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    the state constitution provides the people the opportunity to directly vote on whether to accept or reject a proposed law. this is known as a

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    referendum and initiative

    referendum and initiative, electoral devices by which voters may express their wishes with regard to government policy or proposed legislation. They exist in a variety of forms. The referendum may be obligatory or optional. Under the obligatory type, a statute or constitution requires that certain classes of legislative action be referred to a popular vote for approval or rejection. For example, constitutional amendments proposed by legislatures in most of the states of the United States are subject to obligatory referendum. Under the optional (or facultative) referendum, a popular vote on a law passed by the legislature is required whenever petitioned

    referendum and initiative

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    By The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica • Edit History

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    referendum and initiative, electoral devices by which voters may express their wishes with regard to government policy or proposed legislation. They exist in a variety of forms.

    The referendum may be obligatory or optional. Under the obligatory type, a statute or constitution requires that certain classes of legislative action be referred to a popular vote for approval or rejection. For example, constitutional amendments proposed by legislatures in most of the states of the United States are subject to obligatory referendum. Under the optional (or facultative) referendum, a popular vote on a law passed by the legislature is required whenever petitioned by a specified number of voters. By this means actions of a legislature may be overruled. Obligatory and optional referenda should be distinguished from the voluntary referenda that legislatures submit to the voters to decide an issue or test public opinion.

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    election: Referendum and initiative

    The referendum and initiative are elections in which the preferences of the community are assessed on a particular issue;...

    Through the initiative a specified number of voters may petition to invoke a popular vote on a proposed law or an amendment to a constitution. An initiative may be direct (a proposal supported by the required number of voters is submitted directly to a popular vote for decision) or indirect (the proposal is submitted to the legislature). If an indirect initiative is rejected, the proposition is submitted to a popular vote, sometimes accompanied on the ballot by the legislature’s alternative proposal or a statement of the reasons for the rejection. The referendum for constitutional ratification was first used in the state of Massachusetts in 1778. Other forms of referendum and initiative were first used in Swiss cantonal government: the facultative referendum was used in the canton of Sankt Gallen in 1831, the initiative in Vaud in 1845, and the obligatory referendum in its modern form in rural Basel in 1863 (though it had appeared in earlier forms in 1852 and 1854). Both institutions have since been used freely in federal and cantonal matters.

    The Swiss experience with the devices of direct legislation was influential in the adoption of the initiative and the optional referendum in U.S. states and municipalities. The obligatory referendum on amendments to state constitutions proposed by state legislatures was first adopted by Connecticut in 1818 and has become the prevailing method for the amendment of all state constitutions. Some states require a referendum on bond issues; and among local governments, the obligatory referendum is widespread for bond issues, tax questions, and related matters. In the United States, these devices were adopted principally to curb the rule of political party machines and to correct the abuses and inadequacies of inflexible legislatures by granting the people a means to overrule legislative action and to initiate popular votes on legislation.

    Although the referendum and the initiative find most widespread use in the United States and the Swiss cantons, they are also provided for in the constitutions of several European and Commonwealth countries. The post-World War II constitutions of France and Italy made popular referenda obligatory for constitutional amendments. In Ireland and Australia, referenda are compulsory for all constitutional change. The constitutions of several states of Africa and Asia incorporate provisions intended to promote closer citizen participation in government, but generally what is called for is not true referendum or initiative but rather some form of plebiscitary device to support regimes or policies.

    The Editors of Encyclopaedia BritannicaThis article was most recently revised and updated by Brian Duignan.

    Source : www.britannica.com

    Civics and Economics questionssssss (: Flashcards

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    Civics and Economics questionssssss (:

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    which document included John Locke's philosophy that people have the right to overthrow an oppressive government?

    A. Magna Carta

    b. mayflower compact

    c. declaration of independence

    d. bill of rights.

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    C. Declaration of independence

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    Thomas paines common sense was a publication most influential in persuading colonists to support:

    A. additional British taxes on the colonies

    B. colonial independence

    C. the French and Indian war

    D. starting a monarchy in america.

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    B. colonial independence

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    1/19 Created by yaz_4563

    Most of these questions are from our Daily Quizzes.

    Terms in this set (19)

    which document included John Locke's philosophy that people have the right to overthrow an oppressive government?

    A. Magna Carta

    b. mayflower compact

    c. declaration of independence

    d. bill of rights.

