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    the sodium-potassium pump is involved in active transport that moves 3 sodium ions from the cell for every 2 potassium ions it moves into the cell. which of these best explains why energy is needed for active transport?

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    Cellular Transport

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    Biology

    Cellular Transport

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    17 Qs

    Show Answers See Preview 1. Multiple-choice 1 minute Q.

    If there is a concentration gradient, substances will move from an area of high concentration to an area of ________ concentration

    answer choices low equal 2. Multiple-choice 1 minute Q.

    Which of these is NOT a type of passive transport?

    answer choices Endocytosis Osmosis Diffusion

    Facilitated diffusion

    3. Multiple-choice 1 minute Q.

    This picture represents which type of cellular transport?

    answer choices passive transport endocytosis exocytosis osmosis 4. Multiple-choice 1 minute Q.

    If a molecule moves into a cell from low concentration to high concentration, what type of transportation is being performed?

    answer choices Diffusion Active Transport

    Facilitated Diffusion

    Osmosis 5. Multiple-choice 1 minute Q.

    Movement across the cell membrane that does not require energy is called

    answer choices active transport passive transport 6. Multiple-choice 1 minute Q.

    Osmosis is the movement of _____ across a membrane.

    answer choices food energy oxygen water 7. Multiple-choice 1 minute Q.

    Which is true about active transport?

    answer choices It requires energy

    it does not require energy

    It moves substances down the concentration gradient

    it moves material from high to low concentration

    8. Multiple-choice 1 minute Q.

    This picture represents what type of cell transport?

    answer choices endocytosis exocytosis osmosis passive transport 9. Multiple-choice 1 minute Q.

    The salt in the glass of saltwater is considered the

    answer choices solvent solution pepper solute 10. Multiple-choice 1 minute Q.

    This is what type of solution?

    answer choices hypotonic isotonic hypertonic 11. Multiple-choice 1 minute Q.

    This solution causes cells to shrivel

    answer choices isotonic hypotonic hypertonic 12. Multiple-choice 1 minute Q.

    Which cell is placed into a hypotonic environment?

    answer choices A B C D 13. Multiple-choice 1 minute Q.

    A cell in an isotonic solution will

    answer choices swell shrink stay the same size impossible to tell 14. Multiple-choice 1 minute Q.

    The cell to the right has been place in a/an

    answer choices hypertonic solution hypotonic solution isotonic solution cannot tell 15. Multiple-choice 1 minute Q.

    What type of transport is this?

    answer choices

    facilitated diffusion

    active transport diffusion osmosis 16. Multiple-choice 5 minutes Q.

    The cellular process know as the sodium-potassium pump was discovered in the 1950s by Jens Christian Skou, a Danish scientist. The process is a form of active transport that moves three sodium ions to the outside of a cell for every two potassium ions that it moves into the cell. Which of these best explains why energy is needed for active transport?

    answer choices

    Ions are negatively charged

    Ions are attached to large proteins

    Ions are trapped inside the plasma membrane

    Ions are moved against the concentration gradient

    17. Multiple-choice 5 minutes Q.

    Some students used vinegar to dissolve away the shells of three eggs and used these eggs as models of human red blood cells. The students observed the changes in the eggs when they were placed in different solutions.

    Which statement best describes the role of the cell membrane in this model?

    answer choices

    The cell membrane is an impermeable barrier that prevents water from entering the cell

    The cell membrane allows solutes to enter the cell, which causes the cell to shrink

    The cell membrane allows water to enter and leave the cell

    The cell membrane removes solutes from the environment

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    Active transport: primary & secondary overview (article)

    Electrochemical gradients and the membrane potential. Primary and secondary active transport. Na+/K+ pump.

    Facilitated diffusion

    Active transport

    Electrochemical gradients and the membrane potential. Primary and secondary active transport. Na+/K+ pump.

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    Introduction

    Passive transport is a great strategy for moving molecules into or out of a cell. It's cheap, it's easy, and all the cell has to do is sit there and let the molecules diffuse in. But...it also doesn't work in every situation. For instance, suppose the sugar glucose is more concentrated inside of a cell than outside. If the cell needs more sugar in to meet its metabolic needs, how can it get that sugar in?

    Here, the cell can't import glucose for free using diffusion, because the natural tendency of the glucose will be to diffuse out rather than flowing in. Instead, the cell must bring in more glucose molecules via active transport. In active transport, unlike passive transport, the cell expends energy (for example, in the form of ATP) to move a substance against its concentration gradient.

    Here, we’ll look in more detail at gradients of molecules that exist across cell membranes, how they can help or hinder transport, and how active transport mechanisms allow molecules to move against their gradients.

    Electrochemical gradients

    We have already discussed simple concentration gradients, in which a substance is found in different concentrations over a region of space or on opposite sides of a membrane. However, because atoms and molecules can form ions and carry positive or negative electrical charges, there may also be an electrical gradient, or difference in charge, across a plasma membrane. In fact, living cells typically have what’s called a membrane potential, an electrical potential difference (voltage) across their cell membrane.

    Image depicting the charge and ion distribution across the membrane of a typical cell. Overall, there are more positive charges on the outside of the membrane than on the inside. The concentration of sodium ions is lower inside the cell than in the extracellular fluid, while the reverse is true for potassium ions.

    Image credit: image from OpenStax Biology, originally by Synaptitude/Wikimedia Commons.

    An electrical potential difference exists whenever there is a net separation of charges in space. In the case of a cell, positive and negative charges are separated by the barrier of the cell membrane, with the inside of the cell having extra negative charges relative to the outside. The membrane potential of a typical cell is -40 to -80 millivolts, with the minus sign meaning that inside of the cell is more negative than the outside

    ^1 1

    start superscript, 1, end superscript

    . The cell actively maintains this membrane potential, and we’ll see how it forms in the section on the sodium-potassium pump (below).

