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    Basement membrane

    Basement membrane

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    The epithelium and endobasement membrane in relation to epithelium and endothelium. Also seen are other extracellular matrix components

    Image showing the basement membrane of the lining of the mouth, which separates the lining (epithelium) from a loose layer of connective tissue (the lamina propria)

    Details Identifiers Latin MeSH D001485 TH H2.00.00.0.00005 FMA 63872

    [edit on Wikidata]

    The basement membrane is a thin, pliable sheet-like type of extracellular matrix, that provides cell and tissue support and acts as a platform for complex signalling.[1][2] The basement membrane sits between epithelial tissues including mesothelium and endothelium, and the underlying connective tissue.[3][4]

    Contents

    1 Structure 2 Function

    3 Clinical significance

    4 Origin 5 See also 6 References 7 Further reading

    Structure[edit]

    As seen with the electron microscope, the basement membrane is composed of two layers, the basal lamina and the reticular lamina.[4] The underlying connective tissue attaches to the basal lamina with collagen VII anchoring fibrils and fibrillin microfibrils.[5]

    The basal lamina layer can further be subdivided into two layers based on their visual appearance in electron microscopy. The lighter-colored layer closer to the epithelium is called the lamina lucida, while the denser-colored layer closer to the connective tissue is called the lamina densa. The electron-dense lamina densa layer is about 30–70 nanometers thick and consists of an underlying network of reticular collagen IV fibrils which average 30 nanometers in diameter and 0.1–2 micrometers in thickness and are coated with the heparan sulfate-rich proteoglycan perlecan.[6] In addition to collagen, this supportive matrix contains intrinsic macromolecular components. The lamina lucida layer is made up of laminin, integrins, entactins, and dystroglycans. Integrins are a key component of hemidesmosomes which serve to anchor the epithelium to the underlying basement membrane.

    To represent the above in a visually organised manner, the basement membrane is organized as follows:

    Epithelial/mesothelial/endothelial tissue (outer)

    Basement membrane Basal lamina Lamina lucida laminin

    integrins (hemidesmosomes)

    nidogens dystroglycans Lamina densa

    collagen IV (coated with perlecan, rich in heparan sulfate)

    Attaching proteins (between the basal and reticular laminae)

    collagen VII (anchoring fibrils)

    fibrillin (microfibrils)

    Lamina reticularis

    collagen III (as reticular fibers)

    Connective tissue (Lamina propria)

    Function[edit]

    The primary function of the basement membrane is to anchor down the epithelium to its loose connective tissue (the dermis or lamina propria) underneath. This is achieved by cell-matrix adhesions through substrate adhesion molecules (SAMs).

    The basement membrane acts as a mechanical barrier, preventing malignant cells from invading the deeper tissues.[7] Early stages of malignancy that are thus limited to the epithelial layer by the basement membrane are called carcinoma in situ.

    The basement membrane is also essential for angiogenesis (development of new blood vessels). Basement membrane proteins have been found to accelerate differentiation of endothelial cells.[8]

    The most notable examples of basement membranes is the glomerular basement membrane of the kidney, by the fusion of the basal lamina from the endothelium of glomerular capillaries and the podocyte basal lamina,[9] and between lung alveoli and pulmonary capillaries, by the fusion of the basal lamina of the lung alveoli and of the basal lamina of the lung capillaries, which is where oxygen and CO2 diffusion happens (gas exchange).

    As of 2017 many other roles for basement membrane have been found that include blood filtration and muscle homeostasis.[1]

    Clinical significance[edit]

    Some diseases result from a poorly functioning basement membrane. The cause can be genetic defects, injuries by the body's own immune system, or other mechanisms.[10] Diseases involving basement membranes at multiple locations include:

    Genetic defects in the collagen fibers of the basement membrane, including Alport syndrome and Knobloch syndrome

    Autoimmune diseases targeting basement membranes. Non-collagenous domain basement membrane collagen type IV is autoantigen (target antigen) of autoantibodies in the autoimmune disease Goodpasture's syndrome.[11]

    A group of diseases stemming from improper function of basement membrane zone are united under the name epidermolysis bullosa.[12]

    In histopathology, a thickened basement membrane indicates mainly systemic lupus erythematosus or dermatomyositis, but also possibly lichen sclerosus.[13]

    Origin[edit]

    These are only found within diploblastic and homoscleromorphic sponge animals. The homoscleromorph were found to be sister to diploblasts in some studies, making the membrane originate once in the history of life. But more recent studies have disregarded diploblast-homoscleromorph group, so other sponges may have lost it (most probable) or the origin in the two groups may be separate.