    C. Declaration of independence

    Thomas paines common sense was a publication most influential in persuading colonists to support:

    A. additional British taxes on the colonies

    B. colonial independence

    C. the French and Indian war

    D. starting a monarchy in america.

    B. colonial independence

    A major weakness of government under the Articels of Confederation was that :

    A. Large states received more votes in congressthan small states did.

    B. The national government coud not enforce its laws.

    C. too much power was given to the president.

    D. state governments could not coin money.

    B. The national government coud not enforce its laws.

    Delegates to the Constitutional convention of 1787 wrote a new Constitution because:

    A. the revolutionary was over

    B. the articles of confederation were about to expire.

    C. they wanted to increase the power of the states.

    D. they believed that a stronger central government was necessary.

    D. they believed that a stronger central government was necessary.

    Which of the following was a main cause of the European colonization in America?

    A. Economic pursuits

    B. religious freedom

    C. escaping political oppression

    D. all of the above D. all of the above

    What was the main purpose of the mayflower compact?

    A. to establish freedom of religion in Plymouth.

    B. to ensure obedience to the king of england.

    C. to create a government that would help organize benefit the colony.

    D. to endow all colonists with the right to vote.

    C. to create a government that would help organize benefit the colony.

    The creation of the Virgina House of Burgesses was an important step in the development of democracy on colonial america because it:

    A. adopted a bill of rights for native Americans

    B. established a representative form of government.

    C. provided the 1st written Constitution in the colonies.

    D. allowed African American to vote.

    B. established a representative form of government.

    Which of the following best describes English Common Law?

    A. A system of law based on precedent and customs.

    B. laws passed to restrict common rights.

    C. laws that ignored property, contracts, and personal injury.

    D. a system of law that england has since declared void.

    A. A system of law based on precedent and customs.

    Which group had the most influence on the ideas stated in the DOC and the USC.

    A. political leaders of Spain and France

    B. Artists and writers of the Renaissance.

    C. Religious leaders of the medieval period.

    D. philosophers of the Enlightenment.

    D. philosophers of the Enlightenment.

    in 1996, who was given the right to veto legislation in NC?

    A. the Governor B. the house C. the senate

    D. The lieutenant Governor.

    A. the Governor

    Which of the following is the best definition of Federalism?

    A. A democratic form of government in which officials are elected y the people.

    B. a division of powers between the national and the state government.

    C. a belief in the idea of individual rights and freedoms for all.

    D. a form of government ruled by a king or a queen.

    B. a division of powers between the nation and the state government.

    what power was given to the Governor of NC as a result of a 1996 amendment?

    A. power to impose property tax.

    B. power to enact a state lottery.

    C. power to sign bills into statues.

    D. power to veto state legislation.

    D. power to veto state legislation.

    Which term describes the approval or rejection of a proposed constitutional amendment in some states by the popular vote?

    A)censure B)initiative C)recall D)referendum D)referendum

    The state Constitution provides the people the opportunity to directly vote on whether to accept or reject a proposed law. This is known as a:

    A)recall. B)statute. C)local act. D)referendum. D)referendum.

    Which BEST describes the way the Fourteenth Amendment affected the states?

    A)States had to give all citizens, regardless of their race or religion, equal protection under the law.

    Source : quizlet.com

    Initiative and referendum

    Ballotpedia: The Encyclopedia of American Politics

    Initiative and referendum

    Ballot Basics

    Amendments Citizen initiatives Indirect initiative

    Legislative referrals

    Convention referrals

    Statutes Citizen initiatives Indirect initiative

    Legislative referrals

    Advisory question

    Automatic ballot referral

    Bond issue Combined Commission referred Recall Veto referendum

    In the U.S., the terms initiative and referendum refer to processes that allow citizens of states to vote on particular pieces of legislation.

    The initiative process allows citizens to propose a new statute or constitutional amendment.

    The referendum process allows citizens to refer a law that passed the legislature to the ballot for voters to decide whether to uphold or repeal the law.

    In 26 states, a statewide initiative and/or referendum process is available to citizens. Some states that lack statewide initiatives and referendums allow for initiatives and referendums in local jurisdictions. There is no federal initiative and referendum process in the U.S.

    States with initiative and referendum

    The following 26 states have initiative and/or veto referendum processes at the statewide level. Washington, D.C. also has an initiative and referendum process at the districtwide level.