    As an example of how the membrane potential can affect ion movement, let’s look at sodium and potassium ions. In general, the inside of a cell has a higher concentration of potassium (K

    ^+ +

    start superscript, plus, end superscript

    ) and a lower concentration of sodium (Na

    ^+ +

    start superscript, plus, end superscript

    ) than the extracellular fluid around it.

    If sodium ions are outside of a cell, they will tend to move into the cell based on both their concentration gradient (the lower concentration of Na

    ^+ +

    start superscript, plus, end superscript

    in the cell) and the voltage across the membrane (the more negative charge on the inside of the membrane).

    Because K ^+ +

    start superscript, plus, end superscript

    is positive, the voltage across the membrane will encourage its movement into the cell, but its concentration gradient will tend to drive it out of the cell (towards the region of lower concentration). The final concentrations of potassium on the two sides of the membrane will be a balance between these opposing forces.

    The combination of concentration gradient and voltage that affects an ion’s movement is called the electrochemical gradient.

    Active transport: moving against a gradient

    To move substances against a concentration or electrochemical gradient, a cell must use energy. Active transport mechanisms do just this, expending energy (often in the form of ATP) to maintain the right concentrations of ions and molecules in living cells. In fact, cells spend much of the energy they harvest in metabolism to keep their active transport processes running. For instance, most of a red blood cell’s energy is used to maintain internal sodium and potassium levels that differ from those of the surrounding environment.

    Active transport mechanisms can be divided into two categories. Primary active transport directly uses a source of chemical energy (e.g., ATP) to move molecules across a membrane against their gradient. Secondary active transport (cotransport), on the other hand, uses an electrochemical gradient – generated by active transport – as an energy source to move molecules against their gradient, and thus does not directly require a chemical source of energy such as ATP. We’ll look at each type of active transport in greater detail below.

    Source : www.khanacademy.org

    2.16: Sodium

    2.16: Sodium-Potassium Pump

    Last updated Mar 6, 2021

    2.15: Active Transport

    2.17: Exocytosis and Endocytosis

    What is this incredible object?

    Would it surprise you to learn that it is a human cell? The image represents an active human nerve cell. How nerve cells function will be the focus of another concept. However, active transport processes play a significant role in the function of these cells. Specifically, it is the sodium-potassium pump that is active in the axons of these nerve cells.

    The Sodium-Potassium Pump

    Active transport is the energy-requiring process of pumping molecules and ions across membranes "uphill" - against a concentration gradient. To move these molecules against their concentration gradient, a carrier protein is needed. Carrier proteins can work with a concentration gradient (during passive transport), but some carrier proteins can move solutes against the concentration gradient (from low concentration to high concentration), with an input of energy. In active transport, as carrier proteins are used to move materials against their concentration gradient, these proteins are known as pumps. As in other types of cellular activities, ATP supplies the energy for most active transport. One way ATP powers active transport is by transferring a phosphate group directly to a carrier protein. This may cause the carrier protein to change its shape, which moves the molecule or ion to the other side of the membrane. An example of this type of active transport system, as shown in Figure below, is the sodium-potassium pump, which exchanges sodium ions for potassium ions across the plasma membrane of animal cells.

    The sodium-potassium pump system moves sodium and potassium ions against large concentration gradients. It moves two potassium ions into the cell where potassium levels are high, and pumps three sodium ions out of the cell and into the extracellular fluid.

    As is shown in Figure above, three sodium ions bind with the protein pump inside the cell. The carrier protein then gets energy from ATP and changes shape. In doing so, it pumps the three sodium ions out of the cell. At that point, two potassium ions from outside the cell bind to the protein pump. The potassium ions are then transported into the cell, and the process repeats. The sodium-potassium pump is found in the plasma membrane of almost every human cell and is common to all cellular life. It helps maintain cell potential and regulates cellular volume.

    A more detailed look at the sodium-potassium pump is available at http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=C_H-ONQFjpQ (13:53) and http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ye3rTjLCvAU (6:48).

    The Electrochemical Gradient

    The active transport of ions across the membrane causes an electrical gradient to build up across the plasma membrane. The number of positively charged ions outside the cell is greater than the number of positively charged ions in the cytosol. This results in a relatively negative charge on the inside of the membrane, and a positive charge on the outside. This difference in charges causes a voltage across the membrane. Voltage is electrical potential energy that is caused by a separation of opposite charges, in this case across the membrane. The voltage across a membrane is called membrane potential. Membrane potential is very important for the conduction of electrical impulses along nerve cells.

    Because the inside of the cell is negative compared to outside the cell, the membrane potential favors the movement of positively charged ions (cations) into the cell, and the movement of negative ions (anions) out of the cell. So, there are two forces that drive the diffusion of ions across the plasma membrane—a chemical force (the ions' concentration gradient), and an electrical force (the effect of the membrane potential on the ions’ movement). These two forces working together are called an electrochemical gradient, and will be discussed in detail in "Nerve Cells" and "Nerve Impulses" concepts.

    Summary

    Active transport is the energy-requiring process of pumping molecules and ions across membranes against a concentration gradient.

    The sodium-potassium pump is an active transport pump that exchanges sodium ions for potassium ions.

    Explore More

    Use this resource to answer the questions that follow.

    The Sodium–Potassium Pump at http://sites.sinauer.com/neuroscience5e/animations04.02.html.

    Are there more sodium ions on the outside of cells or the inside?

    Are there more potassium ions on the outside of cells or the inside?

    Describe the role of ATP in active transport.

    What happens after the pump is phosphorylated?

    Source : bio.libretexts.org

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