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[Answer] The earliest known form of bowling was played in what country?
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[Answer] The earliest known form of bowling was played in what country?
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This article is about bowling in general. For specific types of bowling, see Ten-pin bowling, Duckpin bowling, Candlepin bowling, Nine-pin bowling, and Five-pin bowling. For other uses, see Bowling (disambiguation).
A ten-pin bowler releases his bowling ball
Playing bowls at Tiverton West End Bowling Club, United KingdomBowling is a target sport and recreational activity in which a player rolls a ball toward pins (in pin bowling) or another target (in target bowling). The term usually refers to pin bowling (most commonly ten-pin bowling), though in the United Kingdom and Commonwealth countries, bowling could also refer to target bowling, such as lawn bowls.
In pin bowling, the goal is to knock over pins on a long playing surface known as a . Lanes have a wood or synthetic surface onto which protective lubricating oil is applied in different specified oil patterns that affect ball motion. A strike is achieved when all the pins are knocked down on the first roll, and a spare is achieved if all the pins are knocked over on a second roll. Common types of pin bowling include ten-pin, candlepin, duckpin, nine-pin, and five-pin. The historical game skittles is the forerunner of modern pin bowling.
In target bowling, the aim is usually to get the ball as close to a mark as possible. The surface in target bowling may be grass, gravel, or synthetic. Lawn bowls, bocce, carpet bowls, pétanque, and boules may have both indoor and outdoor varieties. Curling is also related to bowls.
Bowling is played by 120 million people in more than 90 countries (including 70 million in the United States alone), and is the subject of video games.
1 Variations 1.1 Pin bowling 1.2 Target bowling 2 History 2.1 Ancient history
2.2 Post-classical history
2.3 Modern history
2.3.1 In the 16th to 18th centuries
2.3.2 In the 19th century
2.3.3 In the 20th century
2.3.4 In the 21st century
3 Equipment 3.1 Ball 3.2 Pins 3.3 Shoes 4 Accessibility
5 In popular culture
5.1 With notable individuals
5.1.1 U.S. Presidents
5.2 Paintings 5.3 Informal usage 6 See also 7 References 8 External links
Bowling games can be distinguished into two general classes, pin bowling and target bowling.
Relative sizes of bowling balls and pins for three popular variations of the game.
Scale: the horizontal blue lines are one inch (2.5 cm) apart vertically.
balls are the smallest of the three, but candlepins are tallest and thinnest
are the shortest, and duckpin balls are barely larger than candlepin balls
balls and pins are the heaviest.
Five main variations are found in North America, with ten-pin being the most common but others being practiced in the eastern U.S. and in parts of Canada:
Ten-pin bowling: largest and heaviest pins, and bowled with a large ball with three finger holes.
Nine-pin bowling: uses a small ball without finger holes.
Candlepin bowling: tallest pins (at 40 cm or 16 in), thin with matching ends, bowled with the smallest and lightest (at 1.1 kg or 2.4 lb) handheld ball of any bowling sport, and the only form with fallen pins removed during a frame.
Duckpin bowling: short, squat, and bowled with a handheld ball.
Five-pin bowling: tall, between duckpins and candlepins in diameter with a rubber girdle, bowled with a handheld ball, mostly found in Canada.
Another form of bowling is usually played outdoors on a lawn. At outdoor bowling, the players throw a ball, which is sometimes eccentrically weighted, in an attempt to put it closest to a designated point or slot in the bowling arena. (Ex: Bocce Ball, an Italian lawn game)
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History of Bowling
History of Bowling - Origins and Evolution of BowlingBowling is one of the most popular leisure and sports activities in the world today in which players throw or roll a bowling ball towards a target. The majority of people think of bowling as an entertaining indoor game which is played with friends and family. Going to a bowling alleys, renting bowling shoes, taking a ball and trying to knock down all 10-pins in one or two tries. Other than this traditional 10-pin bowling, there is a variety of bowling games nowadays.
