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    the revolutionary war is often thought of as a conflict between great britain and one of its colonies. identify some other perspectives that can help us better understand the conflict.

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    The American Revolution, 1763

    Explore important topics and moments in U.S. history through historical primary sources from the Library of Congress.

    The American Revolution, 1763 - 1783

    Overview

    Until the end of the Seven Years' War in 1763, few colonists in British North America objected to their place in the British Empire.

    British Reforms and Colonial Resistance, 1763-1766

    When the French and Indian War finally ended in 1763, no British subject on either side of the Atlantic could have foreseen the coming conflicts between the parent country and its North American colonies.

    British Reforms and Colonial Resistance, 1767-1772

    Even after the repeal of the Stamp Act, many colonists still had grievances with British colonial policies.

    The Colonies Move Toward Open Rebellion, 1773-1774

    After the Boston Massacre and the repeal of most of the Townshend Duties (the duty on tea remained in force), a period of relative quiet descended on the British North American colonies. Even so, the crises of the past decade had created incompatible mindsets on opposite sides of the Atlantic.

    First Shots of War, 1775

    For some months, people in the colonies had been gathering arms and powder and had been training to fight the British, if necessary, at a moment's notice.

    Creating a Continental Army

    According to Washington's aide Alexander Hamilton, the military strategy the General would pursue throughout the Revolutionary War would be to preserve a good army, to take advantage of favorable opportunities, and waste and defeat the enemy by piecemeal.

    Revolutionary War: Northern Front, 1775-1777

    In the first eighteen months of armed conflict with the British (the conflict would not become a "war for independence" until July 4, 1776), Washington had begun to create an army and forced the British army in Boston to evacuate that city in March 1776.

    Revolutionary War: The Turning Point, 1776-1777

    In 1777, the British were still in excellent position to quell the rebellion. Had it not been for a variety of mistakes, they probably could have won the war.

    Revolutionary War: Southern Phase, 1778-1781

    The Continental victory at Saratoga in 1777 and the Treaty with the French in 1778 transformed the war, especially for the British.

    Revolutionary War: The Home Front

    Defining a "home front" in the Revolutionary War is difficult because so much of the thirteen states became, at one time or another, an actual theater of war.

    Revolutionary War: Groping Toward Peace, 1781-1783

    The year 1781 was momentous for the American Revolution.

    Source : www.loc.gov

    British Perspective American Revolution

    On November 23, 1765, Francis Bernard, the royal governor of Massachusetts posed this question in a letter in which the answer would result in blows ten years...

    REV WAR  |  ARTICLE

    British Perspective American Revolution

    By Phillip S. Greenwalt

    On November 23, 1765, Francis Bernard, the royal governor of Massachusetts posed this question in a letter in which the answer would result in blows ten years later between the colonies and the mother country.

    “The question whether America shall or shall not be subject to the legislature of Great Britain..”

    From that central question the British populace, Parliament, military, and monarchy would mull on as the decade of the 1760s turned to the 1770s and eventually as the proverbial “shots heard around the world” were fired in April 1775.

    In the twelve years from the conclusion of the Seven Years War or French and Indian War as North Americans remembered it, the British Parliament, saddled with a huge war debt and the responsibility of administering the world’s largest empire at that time, levied new taxes and duties on their American brethren. Multiple ministers, five within the first ten years of King George III’s rule, plied their hand to these until finally, the king settled on Lord Frederick North in January 1770. North eventually served until 1782. The decrees from London enacted a series of measures, both peaceful and violent, between colonists and the British government. As the colonists split themselves, into pro-revolutionary and eventual independence supporters and loyalists as those who remained committed to the British crown and government were called, so too did British politicians and subjects pick sides.

    "The Destruction of Tea at Boston Harbor" lithograph

    Like their king, the British public initially hardened against the rebels in the colonies. After the Boston Tea Party, King George III wanted stronger more coercive measures against the colonists, perceiving that leniency in British regulation as the culprit of the escalating tension in North America. His stance in 1774 was to “withstand every attempt to weaken or impair” royal sovereign authority anywhere in the empire. The following year, he thought the “deluded Americans [should] feel the necessity of returning to their Duty” and in that regard declined to even lay eyes on the “Olive Branch Petition” sent by John Dickinson of Pennsylvania as a document asking for royal help to solve the differences between colonists and the British Parliament.

    With the fighting that erupted in Massachusetts on April 19, 1775, a “Rubicon”, as the patriot John Adams called the change from words to bullets, was crossed. Hardening resolves on either side of the Atlantic caused the rupture to grow, with independence declared in Philadelphia and the stance of subduing the rebellion in London. With the popularity of newspapers and communiques, such as letters and dispatches, the British public was kept aware of the opening events in America; especially with the first shots at Lexington and Concord.

    On July 22, 1776, the Third Duke of Portland received a letter from his wife in Nottinghamshire of “unpleasant news, that from America I trust in God is not true, it is really shocking.” The same duke received another type of letter from a fellow Englishman asking him to “preserve this country” and find a way to “cut Britain’s losses” with the war seeming to grow in North America. In the same vein but looking from a different perspective, an English author warned in pamphlet form that the loss of America would cut a swath into the British Empire and result in “inclosing us within the confined seas of England, Ireland, and Scotland.”

