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    this african bush elephant is one of three recognized species of elephants. which is the biggest?

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    Elephant

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    Elephant

    From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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    For other extinct relatives, see Elephantidae. For other uses, see Elephant (disambiguation).

    Elephants

    Temporal range: Pliocene–Present

    PreꞒ Ꞓ O S D C P T J K Pg N

    From top left to right: the African bush elephant, the Asian elephant and African forest elephant.

    Scientific classification

    Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Chordata Class: Mammalia Order: Proboscidea

    Family: Elephantidae

    Subfamily: Elephantinae

    Groups included Anonymous, 1827 Linnaeus, 1758 † Matsumoto, 1925

    Distribution of living elephant species

    Cladistically included but traditionally excluded taxa

    † Brookes, 1828 † Maglio, 1970

    Elephants are the largest existing land animals. Three living species are currently recognised: the African bush elephant, the African forest elephant, and the Asian elephant. They are an informal grouping within the subfamily Elephantinae of the order Proboscidea; extinct members include the mastodons. Elephantinae also contains several extinct groups, including the mammoths and straight-tusked elephants. African elephants have larger ears and concave backs, whereas Asian elephants have smaller ears, and convex or level backs. The distinctive features of all elephants include a long proboscis called a trunk, tusks, large ear flaps, massive legs, and tough but sensitive skin. The trunk is used for breathing, bringing food and water to the mouth, and grasping objects. Tusks, which are derived from the incisor teeth, serve both as weapons and as tools for moving objects and digging. The large ear flaps assist in maintaining a constant body temperature as well as in communication. The pillar-like legs carry their great weight.

    Elephants are scattered throughout sub-Saharan Africa, South Asia, and Southeast Asia and are found in different habitats, including savannahs, forests, deserts, and marshes. They are herbivorous, and they stay near water when it is accessible. They are considered to be keystone species, due to their impact on their environments. Elephants have a fission–fusion society, in which multiple family groups come together to socialise. Females (cows) tend to live in family groups, which can consist of one female with her calves or several related females with offspring. The groups, which do not include bulls, are usually led by the oldest cow, known as the matriarch.

    Males (bulls) leave their family groups when they reach puberty and may live alone or with other males. Adult bulls mostly interact with family groups when looking for a mate. They enter a state of increased testosterone and aggression known as musth, which helps them gain dominance over other males as well as reproductive success. Calves are the centre of attention in their family groups and rely on their mothers for as long as three years. Elephants can live up to 70 years in the wild. They communicate by touch, sight, smell, and sound; elephants use infrasound, and seismic communication over long distances. Elephant intelligence has been compared with that of primates and cetaceans. They appear to have self-awareness, and appear to show empathy for dying and dead family members.

    African bush elephants and Asian elephants are listed as endangered and African forest elephants as critically endangered by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN). One of the biggest threats to elephant populations is the ivory trade, as the animals are poached for their ivory tusks. Other threats to wild elephants include habitat destruction and conflicts with local people. Elephants are used as working animals in Asia. In the past, they were used in war; today, they are often controversially put on display in zoos, or exploited for entertainment in circuses. Elephants are highly recognisable and have been featured in art, folklore, religion, literature, and popular culture.

    Contents

    1 Etymology

    2 Taxonomy and phylogeny

    2.1 Evolution and extinct relatives

    3 Anatomy and morphology

    3.1 Size 3.2 Bones 3.3 Head 3.4 Ears 3.5 Trunk 3.6 Teeth 3.6.1 Tusks 3.7 Skin

    3.8 Legs, locomotion, and posture

    3.9 Organs

    3.10 Body temperature

    4 Behaviour and life history

    4.1 Ecology and activities

    4.2 Social organisation

    4.3 Sexual behaviour

    4.3.1 Musth 4.3.2 Mating

    4.4 Birth and development

    4.5 Communication

    4.6 Intelligence and cognition

    5 Conservation 5.1 Status 5.2 Threats

    6 Association with humans

    6.1 Working animal 6.2 Warfare

    6.3 Zoos and circuses

    6.4 Attacks

    6.5 Cultural depictions

    7 See also 8 References 8.1 Bibliography 9 Further reading

    Source : en.wikipedia.org

    Elephant

    Elephants, the largest land mammals, still face being killed for their tusks. Help WWF’s elephant conservation efforts to fight poaching, conflict and habitat destruction.

    Elephant

    © Martin Harvey / WWF

    ADOPT AN ELEPHANT

    Give a gift that will help protect the future of nature. Make a symbolic adoption in support of WWF's global efforts.

    SPECIES ELEPHANT

    FACTS

    Once common throughout Africa and Asia, elephant populations have experienced significant declines over the last century. The greatest threat to African elephants is poaching for the illegal ivory trade, while Asian elephant populations are most at risk from habitat loss and resulting human-elephant conflict.

    WEIGHT

    4-6 tons

    LENGTH

    18-24 ft.

    Map data ©2022 Google, INEGI

    Terms of Use

    Elephants are the largest land mammals on earth and have distinctly massive bodies, large ears, and long trunks. They use their trunks to pick up objects, trumpet warnings, greet other elephants, or suck up water for drinking or bathing, among other uses. Both male and female African elephants grow tusks and each individual can either be left- or right-tusked, and the one they use more is usually smaller because of wear and tear. Elephant tusks serve many purposes. These extended teeth can be used to protect the elephant's trunk, lift and move objects, gather food, and strip bark from trees. They can also be used for defense. During times of drought, elephants even use their tusks to dig holes to find water underground.

