this scientist created the first widely accepted way of classifying living things. he classified each organism into several groups and devised the modern system of scientific names. because of this, he is known as the father of taxonomy.
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get this scientist created the first widely accepted way of classifying living things. he classified each organism into several groups and devised the modern system of scientific names. because of this, he is known as the father of taxonomy. from EN Bilgi.
Carolus Linnaeus, Swedish naturalist and explorer who was the first to frame principles for defining natural genera and species of organisms and to create a uniform system for naming them (binomial nomenclature). He is also known for Systema Naturae (1735) and Species Plantarum (1753), two seminal works in biology.
What is Carolus Linnaeus known for?
Swedish naturalist and explorer Carolus Linnaeus was the first to frame principles for defining natural genera and species of organisms and to create a uniform system for naming them, known as binomial nomenclature.
When was Carolus Linnaeus born?
Carolus Linnaeus was born on May 23, 1707, in Råshult, Småland, Sweden.
Where did Carolus Linnaeus study?
Carolus Linnaeus’s early interest in botany was channeled by a teacher at Växjö gymnasium, in Kronoberg, southern Sweden. In 1727 Linnaeus began his studies in medicine at Lund University but transferred to Uppsala University in 1728.
Carolus Linnaeus, also called Carl Linnaeus, Swedish Carl von Linné, (born May 23, 1707, Råshult, Småland, Sweden—died January 10, 1778, Uppsala), Swedish naturalist and explorer who was the first to frame principles for defining natural genera and species of organisms and to create a uniform system for naming them (binomial nomenclature).
Early life and travels
Linnaeus was the son of a curate and grew up in Småland, a poor region in southern Sweden. His early interest in botany was channeled by a teacher at Växjö gymnasium, who acquainted him with the plant system of French botanist and physician Joseph Pitton de Tournefort, an essay on plant sexuality by French botanist Sébastian Vaillant, and the physiological writings of Dutch physician and professor of medicine Herman Boerhaave. In 1727 Linnaeus began his studies in medicine at Lund University, but he transferred to Uppsala University in 1728. Because of his financial situation, he could only visit a few lectures; however, the university professor Olof Celsius provided Linnaeus access to his library. From 1730 to 1732 he was able to subsidize himself by teaching botany in the university garden of Uppsala.
At this early stage, Linnaeus laid the groundwork for much of his later work in a series of manuscripts. Their publication, however, had to await more-fortuitous circumstances. In 1732 the Uppsala Academy of Sciences sent Linnaeus on a research expedition to Lapland. After his return in the autumn of that year, he gave private lectures in botany and mineral assaying. That Christmas he used some of his earnings to pay a visit to Claes Sohlberg, his friend and fellow student, in Falun, the capital of the copper-mining region of Dalarna, in central Sweden. There he became acquainted with the governor, who financed a second trip to the region in the summer of 1734. At the time, it was necessary for Swedish medical students to complete their doctoral degrees abroad in order to open a successful medical practice in their homeland. In an agreement with Sohlberg’s father, who was the royal inspector of the Falun copper mine and impressed with Linnaeus’s botanical and mineralogical abilities, Linnaeus received an annual stipend to offset medical school expenses in the Netherlands. In return, Linnaeus promised to take young Sohlberg with him on the trip and serve as his academic mentor. Before they embarked on their journey in the spring of 1735, Linnaeus became engaged to Sara Elisabeth—the daughter of Johan Moraeus, a well-to-do physician in Falun. It was agreed that their marriage should take place after Linnaeus returned from the Netherlands in three years’ time.
The “sexual system” of classification
A few days after arriving in the Dutch town of Harderwijk in May 1735, Linnaeus completed his examinations and received his medical degree following the submission of a thesis he had prepared in advance on the topic of intermittent fevers. Linnaeus and Sohlberg then journeyed to Leiden, where Linnaeus sought patronage for the publication of his numerous manuscripts. He was immediately successful, and his Systema Naturae (“The System of Nature”) was published only a few months later with financial support from Jan Frederik Gronovius, senator of Leiden, and Isaac Lawson, a Scottish physician. This folio volume of only 11 pages presented a hierarchical classification, or taxonomy, of the three kingdoms of nature: stones, plants, and animals. Each kingdom was subdivided into classes, orders, genera, species, and varieties. This hierarchy of taxonomic ranks replaced traditional systems of biological classification that were based on mutually exclusive divisions, or dichotomies. Linnaeus’s classification system has survived in biology, though additional ranks, such as families, have been added to accommodate growing numbers of species.
In particular, it was the botanical section of Systema Naturae that built Linnaeus’s scientific reputation. After reading essays on sexual reproduction in plants by Vaillant and by German botanist Rudolph Jacob Camerarius, Linnaeus had become convinced of the idea that all organisms reproduce sexually. As a result, he expected each plant to possess male and female sexual organs (stamens and pistils), or “husbands and wives,” as he also put it. On this basis, he designed a simple system of distinctive characteristics to classify each plant. The number and position of the stamens, or husbands, determined the class to which it belonged, whereas the number and position of pistils, or wives, determined the order. This “sexual system,” as Linnaeus called it, became extremely popular, though certainly not only because of its practicality but also because of its erotic connotations and its allusions to contemporary gender relations. French political theorist Jean-Jacques Rousseau used the system for his “Huit lettres élémentaires sur la botanique à Madame Delessert” (1772; “Eight Letters on the Elements of Botany Addressed to Madame Delessert”). English physician Erasmus Darwin, the grandfather of Charles Darwin, used Linnaeus’s sexual system for his poem “The Botanic Garden” (1789), which caused an uproar among contemporaries for its explicit passages.
