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    Chapter 12 Flashcards by Allexa Ortiz

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    Flashcards in Chapter 12 Deck (13)

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    1

    Increases in the enzymatic activity of some protein kinases important for the regulation of the cell cycle are due to

    A) kinase synthesis by ribosomes

    B) activation of inactive kinases by binding to cyclins

    C) conversion of inactive cyclins to active kinases by means of phosphorylation

    D) cleavage of the inactive kinase molecules by cytoplasmic proteases

    E) a decline in external growth factors to a concentration below the inhibitory threshold

    B) activation of inactive kinases by binding to cyclins

    2

    Through a microscope, you can see a cell plate beginning to form across the middle of the cell and nuclei reforming on either side of the cell plate. This cell is most likely

    A) animal cell during cytokinesis

    B) plant cell during cytokinesis

    C) animal cell in the S phase

    D) a bacterial cell dividing

    E) plant cell in metaphase

    B) plant cell, cytokinesis

    3

    Vinblastine us a standard chemotherapeutic drug used to treat cancer. Because it interferes with the assembly of micro-tubules, its effectiveness must be related to

    A) disruption of mitotic spindle formation

    B) inhibition of regulatory protein phosphorylation

    C) suppression of cyclin production

    D) myosin denaturation and inhibition of cleavage furrow formation

    E) inhibition of DNA synthesis

    A) disruption of mitotic spindle formation

    4

    A particular cell has half as much DNA as some other cells in a mitotic-ally active tissue. The cell in question is most likely in

    A) G1 B) G2 C) pro-phase D) meta-phase E) ana-phase A) G1 5

    The decline in MPF activity at the end of mitosis is caused by

    A) the destruction of the protein kinase(CdK)

    B) decreased synthesis of cyclin

    C) the degradation of cyclin

    D) synthesis of DNA

    E) an increase in the cell's volume to genome ratio

    C) the degradation of cyclin

    6

    A red blood cell(RBC) has a life span of 120 days. If an average adult has 5L of blood and each micro-liter contains 5 million RBCs, how many new cells must be produced each SECOND to replace the entire RBC population?

    C) 2,400,000 7

    The drug cytochalasin B blocks the function of actin. Which of the following aspects of the cell cycle would be most disrupted by cytochalasin B?

    A) spindle formation

    B) spindle attachment to kinetochores

    C) DNA synthesis

    D) cell elongation during anaphase

    E) cleavage furrow formation

    E) cleavage furrow formation

    8

    In some organisms, mitosis occurs without cytokinesis occurring. This will result in

    A) cells with more than one nucleus

    B) cells that are unusually small

    C) cells lacking nuclei

    D) destruction of chromosomes

    E) cell cycles lacking an S phase

    A) cells with more than one nucleus

    9

    1. Describe the structural organization of the genome.

    The genome is the genetic information inside the cell, the DNA. In prokaryotic cells, the genome is organized in one long strand that is coiled within the cell. In eukaryotic cells, the genome is packaged into chromosomes in a double helix shape. The chromosomes are made out of a complex of DNA and proteins, or chromatin. Each chromosome has two sister chromatids, each of which contain identical DNA molecules and are attached in the center by a specialized region called the centromere.

    10

    2. Overview the major events of cell division that enable the genome of one cell to be passed on to two daughter cells.

    The major events of cell division that enable the genome of one cell to be passed on to two daughter cells are the S phase, the G2 phase, and the M phase. In the S phase, the DNA is replicated. In the G2 phase, the copied strands are checked for errors. Finally, in the mitosis, both sides of the cell are given a copy of the genome.

    11

    4. List the phases of the cell cycle and describe the sequence of events that occurs during each phase.

    The phases of the cell cycle are interphase and mitosis. Interphase takes up most of the cell’s life, and consists of the G1, S, and G2 phases. In the G1 phase, cells just grow. In the S phase, DNA is replicated to ensure that both new cells will get a complete and identical genome. In the G2 phase, extra organelles are made. The second part of the cell cycle, mitosis, is the shortest phase. In mitosis, the nucleus and DNA split and are sent to opposite sides of the cell. Then finally in cytokinesis, the cytoplasm separates, and two new cells are made.

    12

    5. List the phases of mitosis and describe the events characteristic of each phase.

    The phases of mitosis are prophase, prometaphase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase, and cytokinesis. In prophase, the chromatin fibers in the nucleolus begin to coil more tightly into chromosomes and the nucleoli disappear. During this time, the mitotic spindle forms and the centrosomes move away from one another by the microtubules between them. In prometaphase, the nuclear envelope dissolves and the spindle interact with the chromosomes. Kinetochore microtubules take hold of the sister chromatids, whereas nonkinetochore microtubules interact with chromosomes from the opposite pole of the spindle.

