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    the concept of evolution by way of natural selection is a central tenet in biology that has been tested in numerous ways by many scientists. evolution by way of natural selection is most likely which type of concept? an explanation of phenomena that can be accepted as true because it is supported by repeated observations and experimentation a likelihood based on the chance that a particular event will or will not occur during an experiment a testable explanation or answer to a scientific question based on prior knowledge or research a statement of fact that is accepted as true because it has always been observed to be true through observations and experimentation

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    The concept of evolution by way of natural selection is a central tenet in biology that has been tested in numerous ways by many scientists but is not yet considered a law. Evolution by way of natural selection is most likely which type of concept?

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    a hypothesis that can be accepted as true based on repeated experimentation with similar results

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    Which statement summarizes the law of segregation?

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    Gametes carry one allele for each trait.

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    1/10 Created by Maria_Aquino24

    Terms in this set (10)

    The concept of evolution by way of natural selection is a central tenet in biology that has been tested in numerous ways by many scientists but is not yet considered a law. Evolution by way of natural selection is most likely which type of concept?

    a hypothesis that can be accepted as true based on repeated experimentation with similar results

    Which statement summarizes the law of segregation?

    Gametes carry one allele for each trait.

    Which of Mendel's laws or principles states that gametes carry one allele for each trait?

    law of segregation

    Which type of scientific statement is defined as "a possible explanation or answer to a scientific question that is based on prior knowledge or research and is testable"?

    hypothesis

    Which of Mendel's laws or principles explains that traits are passed from parents to offspring individually instead of as pairs, groups, or sets?

    NOT the law of segregation

    Why did Mendel study pea plants?

    They reproduce sexually and have many traits that are easy to observe.

    When plants that are heterozygous for round seeds are crossed, what is the probability that the offspring will have wrinkled seeds?

    25 percent

    Which type of scientific statement is defined as a statement of fact that is generally accepted to be true and universal because it has always been observed to be true?

    law

    The diagram represents one of Mendel's laws or principles of inheritance.

    mc014-1.jpg

    Which law or principle does the diagram represent?

    segregation

    What does the notation Rr mean to geneticists?

    heterozygous alleles

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    Verified questions

    DISCRETE MATH

    Write the statements in symbolic form using the symbols

    \sim , \vee ∼,∨ , and \wedge ∧

    and the indicated letters to represent component statements. Either this polynomial has degree 2 or it has degree 3 but not both. (n = “This polynomial has degree 2,” k = “This polynomial has degree 3”)

    Verified answer DISCRETE MATH

    Prove each statement. For all sets A and B, a.

    ( A - B ) \cup ( B - A ) \cup ( A \cap B ) = A \cup B

    (A−B)∪(B−A)∪(A∩B)=A∪B

    , b. The sets (A-B), (B-A), and

    ( A \cap B ) (A∩B)

    are mutually disjoint.

    Verified answer DISCRETE MATH

    a. Let G be a graph with n vertices, and let v and w be distinct vertices of G. Prove that if there is a walk from v to w, then there is a walk from v to w that has length less then or equal to n-1. If

    \mathbf { A } = \left( a _ { i j } \right)

    A=(a ij ​ ) and

    \mathbf { B } = \left( b _ { i j } \right)

    B=(b ij ​ ) are any m \times n m×n

    matrices, the matrix A+B is the

    m \times n m×n

    matrix whose i jth entry is

    a _ { i j } + b _ { i j }

    a ij ​ +b ij ​ for all

    i = 1,2 , \ldots , m

    i=1,2,…,m and

    j = 1,2 , \ldots , n

    j=1,2,…,n

    . Let G be a graph with n vertices where n>1, and let A be the adjacency matrix of G. Prove that G is connected if, and only if, every entry of

    \mathbf { A } A + \mathbf { A }

    A ^ { 2 } + \cdots +

    \mathbf { A }

    A ^ { n - 1 } is positive.

    Verified answer QUESTION

    Use Polya’s four-step problem-solving strategy and the problem-solving procedures presented in this section to solve each. A frog is at the bottom of a 17-foot well. Each time the frog leaps, it moves up 3 feet. If the frog has not reached the top of the well, then the frog slides back 1 foot before it is ready to make another leap. How man leaps will the frog need to escape the well?

