities, are necessary. Though often called upon to work alone, the seismologist must also be able to work within teams to solve problems. Well developed written and oral communication skills are important in order to communicate the results of their research.
Depending on their field of interest, seismologists can come from following the fields: geology, geophysics, physics or applied mathematics. A university undergraduate degree is necessary, and Masters studies or Doctoral work are significant assets for more advanced research.
Though several Canadian universities offer degrees in Earth sciences (geology, geological engineering, geophysics), none offer programs dealing with the seismology of earthquakes. Specialization can be done at the Graduate level (Masters, Doctorate) after a first degree in the disciplines mentioned above.
Prospects for employment
In Canada, seismologists interested in the study of earthquakes number only a few dozen. The prospects for employment are thus relatively restricted. However, the possibility of recruitment increases according to the level of gen_infoation of the candidates. In Canada, one finds the majority of seismologists at the Geological Survey of Canada, as well as at universities and with several engineering firms.
For information on the trades and professions of the Earth sciences, visit The Canadian Geoscience Council.
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Earth Sciences Portal
vteSeismology (/saɪzˈmɒlədʒi, saɪs-/; from Ancient Greek σεισμός () meaning "earthquake" and -λογία () meaning "study of") is the scientific study of earthquakes and the propagation of elastic waves through the Earth or through other planet-like bodies. It also includes studies of earthquake environmental effects such as tsunamis as well as diverse seismic sources such as volcanic, tectonic, glacial, fluvial, oceanic, atmospheric, and artificial processes such as explosions. A related field that uses geology to infer information regarding past earthquakes is paleoseismology. A recording of Earth motion as a function of time is called a seismogram. A seismologist is a scientist who does research in seismology.
2 Types of seismic wave
2.1 Body waves 2.2 Surface waves 2.3 Normal modes 3 Earthquakes
4 Controlled seismic sources
5 Detection of seismic waves
6 Mapping Earth's interior
7 Seismology and society
7.1 Earthquake prediction
7.2 Engineering seismology
9 Notable seismologists
10 See also 11 Notes 12 References 13 External links
Scholarly interest in earthquakes can be traced back to antiquity. Early speculations on the natural causes of earthquakes were included in the writings of Thales of Miletus (c. 585 BCE), Anaximenes of Miletus (c. 550 BCE), Aristotle (c. 340 BCE), and Zhang Heng (132 CE).
In 132 CE, Zhang Heng of China's Han dynasty designed the first known seismoscope.
In the 17th century, Athanasius Kircher argued that earthquakes were caused by the movement of fire within a system of channels inside the Earth. Martin Lister (1638 to 1712) and Nicolas Lemery (1645 to 1715) proposed that earthquakes were caused by chemical explosions within the earth.
The Lisbon earthquake of 1755, coinciding with the general flowering of science in Europe, set in motion intensified scientific attempts to understand the behaviour and causation of earthquakes. The earliest responses include work by John Bevis (1757) and John Michell (1761). Michell determined that earthquakes originate within the Earth and were waves of movement caused by "shifting masses of rock miles below the surface."
From 1857, Robert Mallet laid the foundation of instrumental seismology and carried out seismological experiments using explosives. He is also responsible for coining the word "seismology."
In 1897, Emil Wiechert's theoretical calculations led him to conclude that the Earth's interior consists of a mantle of silicates, surrounding a core of iron.
In 1906 Richard Dixon Oldham identified the separate arrival of P-waves, S-waves and surface waves on seismograms and found the first clear evidence that the Earth has a central core.
In 1909, Andrija Mohorovičić, one of the founders of modern seismology, discovered and defined the Mohorovičić discontinuity. Usually referred to as the "Moho discontinuity" or the "Moho," it is the boundary between the Earth's crust and the mantle. It is defined by the distinct change in velocity of seismological waves as they pass through changing densities of rock.
In 1910, after studying the April 1906 San Francisco earthquake, Harry Fielding Reid put forward the "elastic rebound theory" which remains the foundation for modern tectonic studies. The development of this theory depended on the considerable progress of earlier independent streams of work on the behavior of elastic materials and in mathematics.
In 1926, Harold Jeffreys was the first to claim, based on his study of earthquake waves, that below the mantle, the core of the Earth is liquid.
In 1937, Inge Lehmann determined that within Earth's liquid outer core there is a solid inner core.
By the 1960s, Earth science had developed to the point where a comprehensive theory of the causation of seismic events and geodetic motions had come together in the now well-established theory of plate tectonics.
Types of seismic wave
Main article: Seismic wave
Seismogram records showing the three components of ground motion. The red line marks the first arrival of P-waves; the green line, the later arrival of S-waves.