    Two genetically different African species exist: the savanna elephant and the forest elephant, with a number of characteristics that differentiate them both. The African savanna elephant is the largest elephant species, while the Asian forest elephant and the African forest elephant are of a comparable, smaller size.

    Asian elephants differ in several ways from their African relatives, with more than 10 distinct physical differences between them. For example, Asian elephants' ears are smaller compared to the large fan-shaped ears of the African species. Only some male Asian elephants have tusks, while both male and female African elephants grow tusks.

    Led by a matriarch, elephants are organized into complex social structures of females and calves, while male elephants tend to live in isolation or in small bachelor groups. A single calf is born to a female once every four to five years and after a gestation period of 22 months—the longest of any mammal. Calves are cared for by the entire herd of related females. Female calves may stay with their maternal herd for the rest of their lives, while males leave the herd as they reach puberty. Forest elephants' social groups differ slightly and may be comprised of only an adult female and her offspring. However, they may congregate in larger groups in forest clearings where resources are more abundant.

    Source : www.worldwildlife.org

    African Bush Elephant

    The African bush elephant is the largest land mammal in the world, but habitat destruction and poaching pose major threats to species survival.

    ANIMALS WE PROTECT

    African Bush Elephant

    Facts about the African elephant and how we’re helping to protect them

    July 16, 2020

    AFRICAN BUSH ELEPHANT at the Lewa Wildlife Conservancy in Northern Kenya. © Ami Vitale

    African Elephant Fast Facts

    Common name: African bush elephant, African savanna elephantScientific name: Loxodonta africanaConservation status: VulnerableLifespan: Up to 70 yearsWeight: 6,600 (adult female) to 13,000 (adult male) pounds

    Meet the African Bush Elephant

    The African bush elephant is the largest land mammal in the world and the largest of the three elephant species. Adults reach up to 24 feet in length and 13 feet in height and weigh up to 11 tons. As herbivores, they spend much of their days foraging and eating grass, leaves, bark, fruit, and a variety of foliage. They need to eat about 350 pounds of vegetation every day.

    African bush elephants are also known as African savanna elephants. Their range spans a variety of habitats, from the open savanna to the desert, and can be found in most African countries. African elephants live up to 70 years—longer than any other mammal except humans.

    AFRICAN BUSH ELEPHANT IN SOUTH AFRICA Elephant in South Africa © Max Freund/fStop Foundation

    Elephant herds are matriarchal, consisting of related females and their young and are led by the eldest female, called the matriarch. Adult male elephants rarely join a herd and often lead a solitary life, only approaching herds for mating. Females give birth to a single calf after a 22 month gestation, the longest gestation period among mammals.

    How we work with Elephants

    A wild African elephant born today could live for more than 60 years if she has enough safe, healthy habitat.

    To give her that chance, we’re working with partners on a holistic approach to elephant conservation.

    What makes African elephants different?

    Both males and females have visible tusks

    Their large ears are shaped like the continent of Africa

    A very long prehensile nose (trunk) with two finger-like features

    An elephant's trunk is a strong appendage, with more than 40,000 muscles and tendons that can lift more than 400 pounds at once. Yet its sensitive tip has two finger-like projections, which an elephant can use to manipulate very small objects. Elephants suck water up through the trunk and then blow it into their mouths for a drink or onto their backs as a cooling mist.

    Both male and female African elephants have visible tusks. Elephants use their tusks to pull bark off trees, dig up roots and water holes, and for protection. Males also use tusks for sparring other males for mating opportunities. Males with the biggest tusks sire the most offspring. However, poaching unnaturally removes theose with the largest tusks from the population, causing some elephants to now be born with smaller or nonexistent tusks.

    THE NATURE CONSERVANCY'S AFRICA REGIONAL DIRECTOR

    Q&A with Matt Brown

    How is TNC helping save elephants in Kenya and Tanzania? Where are we focusing our efforts and why?

    The need for anti-poaching efforts is still very real. We’re all seeing that where there is better frontline protection there is less poaching, but we aren’t out of the woods yet. In addition to supporting critical frontline protection work, another big piece of our African Elephant Initiative is keeping large spaces open for elephants to live and thrive.

    Amboseli will forever be known as a real stronghold for elephants. Decades-long research on the elephant population here tells us that elephants move south from Amboseli into the forests of Mount Kilimanjaro. If we can keep Enduimet open and viable, we are both protecting critical hectares of land for elephants and helping improve livelihoods for local communities. A key vision for this area is to be able to showcase in future years that Maasai living along the northern border of Tanzania are seeing a better life with elephants alive. Today, I am not sure that is the case.

    What does TNC bring to the table?

    TNC’s role is to identify high priority areas to focus our conservation efforts and to convene the right partners to have lasting impact. We’ve learned where elephants move thanks to data collected by GPS collars and this helps us pinpoint critical movement and dispersal corridors to protect. We can’t protect these big wild places alone and that’s where our partners come in. We’ve joined forces with NGOs Honeyguide and Big Life Foundation to work with the local communities on better managing this area and developing more wildlife-based tourism revenue. We’re working on a collaborative conservation action plan to get us all focused on strategies that will have the greatest positive impact.

    Source : www.nature.org

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