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    the form of learning in which a neutral stimulus becomes associated with a stimulus to which the subject has an automatic inborn response is called classical conditioning.

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    8.1 Learning by Association: Classical Conditioning – Introduction to Psychology – 1st Canadian Edition

    8.1 LEARNING BY ASSOCIATION: CLASSICAL CONDITIONING

    Learning Objectives

    Describe how Pavlov’s early work in classical conditioning influenced the understanding of learning.

    Review the concepts of classical conditioning, including unconditioned stimulus (US), conditioned stimulus (CS), unconditioned response (UR), and conditioned response (CR).

    Explain the roles that extinction, generalization, and discrimination play in conditioned learning.

    PAVLOV DEMONSTRATES CONDITIONING IN DOGS

    In the early part of the 20th century, Russian physiologist Ivan Pavlov (1849-1936), shown in Figure 8.2, was studying the digestive system of dogs when he noticed an interesting behavioural phenomenon: the dogs began to salivate when the lab technicians who normally fed them entered the room, even though the dogs had not yet received any food. Pavlov realized that the dogs were salivating because they knew that they were about to be fed; the dogs had begun to associate the arrival of the technicians with the food that soon followed their appearance in the room.

    Figure 8.2 Ivan Pavlov.

    With his team of researchers, Pavlov began studying this process in more detail. He conducted a series of experiments in which, over a number of trials, dogs were exposed to a sound immediately before receiving food. He systematically controlled the onset of the sound and the timing of the delivery of the food, and recorded the amount of the dogs’ salivation. Initially the dogs salivated only when they saw or smelled the food, but after several pairings of the sound and the food, the dogs began to salivate as soon as they heard the sound. The animals had learned to associate the sound with the food that followed.

    Pavlov had identified a fundamental associative learning process called classical conditioning. Classical conditioning refers to learning that occurs when a neutral stimulus (e.g., a tone) becomes associated with a stimulus (e.g., food) that naturally produces a behaviour. After the association is learned, the previously neutral stimulus is sufficient to produce the behaviour.

    As you can see in Figure 8.3, “4-Panel Image of Whistle and Dog,” psychologists use specific terms to identify the stimuli and the responses in classical conditioning. The unconditioned stimulus (US) is something (such as food) that triggers a naturally occurring response, and the unconditioned response (UR) is the naturally occurring response (such as salivation) that follows the unconditioned stimulus. The conditioned stimulus (CS) is a neutral stimulus that, after being repeatedly presented prior to the unconditioned stimulus, evokes a similar response as the unconditioned stimulus. In Pavlov’s experiment, the sound of the tone served as the conditioned stimulus that, after learning, produced the conditioned response (CR), which is the acquired response to the formerly neutral stimulus. Note that the UR and the CR are the same behaviour — in this case salivation — but they are given different names because they are produced by different stimuli (the US and the CS, respectively).

    Figure 8.3 4-Panel Image of Whistle and Dog.

    Conditioning is evolutionarily beneficial because it allows organisms to develop expectations that help them prepare for both good and bad events. Imagine, for instance, that an animal first smells a new food, eats it, and then gets sick. If the animal can learn to associate the smell (CS) with the food (US), it will quickly learn that the food creates the negative outcome and will not eat it the next time.

    THE PERSISTENCE AND EXTINCTION OF CONDITIONING

    After he had demonstrated that learning could occur through association, Pavlov moved on to study the variables that influenced the strength and the persistence of conditioning. In some studies, after the conditioning had taken place, Pavlov presented the sound repeatedly but without presenting the food afterward. Figure 8.4, “Acquisition, Extinction, and Spontaneous Recovery,” shows what happened. As you can see, after the initial acquisition (learning) phase in which the conditioning occurred, when the CS was then presented alone, the behaviour rapidly decreased — the dogs salivated less and less to the sound, and eventually the sound did not elicit salivation at all. Extinction refers to the reduction in responding that occurs when the conditioned stimulus is presented repeatedly without the unconditioned stimulus.

    Figure 8.4 Acquisition, Extinction, and Spontaneous Recovery. Acquisition: The CS and the US are repeatedly paired together and behaviour increases. Extinction: The CS is repeatedly presented alone, and the behaviour slowly decreases. Spontaneous recovery: After a pause, when the CS is again presented alone, the behaviour may again occur and then again show extinction.