    Source : quizlet.com

    Evolution and Natural Selection

    Evolution and Natural Selection

    - Ralph Waldo Emerson

    - Charles Darwin,

    10 Oct 2010 Format for printing

    In this lesson, we wish to ask:

    How did observations in nature lead to the formulation of the theory of evolution?

    What are the main points of Darwin's theory of evolution?

    How does the process of natural selection work?

    What evidence do we have for local adaptation?

    How can natural selection affect the frequency of traits over successive generations?

    The (R)Evolution of Theory

    The theory of evolution is one of the great intellectual revolutions of human history, drastically changing our perception of the world and of our place in it. Charles Darwin put forth a coherent theory of evolution and amassed a great body of evidence in support of this theory. In Darwin's time, most scientists fully believed that each organism and each adaptation was the work of the creator. Linneaus established the system of biological classification that we use today, and did so in the spirit of cataloguing God's creations.

    In other words, all of the similarities and dissimilarities among groups of organisms that are the result of the branching process creating the great tree of life (), were viewed by early 19th century philosophers and scientists as a consequence of omnipotent design.

    However, by the 19th Century, a number of natural historians were beginning to think of evolutionary change as an explanation for patterns observed in nature. The following ideas were part of the intellectual climate of Darwin's time.

    No one knew how old the earth was, but geologists were beginning to make estimates that the earth was considerably older than explained by biblical creation. Geologists were learning more about strata, or layers formed by successive periods of the deposition of sediments. This suggested a time sequence, with younger strata overlying older strata.

    A concept called uniformitarianism, due largely to the influential geologist Charles Lyell, undertook to decipher earth history under the working hypothesis that present conditions and processes are the key to the past, by investigating ongoing, observable processes such as erosion and the deposition of sediments.

    Discoveries of fossils were accumulating during the 18th and 19th centuries. At first naturalists thought they were finding remains of unknown but still living species. As fossil finds continued, however, it became apparent that nothing like giant dinosaurs was known from anywhere on the planet. Furthermore, as early as 1800, Cuvier pointed out that the deeper the strata, the less similar fossils were to existing species.

    Similarities among groups of organisms were considered evidence of relatedness, which in turn suggested evolutionary change. Darwin's intellectual predecessors accepted the idea of evolutionary relationships among organisms, but they could not provide a satisfactory explanation for how evolution occurred.

    Lamarck is the most famous of these. In 1801, he proposed organic evolution as the explanation for the physical similarity among groups of organisms, and proposed a mechanism for adaptive change based on the inheritance of acquired characteristics. He wrote of the giraffe:

    "We know that this animal, the tallest of mammals, dwells in the interior of Africa, in places where the soil, almost always arid and without herbage, obliges it to browse on trees and to strain itself continuously to reach them. This habit sustained for long, has had the result in all members of its race that the forelegs have grown longer than the hind legs and that its neck has become so stretched, that the giraffe, without standing on its hind legs, lifts its head to a height of six meters."

    In essence, this says that the necks of Giraffes became long as a result of continually stretching to reach high foliage. Larmarck was incorrect in the hypothesized mechanism, of course, but his example makes clear that naturalists were thinking about the possibility of evolutionary change in the early 1800's.

    Darwin was influenced by observations made during his youthful voyage as naturalist on the survey ship . On the Galapagos Islands he noticed the slight variations that made tortoises from different islands recognizably distinct. He also observed a whole array of unique finches, the famous "Darwin's finches," that exhibited slight differences from island to island. In addition, they all appeared to resemble, but differ from, the common finch on the mainland of Ecuador, 600 miles to the east. Patterns in the distribution and similarity of organisms had an important influence of Darwin's thinking. The picture at the top of this page is of Darwin's own sketches of finches in his Journal of Researches.

    In 1859, Darwin published his famous by Means of Natural Selection, a tome of over 500 pages that marshalled extensive evidence for his theory. Publication of the book caused a furor - every copy of the book was sold the day that it was released. Members of the religious community, as well as some scientific peers, were outraged by Darwin's ideas and protested. Most scientists, however, recognized the power of Darwin's arguments. Today, school boards still debate the validity and suitability of Darwin's theory in science curricula, and a whole body of debate has grown up around the controversy (see the WWW site Talk.Origins for an ongoing dialogue). We do not have time to cover all of Darwin's evidence and arguments, but we can examine the core ideas.