    With a hardening resolve from the monarchy which was witnessed as well in Parliament, there was still, obviously, some of the British public that were anxious about hostilities between the colonies and the mother country. One set was merchants, who had a fair amount to lose with trade being disrupted by conflict. A group of Bristol, England merchants wrote to King George III in 1775 voicing their “most anxious apprehensions for ourselves and Posterity that we behold the growing distractions in America threaten” and ask for their majesty’s “Wisdom and Goodness” to save them from “a lasting and ruinous Civil War.” In addition, those of the working class of Britons viewed the affair in the North American colonies through a more positive prism and one that may usher in a new era for the world and possibly reform for their disenfranchisement.

    "Surrender of General Burgoyne," painted by John Trumbull in 1821. This scene depicts General John Burgoyne surrenders to American General Horatio Gates at Saratoga on October 17, 1777.

    The king would stay steadfast in his belief that war should be prosecuted until the colonies were subdued. Even after the defeat at Saratoga, New York in 1777, the entry of France which globalized the conflict, and even over the debates of his government officials to the contrary. In the king’s mind, ultimate victory in America was paramount to the very survival of the British Empire. However, as noted above, the same could not be said of all Britons, as some, like the Right Honorable Thomas Townshend had seen as early as October 1776, that “the Government and Majority have drawn us into a war, that in our opinions is unjust in its Principle and ruinous in its consequences.” Prophetic words at the opening stages of the long conflict.

    Source : www.battlefields.org

    Chapter 6 Inquizitive Flashcards

    Give Me Liberty, Eric Foner, 5th edition, volume 1 Learn with flashcards, games, and more — for free.

    Chapter 6 Inquizitive

    4.4 19 Reviews

    In what ways did the expansion of the definition of liberty and the proliferation of democratic practices change religious practice in the early United States? (video)

    Click card to see definition 👆

    Correct Responses:

    - The disestablishment of state - sponsored churches allowed for the proliferation of religious denominations.

    - Democratic liberty challenged the traditional authority of some religious traditions.

    Click again to see term 👆

    Match the trailblazer from this period with his / her correct description.

    A - Joseph Brant B - Hannah Snell C - Lemuel Haynes

    D - Mercy Otis Warren

    E - Phillis Wheatley

    Click card to see definition 👆

    A = This young Mohawk hoped to create an Indian Confederacy between the new United States and Canada.

    B = This woman joined the British army in 1745 disguised as a man; later she was awarded a soldier's pension.

    C = This veteran of the Massachusetts militia and noted preacher was an early proponent of extending freedom and equality to people of African heritage.

    D = This woman established the Boston Committee of Correspondence, proving that women could participate in intellectual discussion.

    E = The poetic talents of this woman challenged Americans' idea that black persons were devoid of intellectual ability.

    Click again to see term 👆

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    Give Me Liberty, Eric Foner, 5th edition, volume 1

    Terms in this set (34)

    In what ways did the expansion of the definition of liberty and the proliferation of democratic practices change religious practice in the early United States? (video)

    Correct Responses:

    - The disestablishment of state - sponsored churches allowed for the proliferation of religious denominations.

    - Democratic liberty challenged the traditional authority of some religious traditions.

    Match the trailblazer from this period with his / her correct description.

    A - Joseph Brant B - Hannah Snell C - Lemuel Haynes

    D - Mercy Otis Warren

    E - Phillis Wheatley

    A = This young Mohawk hoped to create an Indian Confederacy between the new United States and Canada.

    B = This woman joined the British army in 1745 disguised as a man; later she was awarded a soldier's pension.

    C = This veteran of the Massachusetts militia and noted preacher was an early proponent of extending freedom and equality to people of African heritage.

    D = This woman established the Boston Committee of Correspondence, proving that women could participate in intellectual discussion.

    E = The poetic talents of this woman challenged Americans' idea that black persons were devoid of intellectual ability.

    Identify why Jefferson's assertion in the Declaration of Independence that "all men are created equal" was viewed as a radical principle.

    Correct Responses:

    - In Britain and in the colonies, the conventional belief was that well - ordered society depended on obedience to authority.

    - It implied that liberties were entitlements (rights people are entitled to by virtue of being born), rather than privileges earned through social status, familial ties, wealth, or property ownership.

    Identify the statements that describe the Loyalists in colonial America.

    Correct Responses:

    - They came from all classes of American life.

    - They took up arms in defense of the empire against the Revolution.

    What does the map reveal about political allegiances during the Revolutionary War? (image)

    Correct Responses:

    - The majority of colonists either strongly supported the patriots or Loyalists; very few were neutral.

    - Strong loyalty to the British government was not widespread. The locations of Loyalists communities correlate more with ethnic settlements than with factors of class or race.

    Traditional notions of "liberty" shifted in the American colonial context and were further redefined during the early republic. Identify which characteristics describe British concepts of liberty versus those that describe American concepts of liberty.

    British concept of liberty:

    - Rights are privileges held by few in society.

    - Social status is largely hereditary and fixed.

    American concept of liberty:

    - One's social status may change over the course of his/her lifetime.

    - Equality of economic opportunity.

    Both British and American concepts of liberty:

    - Women had few if any legal rights.

    Identify the statements that were true of slavery - both the concept and the practice - in the post-revolutionary period.

    Correct Responses:

    - Most founders owned slaves, even though they promoted the concept of liberty and equality as natural entitlements.

    - Many ex - slaves began life anew as free persons in Nova Scotia and England.

    - Some members of the founding generation argued that liberty for whites was possible only because of the enslavement of blacks.

    - Revolutionaries used the word "slavery" to describe the denial of personal and political rights by a tyrannical government.

    The following excerpt from the 1773 and 1777 Petitions of Slaves to the Massachusetts Legislature. Identify the statements that are correct.

    Correct Responses:

    - The petitioners describe themselves as having lived in civilized conditions in Africa.

    Source : quizlet.com

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