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    Constitutional Rights Foundation

    CONSTITUTIONAL RIGHTS FOUNDATION Bill of Right in Action Fall 2001 (17:4)  Law of Empires BRIA 17:4 Home | Clash of Empires: The Fight for North America | When Roman Law Ruled the Western World | Puerto Rico: Commonwealth, Statehood, or Independenc, Starting as a small kingdom, Rome grew to be republic and then an empire that lasted about 500 years in Western Europe and almost another thousand years in the eastern Mediterranean. During that time, the Romans introduced elements of civil and criminal law that provided the foundation for the legal systems of most nations in the Western world today.

    BRIA 17 4 b When Roman Law Ruled the Western World

    In early times, the father held life and death power over his children. He could leave an unwanted or deformed newborn infant in the forest to die of exposure. He could also sell his children into slavery.

    A father's absolute power over his family lasted until he died. His children, even though they may have been adults, could not own property because the father legally owned all the possessions of family members. Nor could children marry without the father's consent.

    Just because a father held the power of a dictator did not always require that he act like one. In practice, many fathers gladly gave up their rights over their adult children. When a daughter married, she usually left her father's control and came under the power of her husband. Fathers also legally emancipated or freed their sons to become independent.

    Under patria potestas, the Roman father acted as a judge to settle legal matters within the family. When a conflict occurred between families, the fathers of each would negotiate a settlement.

    Law in the Roman Republic

    After the Romans established a republic in 509 B.C., they created several lawmaking bodies representing different classes of people. At first, only the upper-class patricians made the laws. But before long, the lower-class plebeians gained this right.

    About 60 years after the founding of the Roman Republic, discontented plebeians demanded a written code of laws and legal rights. The plebeians complained that because the laws were not in writing, government authorities and creditors could easily abuse the people.

    After some resistance from the patricians, a committee produced 12 bronze tablets that together contained Rome's first law code. Called the Twelve Tables, this code recorded important legal concepts such as:

    rules to settle boundary and other property disputes.

    formulas to make contracts and wills.

    protections for debtors.

    rights of citizens, such as the right to be represented by someone in a legal matter.

    Around 570 B.C., the Romans created the praetor system for settling conflicts. It largely replaced the role of families and fathers in the legal system. Under the new system, the praetor, a powerful government official, took written complaints from citizens and investigated them. The praetor decided whether to authorize a trial before a judge. The plaintiff, the one bringing the complaint, and the defendant then presented their evidence to the judge. Finally, the praetor decided the case and, if the plaintiff won, ordered a remedy or compensation of some type. The praetor system handled criminal offenses in the same way.

    Appointed to one-year terms, the praetors became increasingly powerful judicial officials. They began the practice of issuing a written statement, called the Praetor's Edict, as their term of office began. This edict described the rights the praetor intended to enforce and what remedies he would recommend for wrongful acts. Eventually, the edict became a standard set of legal principles and rules passed from one praetor to another. Praetors used their edicts to interpret the Twelve Tables, as well as the laws passed by the assemblies of the Republic.

    Family Law, Civil Wrongs, and Jury Courts

    Family law in the Roman Republic set the minimum age for marriage at 14 for males and 12 for females. No formal ceremony, religious or otherwise, was necessary. The fathers of both families, however, still had to give consent. The male-dominated system also required the wife to bring a dowry (usually some kind of property) to her husband, who then controlled it. But either spouse could divorce the other without having to go through any legal formalities.

    Slavery was common in ancient Rome. One became a slave by being captured in war, born to a slave mother, or convicted for certain offenses. Masters had near absolute power over their slaves during the republic, including the right to kill them. Masters could also free their slaves. When this happened, the slave automatically became a Roman citizen.

    Throughout most of the long history of the Roman Republic, the law treated criminal offenses as "civil wrongs" that were handled in lawsuits between the victim and the accused offender. For example, the Praetor's Edict declared that if a judge found a person guilty of certain kinds of stealing, he had to pay his victim four times the value of the stolen goods. Judges decided the compensation due a victim for personal injuries, usually a sum of money.