    Alaska Arizona Arkansas California Colorado Florida Idaho Illinois Maine

    Maryland (Veto referendum only)

    Massachusetts Michigan Mississippi Missouri Montana Nebraska Nevada

    New Mexico (Veto referendum only)

    North Dakota Ohio Oklahoma Oregon South Dakota Utah Washington Wyoming

    District of Columbia

    Types of ballot initiatives

    The types of ballot initiatives at the state level are:

    Initiated state statute

    Indirect initiated state statute

    Indirect initiative amendment

    Indirect initiated constitutional amendment

    Combined initiated constitutional amendment and state statute

    Veto referendum

    In addition to citizen-initiated ballot measures, there are several types of ballot measures, including automatic ballot referrals, bond issues, commission-referred constitutional amendments, constitutional convention questions, legislatively referred state statutes, and legislatively referred constitutional amendments.

    See also

    Forms of direct democracy in the American states

    States with initiative or referendum

    States without initiative or referendum

    Laws governing ballot measures

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    Laws governing ballot measures

    Laws governing ballot measures

    Alabama • Alaska • Arizona • Arkansas • California • Colorado • Connecticut • Delaware • Florida • Georgia • Hawaii • Idaho • Illinois • Indiana • Iowa • Kansas • Kentucky • Louisiana • Maine • Maryland • Massachusetts • Michigan • Minnesota • Mississippi • Missouri • Montana • Nebraska • Nevada • New Hampshire • New Jersey • New Mexico • New York • North Carolina • North Dakota • Ohio • Oklahoma • Oregon • Pennsylvania • Rhode Island • South Carolina • South Dakota • Tennessee • Texas • Utah • Vermont • Virginia • Washington • West Virginia • Wisconsin • Wyoming

    Laws governing initiatives

    Alaska • Arizona • Arkansas • California • Colorado • Florida • Idaho • Illinois • Maine • Maryland • Massachusetts • Michigan • Mississippi • Missouri • Montana • Nebraska • New Mexico • Nevada • North Dakota • Ohio • Oklahoma • Oregon • South Dakota • Utah • Washington • Wyoming

    Laws governing

    recall

    Alabama • Alaska • Arizona • Arkansas • California • Colorado • Connecticut • Florida • Georgia • Idaho • Illinois • Kansas • Louisiana • Maine • Massachusetts • Michigan • Minnesota • Missouri • Montana • Nebraska • Nevada • New Hampshire • New Jersey • New Mexico • New York • North Dakota • Ohio • Oklahoma • Oregon • Rhode Island • South Dakota • Tennessee • Texas • Virginia • Washington • West Virginia • Wisconsin • Wyoming

    Laws governing

    local ballot

    measures

    Alabama • Alaska • Arizona • Arkansas • California • Colorado • Connecticut • Delaware • Florida • Georgia • Hawaii • Idaho • Illinois • Indiana • Iowa • Kansas • Kentucky • Louisiana • Maine • Maryland • Massachusetts • Michigan • Minnesota • Mississippi • Missouri • Montana • Nebraska • Nevada • New Hampshire • New Jersey • New Mexico • New York • North Carolina • North Dakota • Ohio • Oklahoma • Oregon • Pennsylvania • Rhode Island • South Carolina • South Dakota • Tennessee • Texas • Utah • Vermont • Virginia • Washington • West Virginia • Wisconsin • Wyoming

    Signature requirements

    Alaska • Arizona • Arkansas • California • Colorado • Florida • Idaho • Illinois • Maine • Maryland • Massachusetts • Michigan • Mississippi • Missouri • Montana • Nebraska • Nevada • New Mexico • North Dakota • Ohio • Oklahoma • Oregon • South Dakota • Utah • Washington • Washington, D.C. • Wyoming

    Lawsuits

    2020 litigation • 2019 litigation • 2018 litigation • 2017 litigation • 2016 litigation • 2015 litigation • 2014 litigation • 2013 litigation • 2012 litigation • 2011 litigation • 2010 litigation • 2009 litigation • 2008 litigation • Ballot title litigation • Lawsuit news • Pay-per-signature litigation • Petitioner access • Post-certification signature challenges • Prohibited subjects • Signature challenges • Signature recovery lawsuits • Single-subject lawsuits • Superseding initiatives

    Source : ballotpedia.org

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