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    the stability of a system is influenced by all of the __________ in the system, especially those in the feedback loop.

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    Mr. Hosford's Tech Ed Flashcards

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    Mr. Hosford's Tech Ed

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    Mr. Hosford's Tech Ed

    semester a exam review

    79 Other 11th Grade 01/14/2010

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    Term

    market forces are driven by _____ for companies that can meet and satisfy consumer demand

    Definition

    profit

    Term

    there are ____ core technologies

    Definition

    nine

    Term

    complex systems can either be ___-loop or _____-loop

    Definition

    open or closed

    Term

    many technology transfers or spin-offs come from developments in technology from ____

    Definition

    nasa

    Term

    our environment and our social setting determine our _____ and _____, and the technologies developed to meet them.

    Definition

    needs and wants

    Term

    an _____ is the conception of a new and useful article, machine, composition, process, or system.

    Definition

    invention

    Term

    the stability of a technological system is influenced by all of the _______ in the system, especially those in the feedback loop

    Definition

    components

    Term

    technological process promotes the advancement of _______ and __________

    Definition

    science and mathematics

    Term

    the pace of technological development, invention, and innovation is growing at an ________ rate

    Definition

    exponential

    Term

    the core technologies provide numerous opportunities to describe, analyze, and predict physical phenomena using ______

    Definition

    mathematics

    Term

    technological systems include input, processes, output, and at times, ______

    Definition

    feedback

    Term

    technological ideas are sometimes protected through the process of ______

    Definition

    patenting

    Term

    _______ offers a language with which to express relationships in science and technology and provides analytical tools for scientists and engineers

    Definition

    mathematics

    Term

    market forces determine an investment in _______ and ________ of new technologies

    Definition

    research and development

    Term

    an ______ is the creation and introduction of something new to an already existing invention, product, idea, or system

    Definition

    innovation

    Term

    optimization is designing for _____

    Definition

    perfection

    Term

    systems, which are the building blocks of technology, are _____ within larger technological, social, and environmental systems

    Definition

    embedded

    Term

    a patent is good for __ years

    Definition

    20

    Term

    _____ provides the knowledge about the natural world that underlies most technological products today

    Definition

    science

    Term

    the core technologies are considered to be the basic " _______ ________" from which all technology systems are created

    Definition

    building blocks

    Term

    _____ is the study of the human-made world

    Definition

    technology

    Term

    quality control is concerned with how well a product, service, or system conforms to _________ and _______ required by the design

    Definition

    specifications and tolerances

    Term

    technology _____ occurs when a new user applies an existing innovation developed for one purpose in a different function

    Definition

    transfer

    Term

    the more parts and connections in a system, the more likely it is that something may not work properly and system _____ occurs

    Definition

    failure

    Term

    technological ______ often results when ideas, knowledge, or skills are shared within a technology, among technologies, or across other fields

    Definition

    innovation

    Term

    core technologies produce technology _______

    Definition

    systems

    Term

    the bronze age began with the discovery of _______ based metal

    Definition

    copper

    Term

    the iron age was defined by the use of iron and ________ as the primary materials for tools

    Definition

    steel

    Term

    the exchange of one thing in return for another, especially the relinquishment of one benefit or advantage for another that is regarded as more desirable

    Definition

    trade-off

    Term

    public opinions and demands affect the __________ with respects to products and systems

    Definition

    market-place

    Term

    technology, by itself, is neither good nor bad, but decisions about the use of products and systems can result in desirable or undesirable __________

    Definition

    consequences

    Term

    __________resources have a limited supply andcannot be replaced once they are used up

    Definition

    exhaustible

    Term

    proper ________ will give us a constant supply of resources

    Definition

    management

    Term

    the stone age started as a development of _________

    Definition

    stone tools

    Term

    the __________ a time of rebirth of the arts and humanities, was also an important development in the history of technology

    Source : www.flashcardmachine.com

    Closed

    Electronics Tutorial about how a Closed-loop System and Closed-loop Control Systems work and how they can be used as part of a Process Control System

    Systems in which the output quantity has no effect upon the input to the control process are called open-loop control systems, and that open-loop systems are just that, open ended non-feedback systems.

    But the goal of any electrical or electronic control system is to measure, monitor, and control a process and one way in which we can accurately control the process is by monitoring its output and “feeding” some of it back to compare the actual output with the desired output so as to reduce the error and if disturbed, bring the output of the system back to the original or desired response.

    The quantity of the output being measured is called the “feedback signal”, and the type of control system which uses feedback signals to both control and adjust itself is called a Close-loop System.

    A Closed-loop Control System, also known as a feedback control system is a control system which uses the concept of an open loop system as its forward path but has one or more feedback loops (hence its name) or paths between its output and its input. The reference to “feedback”, simply means that some portion of the output is returned “back” to the input to form part of the systems excitation.

    Closed-loop systems are designed to automatically achieve and maintain the desired output condition by comparing it with the actual condition. It does this by generating an error signal which is the difference between the output and the reference input. In other words, a “closed-loop system” is a fully automatic control system in which its control action being dependent on the output in some way.