Carolus Linnaeus: Classification, Taxonomy & Contributions to Biology
Carolus Linnaeus is most well-known as the 'Father of Taxonomy' for his work on naming and classifying groups of organisms. His proposal...
Linnaeus's Classification System
In Systema Naturae, Linnaeus classified nature into a hierarchy. He proposed that there were three broad groups, called kingdoms, into which the whole of nature could fit. These kingdoms were animals, plants, and minerals. He divided each of these kingdoms into classes. Classes were divided into orders. These were further divided into genera (genus is singular) and then species. We still use this system today, but we have made some changes.
Today, we only use this system to classify living things. (Linnaeus included nonliving things in his mineral kingdom.) Also, we have added a few additional levels in the hierarchy. The broadest level of life is now a domain. All living things fit into only three domains: Archaea, Bacteria, and Eukarya. Within each of these domains there are kingdoms. For example, Eukarya includes the kingdoms Animalia, Fungi, Plantae, and more. Each kingdom contains phyla (singular is phylum), followed by class, order, family, genus, and species. Each level of classification is also called a taxon (plural is taxa).
Before Linnaeus came up with a standardized system of naming, there were often many names for a single species, and these names tended to be long and confusing. Linnaeus decided that all species names should be in Latin and should have two parts. Remember, this 2-part system is called binomial nomenclature. It is still used today and gives every species one unique 2-part scientific name.
Let's look at an example. In 1758, Linnaeus gave a binomial name to the house cat. He called it Felis catus. The first part of a binomial scientific name, like Felis, is the genus name. The second part of a scientific name, catus in this example, is the specific epithet. It is used to identify a particular species as separate from other species belonging to the same genus. Together, the genus plus the specific epithet is the full scientific name for an organism.
There are many important rules that must be followed to keep all binomial names standardized:
The person who first publishes a binomial name for a species is considered the author. In most scientific publications that use binomial names, it is usually appropriate to give credit to the original author. For example, the full name for the house cat including its author is written as: Felis catus Linnaeus, 1758. This means that Linnaeus published this species name in 1758.
Carolus Linnaeus is the father of taxonomy, which is the system of classifying and naming organisms. One of his contributions was the development of a hierarchical system of classification of nature. Today, this system includes eight taxa: domain, kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, and species. Linnaeus also provided us with a consistent way to name species called binomial nomenclature. He named around 12,000 plant and animal species in this way.
After you have finished with this lesson, you should be able to:
Botanist who categorised all living organisms
Swedish botanist Carl (or Carolus) Linnaeus is, by some measures, the most influential person ever to have lived. He is famous for devising new systems for naming and grouping all living organisms, as well as naming thousands of species.
Linnaeus was born in the province of Småland on 23 May, 1707. He studied medicine and science at the University of Lund and Uppsala University. At this time, botany was an important part of medical training, as doctors had to be familiar with many types of plant and their medicinal properties in order to treat their patients. But memorising scientific plant names was extremely difficult – each one was known by a long description in Latin.
In the 1730s, Linneaus undertook expeditions to Lapland and central Sweden, before finishing his medical degree at the University of Harderwijk in the Netherlands. While enrolled at the University of Leiden he published his famous Systema Naturae – a new way of classifying living organisms.
Over the years, Linnaeus revised this classification system, which soon became a huge, multivolume work. It grouped all species into higher categories, known as taxa: genera, orders, classes and kingdoms.
Central to this system was binomial nomenclature – the idea that all organisms should be described by only two Latin words: one denoting its genus, and another its species. Two-word Latin names had been used before, but Linnaeus was the first to apply this approach extensively and consistently, and it soon caught on as the standard naming system for animals and plants.
Linnaeus used his system to name over 12,000 species of plants and animals, although some have subsequently been renamed. In 2014, an analysis of Wikipedia pages concluded that Linnaeus was the most influential person in history.
He is also famous for inventing a controversial way of classifying plants according to their sexual floral organs. The system grouped plants together based on similarities between their stamens and pistils, which resulted in many odd groupings that weren’t particularly useful or accurate.
Later methods for classifying living things have mostly relied on the shape and structure of all parts of an organism, not just its mature sexual organs. In the last century, taxonomists have also started using DNA analysis to work out the evolutionary relationships between different species.
But we still use elements of Linnaeus’s methods today. All organisms are assigned two Latin names indicating their genus and species, and we still rank species among ordered, nested groups, although this approach does not really work for bacteria.
Biologists have subsequently added extra rankings, to account for other levels of similarity between groups. Under the current system, our species (Homo sapiens) is classified as hominids (family); primates (order); mammals (class); chordates (phylum); animals (kingdom).
While this classification system is a useful tool for sorting the living things we see in the world around us, we now know from DNA analysis and evolutionary theory that the family tree of life is continually growing and branching, and the significant splits between different groups do not neatly line up with the boundaries between the different taxa.
Today, Linnaeus is remembered as the father of modern taxonomy, but he is often described as an expert in self-promotion, and it has been suggested that his pursuit of a useful naming system for plants was spurred by his inability to draw good botanical illustrations, which was an important skill for any botanist before Linnaeus revolutionised the field. Penny Sarchet
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