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    The decline of MPF activity at the end of mitosis is due to a. the destruction of the protein kinase

    Find an answer to your question The decline of MPF activity at the end of mitosis is due to a. the destruction of the protein kinase Cdk. b. decreased synthesis…

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    answered • expert verified

    The decline of MPF activity at the end of mitosis is due to

    a. the destruction of the protein kinase Cdk.

    b. decreased synthesis of Cdk.

    c. the degradation of cyclin.

    d. the accumulation of cyclin.

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    5.0/5 1

    MPF is composed of cyclin and kinase. It lets the cell go from G2 stage to M stage. When the cell is going to anaphase, MPF inactivates. The decline of MPF activity at the end of mitosis is due to the degradation of cyclin. Option (C).

    ----------------------------

    Many molecules regulate the cell cycle during the different stages of the mitosis process to make it possible.

    There are too many factors interacting, activating, and deactivating to pass from one stage to another.

    Cyclins are cell cycle regulator proteins that control the cell during the process of division. Different types of cyclins act on a different stages.

    When the cell is going through one of the stages, the only cyclin in high levels is the one that is regulating that part of the cycle.

    Once that stage is over, that cyclin concentration decreases, and the following one increases.

    Kinases, Cdk, are enzymes that depend on cyclins and that remain inactive until cyclins are present.

    The enzyme becomes functional when the cyclin binds it. Then, the kinase can accomplish its functions.

    When the cyclin and the kinase are together, they compose the Maturation Promotor Factor, MPF.

    MPF is composed of cyclin and kinase. MPF is in charge of letting the cell go from the G2 stage to the M stage.

    The inactivation of MPF is due to the degradation of cyclin. As cyclin is destroyed, the MPF gets inactive.

    Steps:

    1) During the whole cell cycle, cyclin M remains at low levels.

    2) When the cell is ready to pass from G2 to M phases, cyclin M increases its concentration and binds Cdk.

    3) Together, these proteins compose the MPF that makes this transition possible.

    4) Once the cell is in the M stage, MPF needs to decrease.

    5) The factor autoregulates by activating another complex. The anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome, APC/C.

    6) When the cell is ready to go from metaphase to anaphase, the APC/C complex begins the cyclins M elimination process. The complex also activates separase to separate chromatid sisters while destroying cyclins M.

    --------------------------------------------

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    Answer: c. the degradation of cyclin is the correct answer.Explanation:

    The decline of MPF activity at the end of mitosis is due to the degradation of cyclin.

    The MPF stands for maturation promoting factor is an enzyme promotes the passage into M phase from the growth phase (G2 )

    During the mitosis process the enzyme which breaks the cyclin gets activated and due to this level of cyclin gets decrease.

    The decrease in the levels of the cyclin leads to a decline in the levels of MPF at the end of mitosis.

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    Through a microscope, you can see a cell plate beginning to develop across the middle of a cell and nuclei forming on either side of the cell plate. This cell is most likely

    Click card to see definition 👆

    a plant cell in the process of cytokinesis

    Click again to see term 👆

    Vinblastine is a standard chemotherapeutic drug used to treat cancer. Because it interferes with the assembly of micro-tubules, its effectiveness must be related to

    Click card to see definition 👆

    disruption of mitotic spindle formation

    Click again to see term 👆

    1/7 Created by Coreposis

    Terms in this set (7)

    Through a microscope, you can see a cell plate beginning to develop across the middle of a cell and nuclei forming on either side of the cell plate. This cell is most likely

    a plant cell in the process of cytokinesis

    Vinblastine is a standard chemotherapeutic drug used to treat cancer. Because it interferes with the assembly of micro-tubules, its effectiveness must be related to

    disruption of mitotic spindle formation

    One difference between cancer cells and normal cells is that cancer cells

    continue to divide even when they are tightly packed together

    The decline of MPF activity at the end of mitosis is due to

    the degradation of cyclin

    In the cells of some organisms, mitosis occurs without cytoki-nesis. This will result in

    cells with more than one nucleus

    A particular cell has half as much DNA as some other cells in a mitotically active tissue. The cell in question is most likely in

    G1

    The drug cytochalasin B blocks the function of actin. Which of the following aspects of the animal cell cycle would be most disrupted by cytochalasin B?

    cleavage furrow formation and cytokinesis

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