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    the 15 year old girl who remained frozen on top of a mountain for 500 years, 2007

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    Mummy Juanita

    Mummy Juanita

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    Mummy Juanita's body before unwrapping of her bundle.

    Location Mount Ampato, Peru

    Coordinates 116.114 .117.118

    Momia Juanita (Spanish for "Mummy Juanita"), also known as the Lady of Ampato, is the well-preserved frozen body of a girl from the Inca Empire who was killed as an human sacrifice to the Inca gods sometime between 1440 and 1480, when she was approximately 12–15 years old.[1] She was discovered on the dormant stratovolcano Mount Ampato (part of the Andes cordillera in southern Peru) in 1995 by anthropologist Johan Reinhard and his Peruvian climbing partner, Miguel Zárate. She is known as the Lady of Ampato because she was found on top of Mount Ampato. Her other nickname, the Ice Maiden, derives from the cold conditions and freezing temperatures that preserved her body on Mount Ampato.[]

    Juanita has been on display in the Catholic University of Santa María's Museum of Andean Sanctuaries (Museo Santuarios Andinos) in Arequipa, Peru almost continuously since 1996, and was displayed on a tour in Japan in 1999.

    In 1995, magazine chose her as one of the world's top ten discoveries.[2] Between May and June 1996, she was exhibited in the headquarters of the National Geographic Society in Washington, D.C., in a specially acclimatized conservation display unit. In its June 1996 issue, included an article dedicated to the discovery of Juanita.[3]

    Contents

    1 Discovery

    2 Scientific analysis

    2.1 Body

    2.2 Adornments and grave goods

    2.3 Genetic analysis

    3 Preparation for death

    4 Cause of death 5 Capacocha

    6 Connecting climate and culture

    7 See also 8 References 9 External links

    Discovery[edit]

    In September 1995, during an ascent of Mt. Ampato (20,700 ft, 6309 m), Johan Reinhard and Zárate found a bundle in the crater that had fallen from an Inca site on the summit due to recent ice melt and erosion from a volcano eruption.[1] To their astonishment, the bundle turned out to contain the frozen body of a young girl. Juanita was found almost entirely frozen, which preserved her internal organs, hair, blood, skin, and contents of her stomach.[4]

    They also found many items that had been left as offerings to the Inca gods including llama bones, small figurines and pottery pieces. The items were strewn about the mountain slope, down which the body had fallen. These included statues, food items (maize kernels and cob), and spondylus shells, which originate from ocean ecosystems.[5] These have been connected to rain ceremonies throughout the Incan Empire.[5] The clothing she wore resembled textiles from the elite from Cuzco, the Inca capital. As Juanita is the closest discovered sacrifice to Cuzco and was found with textiles of the wealthy, archaeologists believe that this could suggest she came from a noble Cuzco family.[4]

    The body and the items were quickly transported to Arequipa to prevent thawing of the frozen specimen. The body was initially kept in a special refrigerator at the Catholic University.[] Juanita's body was transported to the United States for a CT scan in 1996 and was then exhibited in Japan in 1999.[1] She is considered one of the most well-preserved mummies in the Andes.

    Two more ice mummies, a young girl and a boy, were discovered in an archaeological expedition led by Dr. Reinhard and Prof. José Antonio Chávez in October 1995, and they recovered another female mummy on Ampato in December 1997. Volcanic ash from the nearby erupting volcano of Sabancaya induced ice melt in the area. This caused the Incan burial sites to collapse down into a gully or crater where they were soon discovered by Reinhard and his team. Reinhard published a detailed account of the discovery in his 2006 book entitled, .

