if you want to remove an article from website contact us from top.

    the economies of most african colonies were dependent on industrial development. one or two crops. a strong middle class. diverse farmlands.

    James

    Guys, does anyone know the answer?

    get the economies of most african colonies were dependent on industrial development. one or two crops. a strong middle class. diverse farmlands. from EN Bilgi.

    African Economic Development and Colonial Legacies

    This article reviews how colonial rule and African actions during the colonial period affected the resources and institutional settings for subsequent economic development south of the Sahara. The issue is seen from the perspective of the dynamics of development in what was in 1900 an overwhelmingly land-abundant region characterised by shortages of labour and capital, by perhaps surprisingly extensive indigenous market activities and by varying but often low levels of political centralisation. The differential impact of French and British rule is explored, but it is argued that a bigger determinant of the differential evolution of poverty, welfare and structural change was the contrast between “settler” and “peasant” economies.

    Contents Next document 1 | 2010

    Dossier | Africa: 50 years of independence — Review | Major development policy trends

    Dossier | Afrique : 50 ans d'indépendance

    African Economic Development and Colonial Legacies

    Gareth Austin

    p. 11-32

    https://doi.org/10.4000/poldev.78

    Translation(s):

    Développement économique et legs coloniaux en Afrique [fr]

    Abstract | Index | Outline | Text | References | Notes | Cite this article | Cited by | About the author

    ABSTRACT

    This article reviews how colonial rule and African actions during the colonial period affected the resources and institutional settings for subsequent economic development south of the Sahara. The issue is seen from the perspective of the dynamics of development in what was in 1900 an overwhelmingly land-abundant region characterised by shortages of labour and capital, by perhaps surprisingly extensive indigenous market activities and by varying but often low levels of political centralisation. The differential impact of French and British rule is explored, but it is argued that a bigger determinant of the differential evolution of poverty, welfare and structural change was the contrast between “settler” and “peasant” economies.

    Top of page INDEX TERMS

    Thematic keywords:

    colonial | colonisation, democracy, economic | development history, history, independence, political economy

    Geographic keywords:

    Africa Sub-Saharan

    Top of page OUTLINE 1. Introduction

    2. Post-colonial change and variation

    3. Contrasting perspectives on the colonial legacy

    4. A pre-colonial perspective on colonial legacies

    5. Colonial regimes: similarities and variations

    6. Colonial rule and Africa’s specialisation in primary product exports

    7. Towards manufacturing?

    8. Markets and African entrepreneurship

    9. State capacity 10. Conclusion Top of page FULL TEXT PDF 296k Send by e-mail

    1. Introduction

    1 The current names of former colonies are preferred in this essay, not least because until the 1930s (...)

    1

    This article asks how the legacies of European rule, both generally and in particular categories of colony, have affected post-colonial economic development in Sub-Saharan Africa. The year 1960 is conventionally used as the “stylised date” of independence, for the good reason that it saw the end of colonial rule in most of the French colonies south of the Sahara as well as in the most populous British and Belgian ones (Nigeria and Congo respectively).1 Half a century is a reasonable period over which to review the economic impact of legacies because it allows us to consider the issue in the context of different phases of post-colonial policy and performance.

    2

    The causal significance of legacies varies, in that they affect subsequent freedom of manoeuvre to different extents and in different directions. At its strongest, legacy takes the form of “path determination”, implying that colonial choices determined post-colonial ones, or at least conditioned them, such that departure from the colonial pattern was, and perhaps remains, difficult and costly. Besides asking about the strength of the influence of the past on the future, we need to consider the nature of that influence. Did colonial rule put African countries on a higher or lower path of economic change? It will be argued here that the “path(s)” on which African economies were (to a greater or lesser extent) set by the time of independence are most usefully seen not as necessarily initiated in the colonial period, but often rather as continuations and adjustments from paths of change established before the European partition of the continent.

    3

    The following discussion has three preliminary sections. Thus, chapter 2 first attempts a summary of the economic record since independence in order to define the pattern for which colonial legacies may have been partly responsible. Chapter 3 outlines contending views of those legacies. Chapter 4 tries to define the economic and political structures and trends within Africa on the eve of the European partition of the continent. It identifies an emerging African comparative advantage in land-extensive forms of production, which West Africans in particular were already exploiting and, by their investments and initiatives, deepening.