Seismic waves are elastic waves that propagate in solid or fluid materials. They can be divided into that travel through the interior of the materials; that travel along surfaces or interfaces between materials; and , a form of standing wave.
There are two types of body waves, pressure waves or primary waves (P-waves) and shear or secondary waves (S-waves). P-waves are longitudinal waves that involve compression and expansion in the direction that the wave is moving and are always the first waves to appear on a seismogram as they are the fastest moving waves through solids. S-waves are transverse waves that move perpendicular to the direction of propagation. S-waves are slower than P-waves. Therefore, they appear later than P-waves on a seismogram. Fluids cannot support transverse elastic waves because of their low shear strength, so S-waves only travel in solids.
what is a person who studies earthquakes called
For many people, earthquakes cause fear. But Graham Kent isn't afraid. He studies and learns from earthquakes as a seismologist and director of the
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1 What Is A Person Who Studies Earthquakes Called?
2 What is the name of person who studies earthquake?
3 Do geologists study earthquakes?
4 Who is called geologist?
5 Why do geoscientists study seismology?
6 What do geophysicist study?
7 What is studied in seismology?
8 What is the study of the earthquake waves known as?
9 What is petrology?
10 What is geology study?
11 What is a professional rock expert called?
12 What is the meaning of seismologists?
13 Who is a geologist and what do they do?
14 What degree do you need to study earthquakes?
15 Who is the most famous geophysicist?
16 How much money do geophysicists make?
17 When did seismic studies begin?
18 What is petrology class 11?
19 What is the difference between geology and petrology?
20 What is difference between petrology and petrography?
21 What is the study of rocks called?
22 What is geomorphology a study of?
23 Do geologists study rocks?
24 What’s another name for a geologist?
25 What are rock specialists called?
26 What is the study of rocks and fossils called?
27 How do you speak seismology?
28 Who hires seismologists?
29 What is Phivolcs?
30 What jobs can you get with seismology?
31 How many geophysicists are there?
32 Who is the father of Geophysics?
33 How long does it take to become a geophysicist?
34 How much do volcanologist make?
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What Is A Person Who Studies Earthquakes Called?
For many people, earthquakes cause fear. But Graham Kent isn’t afraid. He studies and learns from earthquakes as a seismologist and director of the Seismological Laboratory at the University of Nevada, Reno. Seismology is the scientific study of earthquakes and related phenomena, such as volcanic eruptions.
What is the name of person who studies earthquake?Seismologists study earthquakes by looking at the damage that was caused and by using seismometers. A seismometer is an instrument that records the shaking of the Earth’s surface caused by seismic waves. The term seismograph usually refers to the combined seismometer and recording device.
Do geologists study earthquakes?
By excavating trenches across active faults, USGS geologists and collaborators are unraveling the history of earthquakes on specific faults. … Scientists have successfully pieced together the history of earthquakes over the past several hundred to a few thousand years on many active faults.
Who is called geologist?
A geologist is a scientist who studies the solid, liquid, and gaseous matter that constitutes the Earth and other terrestrial planets, as well as the processes that shape them. Geologists usually study geology, although backgrounds in physics, chemistry, biology, and other sciences are also useful.
Why do geoscientists study seismology?
Geoscientists, such as seismologists and geologists, study our earth to help us live safely and utilize the resources earth provides. Seismologists focus on earthquakes and other seismic (energy) activity that could threaten our security.
What do geophysicist study?
A geophysicist is someone who studies the Earth using gravity, magnetic, electrical, and seismic methods. Some geophysicists spend most of their time outdoors studying various features of the Earth, and others spend most of their time indoors using computers for modeling and calculations.
What is studied in seismology?
seismology, scientific discipline that is concerned with the study of earthquakes and of the propagation of seismic waves within the Earth. A branch of geophysics, it has provided much information about the composition and state of the planet’s interior.
See also why did european nations form alliances in the early 1900s?
What is the study of the earthquake waves known as?Seismology is the study of earthquakes and seismic waves that move through and around the Earth. A seismologist is a scientist who studies earthquakes and seismic waves.
What is petrology?
petrology, scientific study of rocks that deals with their composition, texture, and structure; their occurrence and distribution; and their origin in relation to physicochemical conditions and geologic processes. It is concerned with all three major types of rocks—igneous, metamorphic, and sedimentary.
What is geology study?
Geologists study the materials, processes, products, physical nature, and history of the Earth. Geomorphologists study Earth’s landforms and landscapes in relation to the geologic and climatic processes and human activities, which form them.
What is a professional rock expert called?
Geology is the study of rocks and geologists are the people who study them! There are many different types of geologists. … Petrologist study rocks. Structural geologist study how plate tectonics moves and squishes rocks.