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    President Woodrow Wilson's 14 Points (1918)

    EnlargeDownload Link Citation: President Wilson's Message to Congress, January 8, 1918; Records of the United States Senate; Record Group 46; Records of the United States Senate; National Archives. View All Pages in the National Archives Catalog View Transcript In this January 8, 1918, address to Congress, President Woodrow Wilson proposed a 14-point program for world peace.

    President Woodrow Wilson's 14 Points (1918)

    EnlargeDownload Link

    Citation: President Wilson's Message to Congress, January 8, 1918; Records of the United States Senate; Record Group 46; Records of the United States Senate; National Archives.

    View All Pages in the National Archives Catalog

    View Transcript

    In this January 8, 1918, address to Congress, President Woodrow Wilson proposed a 14-point program for world peace. These points were later taken as the basis for peace negotiations at the end of World War I.

    In this January 8, 1918, speech on War Aims and Peace Terms, President Wilson set down 14 points as a blueprint for world peace that was to be used for peace negotiations after World War I. The details of the speech were based on reports generated by “The Inquiry,” a group of about 150 political and social scientists organized by Wilson’s adviser and long-time friend, Col. Edward M House. Their job was to study Allied and American policy in virtually every region of the globe and analyze economic, social, and political facts likely to come up in discussions during the peace conference. The team began its work in secret, and in the end produced and collected nearly 2,000 separate reports and documents plus at least 1,200 maps.

    In the speech, Wilson directly addressed what he perceived as the causes for the world war by calling for the abolition of secret treaties, a reduction in armaments, an adjustment in colonial claims in the interests of both native peoples and colonists, and freedom of the seas. Wilson also made proposals that would ensure world peace in the future. For example, he proposed the removal of economic barriers between nations, the promise of “self-determination” for oppressed minorities, and a world organization that would provide a system of collective security for all nations. Wilson’s 14 Points were designed to undermine the Central Powers’ will to continue, and to inspire the Allies to victory. The 14 Points were broadcast throughout the world and were showered from rockets and shells behind the enemy’s lines.

    When Allied leaders met in Versailles, France, to formulate the treaty to end World War I with Germany and Austria-Hungary, most of Wilson’s 14 Points were scuttled by the leaders of England and France. To his dismay, Wilson discovered that England, France, and Italy were mostly interested in regaining what they had lost and gaining more by punishing Germany. Germany quickly found out that Wilson’s blueprint for world peace would not apply to them.

    However, Wilson’s capstone point calling for a world organization that would provide some system of collective security was incorporated into the Treaty of Versailles. This organization would later be known as the League of Nations. Though Wilson launched a tireless missionary campaign to overcome opposition in the U.S. Senate to the adoption of the treaty and membership in the League, the treaty was never adopted by the Senate, and the United States never joined the League of Nations. Wilson would later suggest that without American participation in the League, there would be another world war within a generation.

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    It will be our wish and purpose that the processes of peace, when they are begun, shall be absolutely open and that they shall involve and permit henceforth no secret understandings of any kind. The day of conquest and aggrandizement is gone by; so is also the day of secret covenants entered into in the interest of particular governments and likely at some unlooked-for moment to upset the peace of the world. It is this happy fact, now clear to the view of every public man whose thoughts do not still linger in an age that is dead and gone, which makes it possible for every nation whose purposes are consistent with justice and the peace of the world to avow now or at any other time the objects it has in view.

    We entered this war because violations of right had occurred which touched us to the quick and made the life of our own people impossible unless they were corrected and the world secure once for all against their recurrence. What we demand in this war, therefore, is nothing peculiar to ourselves. It is that the world be made fit and safe to live in; and particularly that it be made safe for every peace-loving nation which, like our own, wishes to live its own life, determine its own institutions, be assured of justice and fair dealing by the other peoples of the world as against force and selfish aggression. All the peoples of the world are in effect partners in this interest, and for our own part we see very clearly that unless justice be done to others it will not be done to us. The programme of the world's peace, therefore, is our programme; and that programme, the only possible programme, as we see it, is this:

    I. Open covenants of peace, openly arrived at, after which there shall be no private international understandings of any kind but diplomacy shall proceed always frankly and in the public view.

