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    using your knowledge of tissues, what type of tissue do you think makes up the three layers of membrane you encountered in your muscle?


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    4.2.1 and 4.2.2 Quiz HBS Flashcards

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    4.2.1 and 4.2.2 Quiz HBS

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    Does skeletal muscle have striations

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    Does smooth muscle have striations

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    Textbook solutions for this set

    Essentials of Human Anatomy and Physiology

    8th Edition Elaine N. Marieb 648 explanations

    Hole's Human Anatomy & Physiology

    14th Edition

    David N. Shier, Jackie L. Butler, Ricki Lewis

    2,028 explanations

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    Terms in this set (45)

    Does skeletal muscle have striations


    Does smooth muscle have striations


    Does cardiac muscle have striations


    Is skeletal muscle voluntary


    Is smooth muscle voluntary


    is cardiac muscle voluntary


    location of skeletal muscles


    location of smooth muscle

    walls of organs except the heart

    location of cardiac muscle


    function of skeletal muscle

    move the body

    location of smooth muscle

    help push food through the body

    function of cardiac muscle

    pump blood through body

    What do striated muscles look like

    fibers are divided by bands of steps due to overlapping of thick and thin myofilaments

    What is voluntary muscle

    muscle whose action is normally controlled by an individual's will

    Muscle rule 1

    muscles must have at least two attachments and must cross at least one joint

    Muscle rule 2

    Muscles always "pull" and get shorter

    Muscle rule 3

    Attachments that move is known as the insertion, and the attachment that remains stationary is known as the origin

    Muscle rule 4

    muscles that decreases the angle between ventral surfaces of the body are down as flexers; muscles that increase the angle, between central surfaces of the body are known as extensors

    Muscle rule 5

    muscles work in opposing paris

    Muscle rule 6

    muscle striations point to the attachments and show direction of pull


    tough cords or sheets that attach muscles to bones


    junctions at which bones meet

    contraction of the joints allow?


    How are muscles classified

    shape, size, location, direction of fibers, action, origin and insertion, number of origins

    Describe the STRUCTURAL differences in the three types of muscle tissues.

    Skeletal and cardiac are striaded, but smooth muslce is not due to arrrangement of fibers. Skeletal muscle more than one nucleus in each cell, where in the others, there is just one. All the cells in the cardiac muscles are branches, so that they can pass electrical signals, intercallated discs

    What does it mean when we say a muscle contracts involuntarily? Describe one body function that is linked to an involuntary muscle contraction.

    When a muscle contracts involuntarily, it is not by choice, you are not controlling it. One body function that is linked to involuntary muscle contraction is breathing, pumping of the blood, digestion,

    Describe how the structural makeup of a muscle contributes to the muscle's ability to do its job.

    The striations help with contraction, way the muscle is arranged to that they can slide and get shorter. Your muscles need a lot of proteins made, so the more nucleus, the more DNA to make proteins. Mitochondria is very present in cardiac muscles. Your heart needs a lot of energy, which the mitochondria makes from ATP which comes for oxygen.

    Using your knowledge of tissues, what type of tissue makes up the three layers of membrane you encountered in your muscle?

    Connective tissue because it surrounds the fibers of the muscles.

    Explain how you know which attachment of a muscle is the origin and which attachment is the insertion.

    The origin is proximal to the insertion, and it stay stationionary, and insertion moves.

    Your mom comes back from the doctor and says she has pulled her tibialis anterior. She knows you are taking Human Body Systems and asks you to tell her about her injury. Based on what you have learned, what can you deduce about this muscle and her injury?

    I can decide that this muscle is on the front of her tibia, and that she overstetched the fibers in her muscle. She will have a hard time moving that muscle group for a while.

    When you are cold, your muscles begin to contract involuntarily and cause you to shiver. Why do you think this occurs? How does the contraction of muscles help the body maintain homeostasis?

    You shiver due to contraction of muscles produces heat.

    Look at your Maniken®. Explain to your client why you need multiple exercises to effectively build and tone the muscles of the chest.

    Because certain exercises work only one group of muscles, you must perform more than one type of excerises to work multiple muscles to be toned and build muscles. Muscles don't all have the same action, therefore different exercises.

    Take a look at the temporalis, one of the face muscles you built in Unit One. Using what you have learned about muscles and their attachments, describe the origin and the insertion of this muscle. How is this structure linked to the function?

    Source : quizlet.com

    4.2.1 Muscle Rules

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    4.2.1 Muscle Rules

    4.2.1 Muscle Rules 93%

    8 10th - 12th Biology Daria Louch 1 year

    15 Qs

    1. Multiple-choice 30 seconds Q.

    Which type of muscle has striations, is voluntary and is attached to bone allowing for movement?

    answer choices Cardiac Muscle Smooth Muscle Skeletal Muscle 2. Multiple-choice 30 seconds Q.

    Which type of muscle is also known as the myocardium?

    answer choices Skeletal Muscle Cardiac Muscle Smooth Muscle 3. Multiple-choice 30 seconds Q.

    Which type of muscle lacks striations, is under involuntary control and helps food move through the digestive tract?

    answer choices Smooth Muscle Cardiac muscle Skeletal Muscle 4. Multiple-choice 30 seconds Q.

    In activity 4.2.1 one individual strand of spaghetti represents a

    answer choices fascicle myofibril perimysium epimysium 5. Multiple-choice 30 seconds Q.

    Using your knowledge of tissues, what type of tissue do you think makes up the three layers of membrane you encountered in your muscle?

    answer choices connective epithelial muscle nervous 6. Multiple-choice 30 seconds Q.

