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    the method of passing microorganisms by touching is called

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    Routes of transmission

    Find out how you can pick up germs and pass them on to others.

    Routes of transmission

    The spreading of microbes is called transmission.

    Transmission involves the following stages:

    Different pathogens have different modes of transmission. For example respiratory pathogens are usually airborne and intestinal pathogens are usually spread by water or food.

    The main routes of transmission are listed below.

    Person-to-person

    Touch

    A cold can be caught by shaking the hand of a person who has a cold and who has just used their hand to wipe their dripping nose. The mucus from the nose will be teeming with cold virus particles such as the rhinovirus, which causes one third of colds in adults. Once the cold virus particles are on the hands of the second person they are contaminated and the virus can be transferred into their nose by their fingers.

    Transmission

    Transmission by person to person contact. Measles, mumps and tuberculosis can be spread by coughing or sneezing. A cough or a sneeze can release millions of microbes into the air in droplets of mucus or saliva which can then infect somebody else if they breathe in the infected particles.

    Contaminated blood or other bodily fluids

    Hepatitis B and HIV can be spread through sexual intercourse or sharing used syringe needles contaminated with infected blood.

    Saliva

    A cold or the flu can be caught from the saliva of an infected person when you kiss them.

    Measles, mumps and tuberculosis can be spread by coughing or sneezing. A cough or a sneeze can release millions of microbes into the air in droplets of mucus or saliva which can then infect somebody else if they breathe in the infected particles.

    Microbes need nutrients for growth and they like to consume the same foods as humans. They can get into our food at any point along the food chain from ‘plough to plate’. Therefore great care must be taken at every stage of food production to ensure that harmful microbes are not allowed to survive and multiply. If they do they can cause the unpleasant symptoms of food poisoning such as sickness and diarrhoea when the contaminated food is eaten.

    Insects can also transmit pathogens to food

    Microbes can be spread from one food to another during the preparation process, for example by unclean hands, or dirty kitchen utensils, and cause illness when those foods are eaten. This is known as cross-contamination.

    Water

    Some diseases are caused by drinking water that is contaminated by human or animal faeces, which may contain disease-causing microbes. Clean water, hygiene and good sewerage systems prevent the spread of water-borne diseases such as typhoid and cholera.

    Insects

    Insects are responsible for spreading many diseases. Malaria is spread from person to person by certain species of female mosquito carrying the protozoan Plasmodium falciparum. The parasite enters the human host when an infected mosquito takes a blood meal. Bubonic plague (Black Death) is a bacterial disease of rodents caused by Yersinia pestis. It can be spread to humans and other animals by infected rat fleas. People usually get plague from being bitten by a rodent flea that is carrying the plague bacterium.

    Insects can also transmit pathogens to food; house flies are very good at spreading Salmonella and E. coli O157. They feed on faecal waste and transfer microbes from their feet and other body parts to food. The microbe does not invade or multiply inside the fly.

    Fomites

    This is a non-living object such as bedding, towels, toys and barbed wire that can carry disease-causing organisms. The fungus Trichophyton that causes athlete’s foot can be spread indirectly through towels and changing room floors.

    The fungus thrives in the damp warm environment found between the toes. The skin between the fourth and fifth toe is usually affected first. A flaky itchy red rash develops. The skin becomes cracked and sore and small blisters may appear. If the infection is left untreated it can spread to other parts of the body.

    Transmission by fomites

    Transmission by fomites (non-living objects) such as barbed wire.

    A puncture wound on the finger caused by a prick from rusted barbed wire may result in tetanus due to infection by spores of the bacterium Clostridium tetani. The spores live mainly in soil and manure, but are also found on dirty or rusting metal objects. If untreated, tetanus (lockjaw) may be fatal.

    Microbes and disease

    Microbes that cause disease are called pathogens. Find out which microbe is responsible for malaria!

    Immune system

    An infection can be seen as a battle between the invading pathogens and host. How does the immune system work?

    Vaccination

    Just a shot in the arm – what do vaccines do?

    Antibiotics

    Antibiotics are powerful medicines that only fight bacterial infections.

    Routes of transmission

    Source : microbiologysociety.org

    How Infection Works, Entering the Human Host — The National Academies

    Searching for information about how people contract infectious disease? The National Academies, advisers to the nation in science, engineering, and medicine, provide objective information about this and other important topics, including how infection works, major disease threats, global challenges to fighting disease, and prevention and treatment options.

    Disease Watchlist

    What do you know about infectious disease?

    True or False: Not all microbes are harmful to humans.

    Not all microbes are harmful to humans. In fact, many of them protect us, helping our bodies function properly and competing with harmful organisms in an eternal contest for habitable space in or on our bodies. Although the microorganisms that cause disease often receive more attention, most microorganisms do not cause illness.

    Not all microbes are harmful to humans. In fact, many of them protect us, helping our bodies function properly and competing with harmful organisms in an eternal contest for habitable space in or on our bodies. Although the microorganisms that cause disease often receive more attention, most microorganisms do not cause illness.

    Infectious Disease Defined

    The change in heritable traits in a population of organisms over successive generations.

    National Academies Press

    Search the National Academies Press website by selecting one of these related terms.

    Source Material

    Sources: 12345

    How Infection Works, Entering the Human Host — The National Academies

    Source : needtoknow.nas.edu

    5 Common Ways Germs are Spread

    When and Why: Wash Your Hands

    Hand Hygiene

    Related Topics

    Image of handwashing.

    “Hand Washing is the single most important means of preventing the spread of infection”

    Spotlight

    Hand Hygiene Print Materials
    Signs, posters, brochures, manuals, curricula, and other hand hygiene materials that you can print and use.


    Don't Forget to Wash Poster

    This simple poster (available in two color options) shows six simple steps to washing hands.

    image of hand hygiene poster

    Note:If soap and water are not available, use hand sanitizer. Wash your hands with soap and water when your hands are visibly soiled.

    Food handlers in restaurants, schools, delis and grocery stores must wash their hands with soap and water before applying hand sanitizers. [Minn Rules Chap. 4626.0070 - 4626.0085] See Hand Hygiene for Food Handlers for more information.

    Contact us:

    If you have questions or comments about this page, use our IDEPC Comment Form or call 651-201-5414 for the MDH Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Prevention and Control Division.

    5 Common Ways Germs are Spread

    Source : www.health.state.mn.us

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