    Scientific analysis[edit]

    Body[edit]

    As Reinhard and Zárate struggled on Ampato's summit to lift the heavy bundle containing Juanita's body, they realized that her body mass had probably been increased by freezing of the flesh. When initially weighed in Arequipa, the bundle containing "Juanita" weighed over 90 pounds (40.82 kilos). Their realization turned out to be correct; Juanita is almost entirely frozen, making her a substantial scientific find. Like only a few other high-altitude Inca mummies, Juanita was found frozen and thus her remains and garments were not desiccated like those of mummies found in other parts of the world. She was mummified by freezing conditions on the mountain top, instead of being artificially mummified, as is the case with Egyptian mummies. Her skin, organs, tissues, blood, hair, stomach contents, and garments are extremely well-preserved, offering scientists a rare glimpse into Inca culture during the reign of the Sapa Inca Pachacuti (reigned 1438–1471/1472).

    Analysis of her stomach contents revealed that she ate a meal of vegetables six to eight hours before her death.[6] Some evidence suggests that she may have come from a noble Cusco family. Stable isotopic analysis of other child sacrifices in the area has found changes in diet within the last year of life to indicate whether they originated from common families.[7] This is usually indicated by the amount of meat protein consumed. Noble families would consume meat regularly whereas this may not be the case for a non-noble family. Since there is no specific analysis of Juanita it is inconclusive if she came from a noble family or not. However, analysis of similar child sacrifices in the region all indicate that at six months before their death they were in Cusco, likely for a ceremony before making their journey to the mountains.[7]

    Source : en.wikipedia.org

    In Argentina, a Museum Unveils a Long

    The Museum of High Altitude Archaeology is displaying Los Niños, three of the best preserved mummies ever found.

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    Frozen Inca Mummy Goes on Display

    Known as La Doncella, the mummy sits literally frozen in sleep.

    1 / 6

    The mummy, called La Doncella or The Maiden, is that of a teenage girl who died more than 500 years ago in a ritual sacrifice in the Andes Mountains. The girl and two other children were left on a mountaintop to succumb to the cold as offerings to the gods, according to the archaeologists who found the mummified remains in Argentina in 1999.

    The mummy, called La Doncella or The Maiden, is that of a teenage girl who died more than 500 years ago in a ritual sacrifice in the Andes Mountains. The girl and two other children were left on a mountaintop to succu...

    PHOTOGRAPH BY NATACHA PISARENKO/AP

    SCIENCENEWS

    Frozen Inca Mummy Goes on Display

    Known as La Doncella, the mummy sits literally frozen in sleep.

    BYNATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC STAFF

    PUBLISHED SEPTEMBER 11, 2007

    2 MIN READ

    The mummy of an ancient Inca girl sits literally frozen in sleep at a museum in Argentina.

    The mummy, called La Doncella or The Maiden, is that of a teenage girl who died more than 500 years ago in a ritual sacrifice in the Andes Mountains.

    The girl and two other children were left on a mountaintop to succumb to the cold as offerings to the gods, according to the archaeologists who found the mummified remains in Argentina in 1999.

    La Doncella was found dressed in a ceremonial tunic and adorned with a headpiece, tokens of her new status as a messenger to the heavens. The girl had also drunk corn liquor, likely to put her to sleep, scientists say, and her mouth still held fragments of coca leaves, which the Inca chewed to lessen the effects of altitude sickness.

    National Geographic Explorer-in-Residence Johan Reinhard, who co-led the expedition, described the discovery at the time as "the best preserved of any mummy I've seen." (National Geographic News is a division of the National Geographic Society.)

    The discovery of La Doncella revealed rich details of ancient Inca life, such as the girl's finely braided hair, said Reinhard. In this regard, La Doncella even rivals Reinhard's previous discovery: a frozen mummy dubbed the Ice Maiden that he and a colleague found on a Peruvian peak in 1995.

    "The discovery of the three mummies [in 1999] … was the highlight of my life, or certainly [of] my work in the Andes," Reinhard told National Geographic News in 2005. "These mummies were far better preserved … than the Ice Maiden."

    The High Country Archaeological Museum in Salta, Argentina, unveiled La Doncella, the oldest of the three victims, for its first public viewing on September 6.

    The museum is displaying the mummy in a refrigerated, low-oxygen environment to reproduce the high-altitude conditions that allowed for its remarkable, natural preservation.

    The mummies of the other two children remain in storage for further study, museum officials said.

    Source : www.nationalgeographic.com

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