    Which muscle helps control the motion of two different joints, the shoulder and the elbow.

    answer choices Brachioradialis Temporalis Biceps Brachii Rhomboid Minor 7. Multiple-choice 30 seconds Q.

    Which muscles function is to maintain tone of the stomach organs; when one side works it bends and rotates the body to the side.

    answer choices

    Transverse Abdominis

    Gluteus Maximus Frontalis

    Sterno Cleidomastoid

    8. Multiple-choice 30 seconds Q.

    The delicate connective tissue surrounding the individual muscular fibers within the smallest bundles is the

    answer choices


    9. Multiple-choice 30 seconds Q.

    A small bundle or cluster, especially of nerve or muscle fibers is called a(n)

    answer choices


    10. Multiple-choice 30 seconds Q.

    How many muscle rules are there?

    answer choices 10 5 3 6 11. Multiple-choice 30 seconds Q.

    What do you call a muscle that decreases the angle between the ventral surface of the body?

    answer choices flexor extensor 12. Multiple-choice 30 seconds Q.

    According to the muscle rules, muscles always:

    answer choices push and get longer

    pull and get shorter

    13. Multiple-choice 30 seconds Q.

    Muscle striations point to the attachment and point in the direction of the

    answer choices pull push insertion

    stationary attachment

    14. Multiple-choice 30 seconds Q.

    The Frontalis and Temporalis muscle are named after their

    answer choices shape action size location 15. Multiple-choice 30 seconds Q.

    The Trapezius and Rhomboid minor are named by their

    answer choices size shape direction of fibers action

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    Types of Tissues – Anatomy and Physiology


    Learning Objectives

    By the end of this section, you will be able to:

    Identify the four main tissue types

    Discuss the functions of each tissue type

    Relate the structure of each tissue type to their function

    Discuss the embryonic origin of tissue

    Identify the three major germ layers

    Identify the main types of tissue membranes

    The term tissue is used to describe a group of cells found together in the body. The cells within a tissue share a common embryonic origin. Microscopic observation reveals that the cells in a tissue share morphological features and are arranged in an orderly pattern that achieves the tissue’s functions. From the evolutionary perspective, tissues appear in more complex organisms. For example, multicellular protists, ancient eukaryotes, do not have cells organized into tissues.

    Although there are many types of cells in the human body, they are organized into four broad categories of tissues: epithelial, connective, muscle, and nervous. Each of these categories is characterized by specific functions that contribute to the overall health and maintenance of the body. A disruption of the structure is a sign of injury or disease. Such changes can be detected through histology, the microscopic study of tissue appearance, organization, and function.

    The Four Types of Tissues

    Epithelial tissue, also referred to as epithelium, refers to the sheets of cells that cover exterior surfaces of the body, lines internal cavities and passageways, and forms certain glands. Connective tissue, as its name implies, binds the cells and organs of the body together and functions in the protection, support, and integration of all parts of the body. Muscle tissue is excitable, responding to stimulation and contracting to provide movement, and occurs as three major types: skeletal (voluntary) muscle, smooth muscle, and cardiac muscle in the heart. Nervous tissue is also excitable, allowing the propagation of electrochemical signals in the form of nerve impulses that communicate between different regions of the body ((Figure)).

    The next level of organization is the organ, where several types of tissues come together to form a working unit. Just as knowing the structure and function of cells helps you in your study of tissues, knowledge of tissues will help you understand how organs function. The epithelial and connective tissues are discussed in detail in this chapter. Muscle and nervous tissues will be discussed only briefly in this chapter.

    Four Types of Tissue: Body

    The four types of tissues are exemplified in nervous tissue, stratified squamous epithelial tissue, cardiac muscle tissue, and connective tissue in small intestine. Clockwise from nervous tissue, LM × 872, LM × 282, LM × 460, LM × 800. (Micrographs provided by the Regents of University of Michigan Medical School © 2012)

    Embryonic Origin of Tissues

    The zygote, or fertilized egg, is a single cell formed by the fusion of an egg and sperm. After fertilization the zygote gives rise to rapid mitotic cycles, generating many cells to form the embryo. The first embryonic cells generated have the ability to differentiate into any type of cell in the body and, as such, are called totipotent, meaning each has the capacity to divide, differentiate, and develop into a new organism. As cell proliferation progresses, three major cell lineages are established within the embryo. As explained in a later chapter, each of these lineages of embryonic cells forms the distinct germ layers from which all the tissues and organs of the human body eventually form. Each germ layer is identified by its relative position: ectoderm (ecto- = “outer”), mesoderm (meso- = “middle”), and endoderm (endo- = “inner”). (Figure) shows the types of tissues and organs associated with the each of the three germ layers. Note that epithelial tissue originates in all three layers, whereas nervous tissue derives primarily from the ectoderm and muscle tissue from mesoderm.

    Embryonic Origin of Tissues and Major Organs

    View this slideshow to learn more about stem cells. How do somatic stem cells differ from embryonic stem cells?

    Tissue Membranes

    A tissue membrane is a thin layer or sheet of cells that covers the outside of the body (for example, skin), the organs (for example, pericardium), internal passageways that lead to the exterior of the body (for example, abdominal mesenteries), and the lining of the moveable joint cavities. There are two basic types of tissue membranes: connective tissue and epithelial membranes ((Figure)).

    Tissue Membranes

    The two broad categories of tissue membranes in the body are (1) connective tissue membranes, which include synovial membranes, and (2) epithelial membranes, which include mucous membranes, serous membranes, and the cutaneous membrane, in other words, the skin.

    Source : opentextbc.ca

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