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    the generative cell of male angiosperm gametophytes is haploid. this cell divides to produce two haploid sperm cells. what type of cell division does the generative cell undergo to produce these sperm cells?

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    The generative cell of male angiosperm gametophytes is haploid. The cell divides to produce two haploid sperm cells. What type of cell division does the generative cell undergo to produce these sperm cells? A) Binary fission. B) Meiosis. C) Meiosis withou

    Answer to: The generative cell of male angiosperm gametophytes is haploid. The cell divides to produce two haploid sperm cells. What type of cell division...

    Meiosis

    The generative cell of male angiosperm gametophytes is haploid. The cell divides to produce two...

    The generative cell of male angiosperm gametophytes is haploid. The cell divides to produce two... Question:

    The generative cell of male angiosperm gametophytes is haploid. The cell divides to produce two haploid sperm cells. What type of cell division does the generative cell undergo to produce these sperm cells?

    A) Binary fission. B) Meiosis.

    C) Meiosis without subsequent cytokinesis.

    D) Mitosis.

    Ploidy:

    The ploidy of a cell refers to the number of copies of each chromosome that the cell contains. A haploid cell has one copy of each chromosome, a diploid cell has two copies, and so on.

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    The correct answer is (D) Mitosis. Mitosis is a form of cell division that produces two identical copies of a single original parent cell. Mitosis...

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    What is Meiosis? - Steps & Results

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    Chapter 5 / Lesson 5

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    What is meiosis and what is meiosis used for? Understand what type of cell division produces gametes. Learn about the steps of meiosis and what PMAT represents.

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    Reproductive Development and Structure – Biology 2e

    169 REPRODUCTIVE DEVELOPMENT AND STRUCTURE

    Learning Objectives

    By the end of this section, you will be able to do the following:

    Describe the two stages of a plant’s lifecycle

    Compare and contrast male and female gametophytes and explain how they form in angiosperms

    Describe the reproductive structures of a plant

    Describe the components of a complete flower

    Describe the development of microsporangium and megasporangium in gymnosperms

    Sexual reproduction takes place with slight variations in different groups of plants. Plants have two distinct stages in their lifecycle: the gametophyte stage and the sporophyte stage. The haploid gametophyte produces the male and female gametes by mitosis in distinct multicellular structures. Fusion of the male and females gametes forms the diploid zygote, which develops into the sporophyte. After reaching maturity, the diploid sporophyte produces spores by meiosis, which in turn divide by mitosis to produce the haploid gametophyte. The new gametophyte produces gametes, and the cycle continues. This is the alternation of generations, and is typical of plant reproduction ((Figure)).

    The alternation of generations in angiosperms is depicted in this diagram. (credit: modification of work by Peter Coxhead)

    The life cycle of higher plants is dominated by the sporophyte stage, with the gametophyte borne on the sporophyte. In ferns, the gametophyte is free-living and very distinct in structure from the diploid sporophyte. In bryophytes, such as mosses, the haploid gametophyte is more developed than the sporophyte.

    During the vegetative phase of growth, plants increase in size and produce a shoot system and a root system. As they enter the reproductive phase, some of the branches start to bear flowers. Many flowers are borne singly, whereas some are borne in clusters. The flower is borne on a stalk known as a receptacle. Flower shape, color, and size are unique to each species, and are often used by taxonomists to classify plants.

    Sexual Reproduction in Angiosperms

    The lifecycle of angiosperms follows the alternation of generations explained previously. The haploid gametophyte alternates with the diploid sporophyte during the sexual reproduction process of angiosperms. Flowers contain the plant’s reproductive structures.

    Flower Structure

    A typical flower has four main parts—or whorls—known as the calyx, corolla, androecium, and gynoecium ((Figure)). The outermost whorl of the flower has green, leafy structures known as sepals. The sepals, collectively called the calyx, help to protect the unopened bud. The second whorl is comprised of petals—usually, brightly colored—collectively called the corolla. The number of sepals and petals varies depending on whether the plant is a monocot or dicot. In monocots, petals usually number three or multiples of three; in dicots, the number of petals is four or five, or multiples of four and five. Together, the calyx and corolla are known as the perianth. The third whorl contains the male reproductive structures and is known as the androecium. The androecium has stamens with anthers that contain the microsporangia. The innermost group of structures in the flower is the gynoecium, or the female reproductive component(s). The carpel is the individual unit of the gynoecium and has a stigma, style, and ovary. A flower may have one or multiple carpels.

    Visual Connection

    The four main parts of the flower are the calyx, corolla, androecium, and gynoecium. The androecium is the sum of all the male reproductive organs, and the gynoecium is the sum of the female reproductive organs. (credit: modification of work by Mariana Ruiz Villareal)

    If the anther is missing, what type of reproductive structure will the flower be unable to produce? What term is used to describe an incomplete flower lacking the androecium? What term describes an incomplete flower lacking a gynoecium?

    Pollen (or sperm); carpellate; staminate.

    –>

    If all four whorls (the calyx, corolla, androecium, and gynoecium) are present, the flower is described as complete. If any of the four parts is missing, the flower is known as incomplete. Flowers that contain both an androecium and a gynoecium are called perfect, androgynous or hermaphrodites. There are two types of incomplete flowers: staminate flowers contain only an androecium, and carpellate flowers have only a gynoecium ((Figure)).