    Source : www.archives.gov

    SSUSH15: World War I

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    SSUSH15: World War I

    SSUSH15: World War I 71%

    7 11th

    Social Studies, History

    Justin Sumner 3 years

    47 Qs

    1. Multiple-choice 30 seconds Q.

    "The Fourteen Points" of the early 20th century

    answer choices

    was a declaration of US neutrality.

    warned Americans not to travel on European ships.

    provided secret aid to Britain before the US entered the war.

    were issued by President Wilson as a basis for a lasting peace.

    2. Multiple-choice 30 seconds Q.

    United States President Woodrow Wilson believed that implementation of his "Fourteen Points" would

    answer choices

    boost the United States economy.

    make the world safe for democracy.

    make the United States a world power.

    force the League of Nations to create its own military force.

    3. Multiple-choice 30 seconds Q.

    The Treaty of Versailles brought an end to

    answer choices WWI WWII

    the French Revolution

    the American Revolution

    4. Multiple-choice 30 seconds Q.

    The U.S. Congress refused to ratify the Treaty of Versailles (1919) because

    answer choices

    it punished Germany too harshly.

    the United States did not receive enough territory.

    President Wilson was against the League of Nations.

    it felt the League of Nations would restrict America of its sovereignty.

    5. Multiple-choice 30 seconds Q.

    Woodrow Wilson's "Fourteen Points" were designed to provide a blueprint for world peace that was to be used for peace negotiations after World War I. How was his address received by British leader David Lloyd George and French leader Georges Clemenceau?

    answer choices

    Both European leaders supported Wilson's platform without any reservations.

    Both leaders rejected Wilson's platform, believing that it would give the United States an unfair advantage in world affairs.

    The European leaders welcomed the idea of a "League of Nations" and agreed to provide for its creation in the Treaty of Versailles.

    Both European leaders were more interested in punishing the Germans through reparations and loss of territory than in preventing another world war.

    6. Multiple-choice 30 seconds Q.

    Woodrow Wilson's political agenda following World War I was based on

    answer choices

    the desire for a global and lasting peace.

    his attempt to be re-elected after World War I.

    American economic investments in western Europe.

    the fear of communism and its spread to democratic countries.

    7. Multiple-choice 30 seconds Q.

    Which of these BEST explains why the United States did NOT join the League of Nations?

    answer choices

    None of America's close allies in World War I, such as France, Russia, or Great Britain, joined the league.

    After World War I many Americans were wary of becoming too entangled in European affairs and favored a more "isolationist" approach.

    Americans supported joining the League of Nations because is was proposed by President Woodrow Wilson, but the organization itself never officially formed.

    The League of Nations allowed any country to declare war on another without approval, and the U.S. government wanted to join a governing body with more global power and influence.

    8. Multiple-choice 30 seconds Q.

    Which of these provisions was included in the Treaty of Versailles (1919)?

    answer choices

    European disarmament

    self-determination of all people

    the removal of all barriers to free trade

    the establishment of the League of Nations

    9. Multiple-choice 30 seconds Q.

    During World War I, many American women helped gain support for the suffrage movement by

    answer choices

    protesting against the war

    joining the military service

    working in wartime industries

    lobbying for child-care facilities

    10. Multiple-choice 30 seconds Q.

    Women's clubs in major cities grew "Victory Gardens" in 1917 and 1918 to provide assistance to

    answer choices

    the Great Depression

    the influenza epidemic

    the efforts in World War I

    the efforts in World War II

    11. Multiple-choice 30 seconds Q.

    The only way women could serve in the Army during World War I was as

    answer choices doctors nurses officers pilots 12. Multiple-choice 30 seconds Q.

    How did World War I impact women in the United States?

    answer choices

    Women received equal pay for equal work.

    Women were prohibited from working as Red Cross volunteers.

    Women worked jobs that had been held almost exclusively by men.

    Women no longer held traditional jobs such as nursing or teaching.

    13. Multiple-choice 30 seconds Q.

    What happened to wages in most industries during World War I?

    answer choices

    Corporations saw a decrease in profits.

    Women received equal pay for equal work.

    Hourly wages for blue-collar workers rose.

    African Americans received equal pay for equal work.

    14. Multiple-choice 30 seconds Q.

    How did World War I impact African Americans?

    answer choices

    It led to the end of segregation.

    It accelerated the Great Migration.

    Source : quizizz.com

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