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    the __________ synthesizes bile acids by metabolizing __________.

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    A&P Practice Questions Final Chapter 25 Flashcards

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    The digestive system processes food, extracts nutrients, and eliminates the residue.

    True False A

    The enteric nervous system regulates much of the digestive activity, but its action depends on the central nervous system. 


    True False B

    Odor, sight, and taste stimulate salivatory nuclei in the cerebral cortex. 


    True False B

    Enamel is found in the crown of a tooth, whereas dentin is part of both the crown and the root. 


    True False A

    Both chemical and mechanical digestion start in the mouth and continue in the stomach.

    True False A

    Gastric juice consists entirely of water and hydrochloric acid. 


    True False B

    Absorption of many nutrients starts in the stomach. 


    True False B

    The liver is the body's largest gland. 


    True False A

    Both pancreatic juice and bile are secreted into the duodenum. 


    True False A

    The small intestine begins with the duodenum, which is its longest segment.

    True False B

    The brush borders of intestinal absorptive cells contain numerous goblet cells. 


    True

    False B

    Most fat is digested by pancreatic lipase. 


    True False A

    Chylomicrons are secreted from the basal surface of the absorptive cells and taken into the lacteal in the villus. 


    True

    False A

    The large intestine absorbs water, fats, and salts.

    True

    False B

    The large intestine is longer than the small intestine. 


    True

    False B

    The physiological process that moves a nutrient from the outside of the body to the inside is called __________.

    ingestion compaction digestion 
 absorption secretion D

    The serous membranes that suspend the stomach and intestines from the abdominal wall are called __________.

    mesenteries

    mucosae submucosae muscularis mucosae muscularis externa A

    The layer that is responsible for the motility that propels food and residue through the digestive tract is called the __________.

    lumen 
 muscularis externa submucosa

    mucosa (mucous membrane)

    serosa B

    The outermost layer of the digestive tract, which is composed of a thin layer of areolar tissue and simple squamous epithelium, is called the __________.

    lumen muscularis externa submucosa

    mucosa (mucous membrane) 


    serosa (mesentery) E

    Which of the following nutrients must be digested in order to be absorbed?

    Water Vitamins 
 Proteins Minerals Cholesterol C

    Which of the following is not an accessory organ of digestion?

    Tongue Liver Pancreas Salivary glands 
 Spleen E

    Each of the following lists some of the tissue layers of the digestive tract. Which one has them in correct order from lumen to external surface? 


    Lamina propria, muscularis mucosae, submucosa, muscularis externa, serosa

    Serosa, lamina propria, submucosa, muscularis mucosae, muscularis externa

    Mucosa, submucosa, muscularis mucosae, muscularis externa, lamina propria

    Mucosa, muscularis mucosae, submucosa, muscularis externa, lamina propria

    Mucosa, submucosa, muscularis externa, lamina propria, serosa

    A

    The small intestine is suspended from the abdominal wall by the ___________.

    falciform ligament 


    mesentery greater omentum lesser omentum esophageal hiatus B

    An example of chemical digestion is the break down of __________ into __________.

    proteins; nucleotides

    amino acids; proteins

    polysaccharides; amino acids 


    nucleic acids; nucleotides

    fatty acids; cholesterol

    D

    The __________ regulates digestive tract motility, secretion, and blood flow. Its neurons are found in the __________.

    autonomic nervous system; serosa

    central nervous system; muscularis externa and muscularis mucosae 


    enteric nervous system; submucosa and muscularis externa

    visceral sensory division; muscularis externa and submucosa

    visceral motor division; mucosa and submucosa

    C

    The surface of the tongue is covered with __________ stratified squamous epithelium, and has bumps called __________, where many taste buds can be found.

    keratinized; lingual papillae

    keratinized; lingual frenulum 


    nonkeratinized; lingual papillae

    nonkeratinized; tonsils

    nonkeratinized; vallate papillae

    C

    Infants have __________ deciduous teeth, whereas adults have __________ permanent teeth. 


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    ch 25 DIGESTIVE SYSTEM ch 26 Nutrition and Metabolism

    Start studying ch 25 DIGESTIVE SYSTEM ch 26 Nutrition and Metabolism- Saladin. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools.

    ch 25 DIGESTIVE SYSTEM ch 26 Nutrition and Metabolism- Saladin

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    ____is the physiological process that moves a nutrient from the outside to the inside of the body

    Click card to see definition 👆

    absorption

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    these nutrients are all absorbed without being digested except

    Click card to see definition 👆

    proteins

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    Terms in this set (41)

    ____is the physiological process that moves a nutrient from the outside to the inside of the body

    absorption

    these nutrients are all absorbed without being digested except

    proteins

    each of the following lists some of the tissue layers of the digestive tract. which one has them in correct order from lumen to external surface

    stratified squamous epithelium mucosae, lamina propria, muscularis mucosae, submucosa, muscularis externa, serosa

    the small intestine is suspended from the abdominal wall by

    the mesentery

    the ____ gland is an extrinsic salivary gland; whereas the ____ gland is an intrinsic salivary gland

    submandibular; lingual

    acid reflux into the esophagus ("heartburn") is normally prevented by

    the lower esophageal sphincter (LES)

    hydrochloric acid (HC1) is secreted by ____ cells

    parietal

    ____ , which is secreted by ____ cells, is necessary for Vitamin B12 absorption

    intrinsic factor; parietal

    pepsinogen is produced by ____ and is activated by ____

    chief cells; hydrochloric acid (HC1) secreted by parietal cells

    the organ that stores excess glucose and releases it later into the blood is

    the liver

    the ____ synthesizes bile acids by metabolizing _____

    liver; cholesterol

    pancreatic enzymes are secreted in response to the hormone

    cholecystokinin (CCK)

    where carbohydrate digestion

    mouth

    _____ break(s) down ____

    peptidases; proteins

    the sodium-glucose transport protein (SGLP)

    transports glucose and sodium from the intestinal lumen into the epithelial cells

    amino acids and monosaccharides and fatty acids are absorbed in the ____

    small intestine

    lecithin prepares fats for hydrolysis by forming

    emulsification droplets

    bacteria constitute about what % of the dry weight of the feces

    30%

    fats should account for what percent of daily caloric intake?