    4

    In this framework, chapter 5 then introduces the colonial regimes, highlighting their fiscal constraints and comparing different national styles of colonial rule, focusing on the largest empires, those of Britain and France. It is a theme of this essay, however, that another kind of variation between colonies was more important, i.e. that defined by the extent and form of European appropriation and use of land: “settler”, “plantation” and “peasant” colonies. Chapter 6 considers how far colonial rule (and the actions of European companies that it facilitated) reinforced the emergence of a comparative advantage in land-extensive primary exports and looks at the consequences of this for the welfare of the population. Chapter 7 explores colonial contributions, and their limits, for the very long-term shift of African factor endowments from labour scarcity towards labour abundance and a relatively high level of human capital formation, such as helped Tokugawa Japan, and more recently other parts of Asia, to achieve “labour-intensive industrialisation” (Sugihara 2007). Chapter 8 assesses the impact of different kinds of European regime on African entrepreneurship and on institutions facilitating, hindering or channelling African participation in markets. Chapter 9 completes the substantive discussion by commenting on the long-term effects of the colonial intrusion on the capacity of the State in Africa for facilitating and promoting economic development.

    Source : journals.openedition.org

    World Civ

    Start studying World Civ - Decolonization in Africa. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools.

    World Civ - Decolonization in Africa

    4.9 18 Reviews

    12 studiers in the last hour

    Based on the information in the chart, what conclusion can be drawn about the oil industry in Nigeria?

    The chart below shows the percentage of total government revenue from oil in Nigeria between 1967 and 1990.

    YEAR | % 1967 | 18.26% 1971 | 25.99% 1975 | 80.81% 1979 | 66.30% 1983 | 67.00% 1987 | 75.80% 1990 | 97.24% -

    A) Nigeria was generating less revenue from oil in 1987 compared to pervious years.

    B) Nigeria was generating greater revenue from oil in 1990 compared to previous years.

    C) Nigeria's oil revenue peaked during 1975.

    D) Nigeria's oil revenue decreased during 1987.

    Click card to see definition 👆

    B) Nigeria was generating greater revenue from oil in 1990 compared to previous years.

    Click again to see term 👆

    The economies of most African colonies were dependent on ... ?

    -

    A) industrial development.

    B) one or two crops.

    C) a strong middle class.

    D) diverse farmlands.

    Click card to see definition 👆

    B) one or two crops.

    Click again to see term 👆

    1/10 Created by TriggeredChiken

    Terms in this set (10)

    Based on the information in the chart, what conclusion can be drawn about the oil industry in Nigeria?

    The chart below shows the percentage of total government revenue from oil in Nigeria between 1967 and 1990.

    YEAR | % 1967 | 18.26% 1971 | 25.99% 1975 | 80.81% 1979 | 66.30% 1983 | 67.00% 1987 | 75.80% 1990 | 97.24% -

    A) Nigeria was generating less revenue from oil in 1987 compared to pervious years.

    B) Nigeria was generating greater revenue from oil in 1990 compared to previous years.

    C) Nigeria's oil revenue peaked during 1975.

    D) Nigeria's oil revenue decreased during 1987.

    B) Nigeria was generating greater revenue from oil in 1990 compared to previous years.

    The economies of most African colonies were dependent on ... ?

    -

    A) industrial development.

    B) one or two crops.

    C) a strong middle class.

    D) diverse farmlands.

    B) one or two crops.

    Which major change took place in Nigeria in 1999?

    -

    A) Ethnic tensions came to an end.

    B) A peace treaty concluded the civil war.

    C) Military leaders led a government coup.

    D) A civilian president was elected.

    D) A civilian president was elected.

    Because there was very little investment in education, African colonies ... ?

    -

    A) had few leaders with government experience.

    B) had far too few teachers for their universities.

    C) had many skilled workers with little education.

    D) had many overqualified workers in menial jobs.

    A) had few leaders with government experience.

    Another name for the Organization of African Unity is the ______________ .

    African Union

    European nations benefited from African colonies' ... ?

    -

    A) labor and resources.

    B) industries and artisans.

    C) established trade routes.

    D) well-trained military.

    A) labor and resources.

    What was the first step in Ghana's independence?

    -

    A) Kwame Nkrumah became the prime minister.

    B) A military coup seized power in the colony.

    C) Africans gained a majority in the parliament.

    D) Opposition political parties were banned.

    C) Africans gained a majority in the parliament.

    What can one conclude about the link between falling cacao crop prices and rising economic problems in Ghana?

    -

    A) People stopped buying cacao when the economy faltered.

    B) Economic problems led Ghana's farmers to cut their cacao prices.

    C) The country was too dependent on exports of its cacao crop.

    D) Ghana grew cacao more economically when the economy slowed.

    C) The country was too dependent on exports of its cacao crop.