Sources tell us that the earliest known forms of bowling can be traced back to circa 3200 BC in ancient Egypt. However, these old versions of bowling may not look like the modern versions. There is not much information on the early stages of the game until 2000 years ago.
Perhaps the biggest and the oldest discovery that archeologists have made are objects found in ancient Egyptian child’s tomb and that are identified as bowling equipment. Such as pins, bowling balls, etc. The game can also be traced back to ancient Yemen, Germany, and Finland. In Polynesia, archeologists have also found balls of stone and pins that were utilized for the regional game called “Ula Maika”. Various forms of bowling were noted by Herodotus. According to him, that was an invention of the Lydians in Asia Minor. Another rough form of bowling evolved within Roman empire borders about 2000 years ago. Roman soldiers used to toss stone object trying to get them as close as possible to other stone objects. Centuries later, this form evolved into Italian “Bocce”, which is the outdoor bowling. This game was played by the Gallic tribe of Helvetii in northern Italy during Cesar’s rule (50 BC).
In the 5th century AD, the game started to take the shape of bowling as we know it. The location of this development was within approximate German borders. Bowling was still not a sport at the time, but rather a ceremonial ritual. Pins, which were seen as evil spirits or demons, were toppled by stone objects so that participants would cleanse their spirits and free their souls. As centuries were passing by, stone materials were switched for wooden to create balls and pins. William Pehle, a medieval historian, had claimed that there was an evidence of bowling in Germany around 300AD. The game was played in cloisters of cathedrals where there was a custom of having parishioners, according to the ancient chronicles of Paderborn. A parishioner would be given a ball and asked to throw it at the “kegel”, meaning heathen. In the case of a hit, the thrower is considered not to be a sinner. If the outcome is opposite, then the parishioner is supposed to attend services more often. In the centuries to follow, there were no records of significant changes in bowling. During the 1300s only three pins were used is some German regions, while in others it was common to have 17 pins in the game. It also became a popular sport in Great Britain. The game was the favorite leisure activity King Edward III’s soldiers. According to some sources, the game started being played indoors in England in the 15th century.
Eventually, bowling separated from the church and became a secular sport across European countries, such as Switzerland, Spain, Austria and Scandinavian countries where it was not unusual to see bowling greens at rich people’s estates. However, the game began to gain bad reputation due to the associations with gambling and drinking . Evidently, too many soldiers of the royal army were spending most of their off-duty time bowling, so they didn’t practice their archery skills enough. Those skills were apparently essential to the national defense during the 100 Years War. Eventually, the king decided to ban the game since it became a great risk for national security.
The game eventually reached the United States due to Dutch and English immigrants’ efforts, where the first written materials about bowling date from 1818 in Washington Irving’s book titled “Rip Van Winkle”. Initially, bowling was a 9-pin game in America, but since the game was associated with drinking and gambling, just as it was across the Atlantic, the state of Connecticut banned “nine-pins”. The response to this was the addition of an extra 10th pin so that the game would be renamed to ”10-pin”. However, the town of Perry in New York State had already passed the bill on banning the game regardless of the number of pins. It happened that the will of the people proved to be stronger and the popularity of bowling didn’t take a fall across the country. Organizing games away from the main parts of the cities enabled people to participate in this game nonetheless. As German immigrants began to move westward, the game’s popularity continued to increase rapidly nationwide. That progress led to the formation of the American Bowling Congress in 1895 after the basic rules had been codified and equipment regulations got established. The first championship tournament was held in 1901.
A technological leap enabled the usage of more sophisticated materials for manufacturing bowling balls. The first rubber ball used in bowling in 1905 was named “Evertrue”. A decade later the Brunswick Corporation developed the ball made of “mineralite”. Before this technological advancements, balls were only made of hardwood. The America Machine Foundry Company acquired patents to put an end to the “ pinboy”, whose job was to set up the pins. Instead of a person, this was done by an automatic “pin spotter”, which was introduced in 1952. These innovations led to media’s praise, and NBC decided to air “Championship Bowling” for the first time.