    The corn plant has both staminate (male) and carpellate (female) flowers. Staminate flowers, which are clustered in the tassel at the tip of the stem, produce pollen grains. Carpellate flowers are clustered in the immature ears. Each strand of silk is a stigma. The corn kernels are seeds that develop on the ear after fertilization. Also shown is the lower stem and root.

    If both male and female flowers are borne on the same plant, the species is called monoecious (meaning “one home”): examples are corn and pea. Species with male and female flowers borne on separate plants are termed dioecious, or “two homes,” examples of which are C. papaya and Cannabis. The ovary, which may contain one or multiple ovules, may be placed above other flower parts, which is referred to as superior; or, it may be placed below the other flower parts, referred to as inferior ((Figure)).

    Source : opentextbc.ca

    campbell biology exam 3 Flashcards

    Start studying campbell biology exam 3. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools.

    campbell biology exam 3

    1) Which group is noted for the independence of gametophyte and sporophyte generations from each other?

    A) ferns

    B) mosses, hornworts, and liverworts

    C) charophytes D) angiosperms E) gymnosperms

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    ferns

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    2) All of the following cellular structures are functionally important in cells of the gametophytes of both angiosperms and gymnosperms except

    A) haploid nuclei. B) mitochondria. C) cell walls. D) chloroplasts. E) peroxisomes.

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    chloroplasts

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    Texas Science Fusion: Grade 7

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    Terms in this set (53)

    1) Which group is noted for the independence of gametophyte and sporophyte generations from each other?

    A) ferns

    B) mosses, hornworts, and liverworts

    C) charophytes D) angiosperms E) gymnosperms ferns

    2) All of the following cellular structures are functionally important in cells of the gametophytes of both angiosperms and gymnosperms except

    A) haploid nuclei. B) mitochondria. C) cell walls. D) chloroplasts. E) peroxisomes. chloroplasts

    3) The seed coat's most important function is to provide

    A) a nonstressful environment for the megasporangium.

    B) the means for dispersal.

    C) dormancy.

    D) a nutrient supply for the embryo.

    E) desiccation resistance.

    Desiccation resistance

    4) In addition to seeds, which of the following characteristics are unique to the seed-producing plants?

    A) sporopollenin

    B) lignin present in cell walls

    C) pollen

    D) use of air currents as a dispersal agent

    E) megaphylls pollen

    5) Suppose that the cells of seed plants, like the skin cells of humans, produce a pigment upon increased exposure to UV radiation. Rank the following cells, from greatest to least, in terms of the likelihood of producing this pigment.

    1. cells of sporangium

    2. cells in the interior of a subterranean root

    3. epidermal cells of sporophyte megaphylls

    4. cells of a gametophyte

    A) 3, 4, 1, 2 B) 3, 4, 2, 1 C) 3, 1, 4, 2 D) 3, 2, 1, 4 E) 3, 1, 2, 4 C) 3, 1, 4, 2

    6) Arrange the following in the correct sequence, from earliest to most recent, in which these plant traits originated.

    1. sporophyte dominance, gametophyte independence

    2. sporophyte dominance, gametophyte dependence

    3. gametophyte dominance, sporophyte dependence

    A) 1 → 2 → 3 B) 2 → 3 → 1 C) 2 → 1 → 3 D) 3 → 2 → 1 E) 3 → 1 → 2 E) 3 → 1 → 2

    7) In seed plants, which of the following is part of a pollen grain and has a function most like that of the seed coat?

    A) sporophyll B) male gametophyte C) sporopollenin D) stigma E) sporangium C) sporopollenin

    8) In terms of alternation of generations, the internal parts of the pollen grains of seed-producing plants are most similar to a

    A) moss sporophyte.

    B) moss gametophyte bearing both male and female gametangia.

    C) fern sporophyte.

    D) hermaphroditic fern gametophyte.

    E) fern gametophyte bearing only antheridia.

    E) fern gametophyte bearing only antheridia.

    9) Which of the following is most important in making the typical seed more resistant to adverse conditions than the typical spore?

    A) a different type of sporopollenin

    B) an internal reservoir of liquid water

    C) integument(s)

    D) ability to be dispersed

    E) waxy cuticle C) integument(s)

    10) A researcher has developed two stains for use with seed plants. One stains sporophyte tissue blue; the other stains gametophyte tissue red. If the researcher exposes pollen grains to both stains, and then rinses away the excess stain, what should occur?

    A) The pollen grains will be pure red.

    B) The pollen grains will be pure blue.

    C) The pollen grains will have red interiors and blue exteriors.

    D) The pollen grains will have blue interiors and red exteriors.

    E) Insofar as the pollen grains are independent of the plant that produced them, they will not absorb either stain.

    C) The pollen grains will have red interiors and blue exteriors.

    11) Gymnosperms differ from both extinct and extant (living) ferns because they

    A) are woody.

    B) have macrophylls.

    C) have pollen.

    D) have sporophylls.

    E) have spores. C) have pollen.

    12) Generally, wind pollination is most likely to be found in seed plants that grow

    A) close to the ground.

    B) in dense, single-species stands.

    C) in relative isolation from other members of the same species.

    D) along coastlines where prevailing winds blow from the land out to sea.

    E) in well-drained soils

    B) in dense, single-species stands.

    13) Which of the following statements correctly describes a portion of the pine life cycle?

    A) Female gametophytes use mitosis to produce eggs.

    Source : quizlet.com

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