    Source : opentextbc.ca

    Classical Conditioning: How It Works With Examples

    Classical conditioning is a type of learning in which an unconditional stimulus is paired with a neutral stimulus, leading to a conditioned response.

    THEORIES BEHAVIORAL PSYCHOLOGY

    What Is Classical Conditioning?

    What Is Classical Conditioning? How It Works, Terms to Know, and Examples

    By Kendra Cherry Updated on February 14, 2022

    Medically reviewed by Steven Gans, MD

    Table of Contents Definitions How It Works Key Principles Examples

    Frequently Asked Questions

    Discovered by Russian physiologist Ivan Pavlov, classical conditioning is a type of unconscious or automatic learning. This learning process creates a conditioned response through associations between an unconditioned stimulus and a neutral stimulus.1

    Put another way, classical conditioning involves placing a neutral stimulus before a naturally occurring reflex. In Pavlov's classic experiment with dogs, the neutral signal was the sound of a tone and the naturally occurring reflex was salivating in response to food. By associating the neutral stimulus (sound) with the unconditioned stimulus (food), the sound of the tone alone could produce the salivation response.2

    Verywell / Joshua Seong

    Although classical conditioning was not discovered by a psychologist, it has had a tremendous influence over the school of thought in psychology known as behaviorism.3 Behaviorism assumes that all learning occurs through interactions with the environment and that environment shapes behavior.

    Classical Conditioning Definitions

    Classical conditioning—also sometimes referred to as Pavlovian conditioning—uses a few different terms to help explain the learning process. Knowing these basics will help you understand classical conditioning.

    Unconditioned Stimulus

    An unconditioned stimulus is a stimulus or trigger that leads to an automatic response. If a cold breeze makes you shiver, for instance, the cold breeze is an unconditioned stimulus; it produces an involuntary response (the shivering).

    Neutral Stimulus

    A neutral stimulus is a stimulus that doesn't initially trigger a response on its own. If you hear the sound of a fan but don't feel the breeze, for example, it wouldn't necessarily trigger a response. That would make it a neutral stimulus.

    Conditioned Stimulus

    A conditioned stimulus is a stimulus that was once neutral (didn't trigger a response) but now leads to a response. If you previously didn't pay attention to dogs, but then got bit by one, and now you feel fear every time you see a dog, the dog has become a conditioned stimulus.

    Unconditioned Response

    An unconditioned response is an automatic response or a response that occurs without thought when an unconditioned stimulus is present. If you smell your favorite food and your mouth starts watering, the watering is an unconditioned response.

    Conditioned Response

    A conditioned response is a learned response or a response that is created where no response existed before. Going back to the example of being bit by a dog, the fear you experience after the bite is a conditioned response.

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    Click Play to Learn More About Classical Conditioning

    This video has been medically reviewed by Ann-Louise T. Lockhart, PsyD, ABPP.

    How Classical Conditioning Works

    Classical conditioning involves forming an association between two stimuli, resulting in a learned response.4 There are three basic phases of this process.

    Phase 1: Before Conditioning

    The first part of the classical conditioning process requires a naturally occurring stimulus that will automatically elicit a response. Salivating in response to the smell of food is a good example of a naturally occurring stimulus.

    During this phase of the process, the unconditioned stimulus (UCS) results in an unconditioned response (UCR).4 Presenting food (the UCS) naturally and automatically triggers a salivation response (the UCR).

    At this point, there is also a neutral stimulus that produces no effect—yet. It isn't until the neutral stimulus is paired with the UCS that it will come to evoke a response.

    Let's take a closer look at the two critical components of this phase of classical conditioning:

    The unconditioned stimulus is one that unconditionally, naturally, and automatically triggers a response.4 For example, when you smell one of your favorite foods, you may immediately feel hungry. In this example, the smell of the food is the unconditioned stimulus.

    The unconditioned response is the unlearned response that occurs naturally in response to the unconditioned stimulus.4 In our example, the feeling of hunger in response to the smell of food is the unconditioned response.

    In the before conditioning phase, an unconditioned stimulus is paired with an unconditioned response. A neutral stimulus is then introduced.

    Phase 2: During Conditioning

    During the second phase of the classical conditioning process, the previously neutral stimulus is repeatedly paired with the unconditioned stimulus. As a result of this pairing, an association between the previously neutral stimulus and the UCS is formed.