    So for example, consider our electric clothes dryer from the previous Open-loop tutorial. Suppose we used a sensor or transducer (input device) to continually monitor the temperature or dryness of the clothes and feed a signal relating to the dryness back to the controller as shown below.

    Closed-loop Control

    This sensor would monitor the actual dryness of the clothes and compare it with (or subtract it from) the input reference. The error signal (error = required dryness – actual dryness) is amplified by the controller, and the controller output makes the necessary correction to the heating system to reduce any error. For example if the clothes are too wet the controller may increase the temperature or drying time. Likewise, if the clothes are nearly dry it may reduce the temperature or stop the process so as not to overheat or burn the clothes, etc.

    Then the closed-loop configuration is characterised by the feedback signal, derived from the sensor in our clothes drying system. The magnitude and polarity of the resulting error signal, would be directly related to the difference between the required dryness and actual dryness of the clothes.

    Also, because a closed-loop system has some knowledge of the output condition, (via the sensor) it is better equipped to handle any system disturbances or changes in the conditions which may reduce its ability to complete the desired task.

    For example, as before, the dryer door opens and heat is lost. This time the deviation in temperature is detected by the feedback sensor and the controller self-corrects the error to maintain a constant temperature within the limits of the preset value. Or possibly stops the process and activates an alarm to inform the operator.

    As we can see, in a closed-loop control system the error signal, which is the difference between the input signal and the feedback signal (which may be the output signal itself or a function of the output signal), is fed to the controller so as to reduce the systems error and bring the output of the system back to a desired value. In our case the dryness of the clothes. Clearly, when the error is zero the clothes are dry.

    The term Closed-loop control always implies the use of a feedback control action in order to reduce any errors within the system, and its “feedback” which distinguishes the main differences between an open-loop and a closed-loop system.The accuracy of the output thus depends on the feedback path, which in general can be made very accurate and within electronic control systems and circuits, feedback control is more commonly used than open-loop or feed forward control.

    Closed-loop systems have many advantages over open-loop systems. The primary advantage of a closed-loop feedback control system is its ability to reduce a system’s sensitivity to external disturbances, for example opening of the dryer door, giving the system a more robust control as any changes in the feedback signal will result in compensation by the controller.

    Then we can define the main characteristics of Closed-loop Control as being:

    To reduce errors by automatically adjusting the systems input.

    To improve stability of an unstable system.

    To increase or reduce the systems sensitivity.

    To enhance robustness against external disturbances to the process.

    To produce a reliable and repeatable performance.

    Whilst a good closed-loop system can have many advantages over an open-loop control system, its main disadvantage is that in order to provide the required amount of control, a closed-loop system must be more complex by having one or more feedback paths. Also, if the gain of the controller is too sensitive to changes in its input commands or signals it can become unstable and start to oscillate as the controller tries to over-correct itself, and eventually something would break. So we need to “tell” the system how we want it to behave within some pre-defined limits.

    Source : www.electronics-tutorials.ws

    System and system thinking Flashcards

    Study with Quizlet and memorize flashcards terms like Simple as well as complex systems can be either ____-loop or ______-loop, Systems thinking applies logic and __________ with appropriate compromises in complex real-life problems., Technological systems include input, processes, output, and at times and more.

    System and system thinking

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    Simple as well as complex systems can be either ____-loop or ______-loop

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    open, closed

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    Systems thinking applies logic and __________ with appropriate compromises in complex real-life problems.

    Click card to see definition 👆

    creativity

    Click again to see term 👆

    1/13 Created by ravenashley12

    Terms in this set (13)

    Simple as well as complex systems can be either ____-loop or ______-loop

    open, closed

    Systems thinking applies logic and __________ with appropriate compromises in complex real-life problems.

    creativity

    Technological systems include input, processes, output, and at times

    feedback

    Control of open-loop systems often requires ___________ intervention

    Human

    (Examples: Steering a bicycle, filling a bath tub)

    Systems, which are the building blocks of technology, are ___________ within larger technological, social, and environmental systems.

    embedded

    a group of interrelated components designed collectively to achieve a desired goal.

    system

    system is a control system that uses feedback from the output to control the input

    close-loop (Examples: Cruise control on a car, a furnace thermostat, a toilet tank water shut-off)

    involves considering how every part of a system relates to others for a common purpose.

    Systems thinking

    The stability of a technological system is influenced by all of the __________ in the system, especially those in the feedback loop.

    components

    is a combination of materials, devices, structures, information and energy working together to solve problems and extend human capabilities.

    ) technology system

    a system is done in terms of its individual parts or in terms of the whole system and how it interacts with or relates to other systems

    Analyzing

    Systems also appear in many aspects of daily life, such as solar, political, biological, and civil systems.

    True

    Life on earth should not be thought of as a complex web of interconnected natural and human-made systems because technology and nature don't mix.

    False

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