    20-35%

    Most of the NADH contributing energy to ATP synthesis is produced by:

    citric acid cycle (Krebs)

    Incomplete fatty acid oxidation produces _____, which might lead to _____?

    ketone bodies, acidosis

    What metabolic process produces ammonia?

    deamination of glutamic acid

    A nude body at a room temperature of 21 'C (70'F) loses most of its heat by?

    radiation

    Heat exhaustion results from?

    extreme electrolyte loss in sweat

    The liver performs all of the following functions except?

    -glycogenesis -detoxification -phagocytosis

    -secretion of digestive enzymes

    -synthesis of plasma proteins

    secretion of digestive enzymes

    The functions of the liver

    glycogenesis, detoxification, phagocytosis, synthesis of plasma proteins

    ______ is secreted during the post-absorptive state?

    growth hormone

    Antidiuretic Hormone: Functions

    *Regulates blood osmolarity (most important function)

    -Causes kidneys to reabsorb water into

    the blood, which decreases blood

    osmolarity

    *Regulates blood pressure (minor function)

    -Increases blood volume, which

    increases blood pressure

    -Causes vasoconstriction, which

    increases blood pressure

    What is the term for the pigment responsible for the color of urine?

    urochrome Aldosterone acts on

    distal convoluted tubule

    In the nephron, the fluid that immediately precedes urine is known as

    tubular fluid

    hypocalcemia stimulates

    parathyroid hormone PTH

    How are glucose and amino acids reabsorbed?

    Proximal convoluted tubule

    In a healthy liver very little of this is filtered by glomerulus.

    protein

    What does hypocalcemia stimulate?

    secretion of PTH (parathyroid hormone)

    Where is most of the body water located in regard to cells?

    intracellular fluid

    the countercurrent multiplier recaptures ________ and is based on fluid flowing in _________ direction in two adjacent tubules

    sodium: opposite

    protein digestion begins in the ____

    stomach

    highest rate of tissue turnover occurs in

    rectum, intestinal

    what does anti-diuretic hormone do?

    promotes water loss

    water output is significantly controlled through variations in what?

    urine volume

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    Final review of digestive system extra questions Flashcards

    Study Final review of digestive system extra questions flashcards. Create flashcards for FREE and quiz yourself with an interactive flipper.

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    Final review of digestive system extra

    questions 29cards Briana F. Biology

    Human Anatomy & Physiology

    Acid reflux into the esophagus (heartburn) is normally prevented by

    The lower esophageal sphincter (LES)

    Hydrochloric acid (HCl) is secreted by __________ cells

    Parietal

    __________, which is secreted by __________ cells, is necessary for Vitamin B12 absorption

    intrinsic factor; parietal

    Pepsinogen is produced by __________

    Chief cells

    Pepsinogen is activated by

    hydrochloric acid (HCl) secreted by parietal cells

    Why are several digestive enzymes secreted as zymogens?

    So they act only in the stomach lumen and do not digest intracellular proteins

    The enterogastric reflex serves to

    Inhibit gastric motility when there is chyme in the small intestine

    > 37. __________ is a hormone, whereas __________ is an enzyme

    Secretin: Pepsin

    . __________ is associated with food stretching the stomach and activating myenteric and vagovagal reflexes, which in turn stimulate gastric secretions

    The Gastric Phase Liver

    organ that stores excess glucose and relasease it into the blood

    A hepatic triad consists of

    Bile ductile, branch of hepatic artery, and branch of hepatic portal vein

    Of the following components of bile, only __________ has/have a digestive function

    bile salts

    The __________ synthesizes bile acids by metabolizing __________.

    liver cholesterol

    Pancreatic enzymes are secreted in response to the hormone

    cholecystokinin (CCK)

    not a component of the pancreatic juice?

    Enterokinase (secreted by duodenum to convert trypsinogen to trypsin)

    component of the pancreatic juice?

    a. Trypsinogen (trypsin digests protein) b. Chymotrypsinogen

    c. Deoxyribonuclease

    d. Sodium bicarbonate

    triglycerides

    nutrients absorbed by the lacteals of the small intestine

    Which of the following enzymes functions at the lowest pH?

    Pepsin (hydrochloric acid activates formation of this)

    site of contact digestion?

    brush border of the small intestine

    The small intestine has a very large absorptive surface associated with all these structures except

    > a. Curcular folds (plicae circulars)

    > b. Intestinal length

    > c. Microvilli > d. Villi > e. Rugae Rugae

    The migrating motor complex (overlapping waves of contraction)

    milks the chyme toward the colon

    The _________ of the small intestine is/ are similar to the _________ of the stomach

    intestinal crypts; gastric pits

    Carbohydrate digestion begins in the

    mouth

    protein digestion begins in the

    stomach

    . Bacteria constitute about __________% of the dry weight of the feces

    50%

    Defecation is stimulated by

    stretching of the rectum

    The three most abundant classes of nutrients are

    . fats, proteins, and carbohydrates

    Bacterial flora carry out all of the following except

    digest cellulose

    The muscle tone of the ________________ along the colon contracts it lengthwise, causing its walls to bulge and form pouches called _______________.

    taeniae coli; haustra

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