    At this point, the once neutral stimulus becomes known as the conditioned stimulus (CS). The subject has now been conditioned to respond to this stimulus. The conditioned stimulus is a previously neutral stimulus that, after becoming associated with the unconditioned stimulus, eventually comes to trigger a conditioned response.4

    Source : www.verywellmind.com

    chapter 5 Flashcards

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    The form of associative learning

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    In which a neutral stimulus becomes associated with a stimulus to which the subject has an automatic inborn response is called classical conditioning.

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    operant conditioning

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    occurs when organisms learn from the consequences of their behavior.

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    Terms in this set (75)

    The form of associative learning

    In which a neutral stimulus becomes associated with a stimulus to which the subject has an automatic inborn response is called classical conditioning.

    operant conditioning

    occurs when organisms learn from the consequences of their behavior.

    Learning by watching the behavior of others is called_______________learning in social learning theory.

    obervational

    In classical conditioning, the sight of a food dish would be considered a _____, and the dog's salivation would be considered _____.

    stimulus; response

    What is the definition of learning?

    A relatively permanent change in behavior brought about through experience

    The form of associative learning in which a neutral stimulus becomes associated with a stimulus to which the subject has an automatic inborn response is called

    Classical conditioning

    A(n) _____ stimulus produces a response without prior learning.

    unconditioned

    When a dog salivates upon tasting food, the salivation is called the _____.

    unconditioned response

    Learning that occurs when a person observes and imitates another behavior is known as _____.

    observational learning

    In Pavlov's work on classical conditioning with dogs, the bell became a(n) _____ because it was originally neutral but it became paired with the UC (food).

    conditioned stimulus

    In Pavlov's work, he found that dogs would salivate to various _____, such as seeing someone who usually brings food enter the room or a cabinet door opening.

    stimuli

    _____ is a relatively permanent change in behavior that occurs through experience.

    Learning

    You cringed the first time you saw a bright light; therefore, the light is likely a(n) _____.

    unconditioned stimulus

    What is a conditioned stimulus?

    A previously neutral stimulus that eventually elicits a learned response

    In Pavlov's original experiment, the conditioned stimulus (CS) was the _____.

    bell

    ?A(n) _____ stimulus produces a response without prior learning.

    unconditioned

    In Pavlov's original experiment, the bell began as a_________timulus and by the end became a______________stimulus.

    neutral and conditioned

    In classical conditioning, the__________is the learned response to the conditioned stimulus that occurs after the pairing of the conditioned stimulus (CS) and unconditioned stimulus (US).

    conditioned response

    _____ involves the initial learning of the stimulus-response link.

    Acquisition

    Even though his owner has a ring tone on his cell phone that sounds like a door bell, Buster, the family dog, only barks when the door bell rings and not when the phone rings. This is an example of which of the following?

    Stimulus discrimination

    Stimulus generalization occurs when one responds only to the original conditioned stimulus.

    FALSE

    acquisition in classical conditioning is the initial learning of the stimulus-response link.

    True

    A bird learns to peck a red disk and not to peck a green disk. This would be an example of _____.

    stimulus discrimination

    When a previously conditioned response decreases and eventually disappears,________has occurred.

    extinction

    Deanna goes to the closet to grab the leash when she walks her dog, Maximus. Maximus gets excited and begins to run back and forth. In classical conditioning terms, the leash would be a _____.

    conditioned stimulus

    In classical conditioning, the tendency of a new stimulus that is similar to the original conditioned stimulus to elicit a response that is similar to the conditioned response know as _____.

    generalization

    In classical conditioning, extinction occurs when ____

    the unconditioned stimulus is absent

    When considering Pavlov's dogs, how would you permanently extinguish the association between the bell and food?

    By ringing the bell and then never providing food

    The sudden reappearance of an extinguished response is called____recovery.

    spontaneous

    In Watson and Rayner's study of an infant named Albert, the fear was developed through

    CLASSICAL CONDITIONING

    In _____, pleasant feelings from eating chocolate chip cookies are incompatible with the fear produced by being in an elevator, allowing the fear to be weakened or extinguished.

    counter conditioning

    is a classical conditioning concept that involves the process of learning to respond to certain stimuli and not

    in operant conditioning means responding appropriately to stimuli that signal that a behavior will or will not be reinforced.

    discrimination

    Which of the following describes spontaneous recovery?

    An extinguished conditioned response reemerges.

    Classical conditioning can explain habituation to a drug's effects because the _____ to the drug can be the body's way of preparing itself for the drug.

    Source : quizlet.com

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