    Around 80 B.C., toward the end of the republic, the government created jury courts that specialized in particular crimes. Each court had a presiding judge and up to 75 jury members, who were chosen by lot to decide a case. At first, only patrician senators could serve as jurors, but later, juries included men from other propertied classes.

    Any male Roman citizen could accuse someone of a crime and seek to prosecute him or her before a jury court. To bring a case, the accuser had to take an oath that his prosecution was in good faith. The accused person remained free while each side prepared for the trial. Both sides had the right to challenge jurors and demand that they be replaced.

    At the trial, the accusers had to be present and often conducted their own prosecution. The defendants could represent themselves or be represented by one or more advocates. These advocates were typically experienced public speakers rather than experts in the law. Lawyers did exist, but they offered their advice (for free) outside the court trial.

    Source : www.crf-usa.org

    influence of Greek and Roman government quiz Flashcards

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    Plato believed that Society should be governed by ____________ people.

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    under Roman law, someone accusing another person of a crime needed

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    proof that a crime had been committed

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    1/10 Created by leileibubbles world history

    Terms in this set (10)

    Plato believed that Society should be governed by ____________ people.


    under Roman law, someone accusing another person of a crime needed

    proof that a crime had been committed

    which best summarizes the structure of the Roman government?

    it was organized with separation of powers

    the Twelve Tables were the first written collection of Roman


    pericles believed that anthenian government should favor the

    majority over the minority.

    during Athens first democracy, the people

    were divided based on wealth.

    Plato and Aristotle had strong beliefs about avoiding ___________ in government.


    an influential aspect of anthenian government on Modern democracies is

    the use of juries to decide trials

    which describes how cleisthenes performed Athenian democracy?

    council members were chosen randomly, and Men could present laws for debate in assembly.

    who created a direct democracy in Athens?


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    Under roman law, someone accusing another person of a crime

    Under roman law, someone accusing another person of a crime

    Under roman law, someone accusing another person of a crime

    April 19, 2022 by Answer Prime

    Under roman law, someone accusing another person of a crime

    Answer 1

    . Under roman law, someone accusing another person of a crime needed proof that a crime had been committed. The accused had the right to face the accuser and offer a defense.

    Answer 2

    Someone accusing another person of a crime needed to take an oath stating that his prosecution was in good faith and present evidence to support his claim. Explanation: The accused had the right to defend himself and remain free during the time the trial was carried out. During the trial, the accused could defend himself or by an advocate who was a public speaker. The trial process is not much different from how a trial is carried out today. The main difference is that the law experts were not the advocates, they offer their advice for free outside the courtroom. I hope this answer helps you.

    Answer 3

    a witness to vouch for the accuser’s character.

    Answer 4

    B Explanation:

    Answer 5

    proof that the crime had been committed.

    Answer 6

    The correct answer is: “proof that a crime had been committed” The Roman law was the legal system that governed the citizens of Ancient Rome, in a historical spectrum whose starting point is placed on par with the founding of Rome (according to tradition, on April 21, 753 BC). ) and that extends until the middle of the 6th century AD, time in which the compiler work of Emperor Justinian I took place, which since the Renaissance was known as the Corpus Iuris Civilis. The Corpus is without doubt the most influential legal text in the history of mankind, because it is the basis of the law of many countries around the world.

    During the apogee of Rome, the evidentiary right reached an important scientific development that can be seen represented in the studies of Aristotle, as Rhetoric in which there was a logical conception, alien to all prejudices of a religious order to evaluate the proof.

    Answer 7

    Obviously they need proof  of the crime and if it was actually being committed

    Answer 9

    They needed help of course!

    Answer 10

    They needed other people to witness and say that they did ( what the law they have or had not of broken)

    Source : answerprime.com

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