    The large number of casualties in the Nigerian civil war can be attributed to ... ?

    -

    A) colonists' lack of attention to cultural differences.

    B) broad-based anger at economic disparity in the country.

    C) widespread dissatisfaction with the Nigerian president.

    D) the many different factions at war with one another.

    D) the many different factions at war with one another.

    Overwhelming challenges made it difficult for ___________ governments to stay in power in Africa.

    democratic

    Sign up and see the remaining cards. It’s free!

    Boost your grades with unlimited access to millions of flashcards, games and more.

    Continue with Google

    Continue with Facebook

    Already have an account?

    Sets with similar terms

    Decolonization in Africa

    17 terms asd1413

    Decolonization in Africa

    10 terms Abigail_Grace_123

    Unit 3, Lesson 10

    10 terms studyer1

    Latin America/Africa Vocabulary

    26 terms callista_c

    Sets found in the same folder

    Challenges of Independence in Asia Quiz

    10 terms masterm2019

    Collapse of Communism

    14 terms htam88

    Decolonization in Africa (Pre-test)

    10 terms Sydnee-p

    Collapse of Communism--Assignment--World Hist…

    7 terms shadufrene

    Other sets by this creator

    Source : quizlet.com

    The colonial roots of land inequality: geography, factor endowments, or institutions? on JSTOR

    EWOUT FRANKEMA, The colonial roots of land inequality: geography, factor endowments, or institutions?, The Economic History Review, New Series, Vol. 63, No. 2 (MAY 2010), pp. 418-451

    Skip to Main Content

    JOURNAL ARTICLE EWOUT FRANKEMA

    The Economic History Review

    , pp. 418-451 (34 pages)

    Published By: Wiley

    https://www.jstor.org/stable/27771619

    Read and download

    Log in through your school or library

    Land inequality is one of the crucial underpinnings of long-run persistent wealth and asset inequality. This article assesses the colonial roots of land inequality from a comparative perspective. The evolution of land inequality is analysed in a crosscolonial multivariate regression framework complemented by an in-depth comparative case study of three former British colonies: Malaysia, Sierra Leone, and Zambia. The main conclusion is that the literature tends to overemphasize the role of geography and to underestimate the role of pre-colonial institutions in shaping the colonial political economic context in which land is (re)distributed from natives to colonial settlers.

    The Economic History Review publishes articles based on original research on all aspects of economic and social history. The Review is edited on behalf of the Economic History Society by leading scholars. It has been published since 1927 and is one of the world's leading journals in the field. The Review welcomes contributions based on the full range of methodological approaches used by economic and social historians and is pleased to publish high quality research on the economic and social history of any area of the world. The emphasis is on broad coverage of themes of economic and social change, including their intellectual, political and cultural implications. In addition to regular papers, some issues contain contributions to a series of 'Surveys and Speculations' which are more reflective survey articles. For many years past a comprehensive annual list of publications on the economic and social history of Great Britain and Ireland has been published. Each issue also contains a substantial number of book reviews. JSTOR provides a digital archive of the print version of Economic History Review. The electronic version of Economic History Review is available at http://www.interscience.wiley.com. Authorized users may be able to access the full text articles at this site.

    Wiley is a global provider of content and content-enabled workflow solutions in areas of scientific, technical, medical, and scholarly research; professional development; and education. Our core businesses produce scientific, technical, medical, and scholarly journals, reference works, books, database services, and advertising; professional books, subscription products, certification and training services and online applications; and education content and services including integrated online teaching and learning resources for undergraduate and graduate students and lifelong learners. Founded in 1807, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. has been a valued source of information and understanding for more than 200 years, helping people around the world meet their needs and fulfill their aspirations. Wiley has published the works of more than 450 Nobel laureates in all categories: Literature, Economics, Physiology or Medicine, Physics, Chemistry, and Peace. Wiley has partnerships with many of the world’s leading societies and publishes over 1,500 peer-reviewed journals and 1,500+ new books annually in print and online, as well as databases, major reference works and laboratory protocols in STMS subjects. With a growing open access offering, Wiley is committed to the widest possible dissemination of and access to the content we publish and supports all sustainable models of access. Our online platform, Wiley Online Library (wileyonlinelibrary.com) is one of the world’s most extensive multidisciplinary collections of online resources, covering life, health, social and physical sciences, and humanities.

    This item is part of a JSTOR Collection.

    For terms and use, please refer to our

    The Economic History Review © 2010 Economic History Society

    Source : www.jstor.org

    Do you want to see answer or more ?
    James 14 day ago
    4

    Guys, does anyone know the answer?

    Click For Answer