    Source : www.globalchange.umich.edu

    Darwin, evolution, & natural selection (article)

    Charles Darwin's voyage on the HMS Beagle and his ideas about evolution and natural selection.

    Evolution and natural selection

    Darwin, evolution, & natural selection

    Charles Darwin's voyage on the HMS Beagle and his ideas about evolution and natural selection.

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    Key points:

    Charles Darwin was a British naturalist who proposed the theory of biological evolution by natural selection.

    Darwin defined evolution as "descent with modification," the idea that species change over time, give rise to new species, and share a common ancestor.

    The mechanism that Darwin proposed for evolution is natural selection. Because resources are limited in nature, organisms with heritable traits that favor survival and reproduction will tend to leave more offspring than their peers, causing the traits to increase in frequency over generations.

    Natural selection causes populations to become adapted, or increasingly well-suited, to their environments over time. Natural selection depends on the environment and requires existing heritable variation in a group.

    What is evolution?

    The basic idea of biological evolution is that populations and species of organisms change over time. Today, when we think of evolution, we are likely to link this idea with one specific person: the British naturalist Charles Darwin.

    In the 1850s, Darwin wrote an influential and controversial book called On the Origin of Species. In it, he proposed that species evolve (or, as he put it, undergo "descent with modification"), and that all living things can trace their descent to a common ancestor. [What exactly is a species?]

    Darwin also suggested a mechanism for evolution: natural selection, in which heritable traits that help organisms survive and reproduce become more common in a population over time. [What does "heritable" mean?]

    In this article, we'll take a closer look at Darwin's ideas. We'll trace how they emerged from his worldwide travels on the ship HMS Beagle, and we'll also walk through an example of how evolution by natural selection can work.

    [Early ideas about evolution][Influences on Darwin]

    Darwin and the voyage of the Beagle

    Darwin's seminal book, On the Origin of Species, set forth his ideas about evolution and natural selection. These ideas were largely based on direct observations from Darwin's travels around the globe. From 1831 to 1836, he was part of a survey expedition carried out by the ship HMS Beagle, which included stops in South America, Australia, and the southern tip of Africa. At each of the expedition's stops, Darwin had the opportunity to study and catalog the local plants and animals.

    Over the course of his travels, Darwin began to see intriguing patterns in the distribution and features of organisms. We can see some of the most important patterns Darwin noticed in distribution of organisms by looking at his observations of the Galápagos Islands off the coast of Ecuador.

    _Image credit: "Darwin's finches," by John Gould (public domain)._

    Darwin found that nearby islands in the Galápagos had similar but nonidentical species of finches living on them. Moreover, he noted that each finch species was well-suited for its environment and role. For instance, species that ate large seeds tended to have large, tough beaks, while those that ate insects had thin, sharp beaks. Finally, he observed that the finches (and other animals) found on the Galápagos Islands were similar to species on the nearby mainland of Ecuador, but different from those found elsewhere in the world

    ^2 2 squared .

    Darwin didn't figure all of this out on his trip. In fact, he didn't even realize all the finches were related but distinct species until he showed his specimens to a skilled ornithologist (bird biologist) years later

    ^3 3 cubed

    ! Gradually, however, he came up with an idea that could explain the pattern of related but different finches.

    According to Darwin's idea, this pattern would make sense if the Galápagos Islands had long ago been populated by birds from the neighboring mainland. On each island, the finches might have gradually adapted to local conditions (over many generations and long periods of time). This process could have led to the formation of one or more distinct species on each island.

    If this idea was correct, though, why was it correct? What mechanism could explain how each finch population had acquired adaptations, or features that made it well-suited to its immediate environment? During his voyage, and in the years after, Darwin developed and refined a set of ideas that could explain the patterns he had observed during his voyage. In his book, On the Origin of Species, Darwin outlined his two key ideas: evolution and natural selection.

    [Didn't Alfred Russel Wallace also come up with these ideas?]

    Evolution

    Modern-day species appear at the top of the chart, while the ancestors from which they arose are shown lower in the chart. Image credit: "Darwin's tree of life," by Charles Darwin. Photograph by A. Kouprianov, public domain.

    Source : www.khanacademy.org

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