    Source : en.wikipedia.org

    The basement membrane is found between ________. (a) epithelium and connective tissue. (b) epithelium and extracellular material. (c) epithelium and intracellular material. (d) extracellular material and intracellular material. (e) interstitial fluid and

    Answer to: The basement membrane is found between ________. (a) epithelium and connective tissue. (b) epithelium and extracellular material. (c)...

    Health & Medicine

    The basement membrane is found between ________. (a) epithelium and connective tissue. (b)...

    The basement membrane is found between ________. (a) epithelium and connective tissue. (b)... Question:

    The basement membrane is found between _____.

    (a) epithelium and connective tissue.

    (b) epithelium and extracellular material.

    (c) epithelium and intracellular material.

    (d) extracellular material and intracellular material.

    (e) interstitial fluid and extracellular fluid.

    Effects of Shocks

    There are multiple chances of shock that occur from the environment which mainly falls on the tissue structure that covers the body system. The stimulus which acts as shocks is the damaging stimulus around the system. The lining cells can be subjected to both chemical and mechanical stress and that causes changes in their state and alters the functioning.

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    Basement Membrane: Function, Definition & Structure

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    Chapter 4 / Lesson 13

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    Explore the definition, function, and structure of the basement membrane. Understand where the basement membrane is found and how it serves as a protective barrier.

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    Biol 225 Quiz 5 Flashcards

    Start studying Biol 225 Quiz 5. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools.

    Biol 225 Quiz 5

    4.8 6 Reviews

    Most kidney tubules are made of ________ epithelial tissue, which is specialized for absorption and secretion.

    a) stratified columnar

    b) pseudostratified columnar

    c) simple cuboidal d) simple columnar

    e) stratified cuboidal

    Click card to see definition 👆

    c) simple cuboidal

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    The basement membrane is found between ________ and ________.

    a) extracellular material; intracellular material

    b) interstitial fluid; extracellular fluid

    c) epithelium; extracellular material

    d) epithelium; connective tissue

    e) epithelium; intracellular material

    Click card to see definition 👆

    d) epithelium; connective tissue

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    1/10 Created by iilopez99

    Terms in this set (10)

    Most kidney tubules are made of ________ epithelial tissue, which is specialized for absorption and secretion.

    a) stratified columnar

    b) pseudostratified columnar

    c) simple cuboidal d) simple columnar

    e) stratified cuboidal

    c) simple cuboidal

    The basement membrane is found between ________ and ________.

    a) extracellular material; intracellular material

    b) interstitial fluid; extracellular fluid

    c) epithelium; extracellular material

    d) epithelium; connective tissue

    e) epithelium; intracellular material

    d) epithelium; connective tissue

    Most membranes are composed of two or three tissue types. However, an example of an exception is the ________ membrane.

    a) synovial b) mucous c) serous d) basement e) cutaneous a) synovial

    The clear gel inside a cell is called ________.

    a) matrix b) tissue fluid c) cytosol

    d) interstitial fluid

    e) ground substance c) cytosol

    The middle primary germ layer is called ________, which gives rise to a gelatinous material called ________, which then gives rise to different types of connective tissue such as bone, cartilage, and blood.

    a) mesoderm; mesenchyme

    b) ectoderm; stem cells

    c) ectoderm; mesenchyme

    d) mesoderm; fibroblasts

    e) endoderm; mesenchyme

    a) mesoderm; mesenchyme

    ________ epithelium is the most widespread epithelium in the body, whereas ________ epithelium is rare.

    a) Simple columnar; stratified columnar

    b) Simple cuboidal; stratified squamous

    c) Pseudostratified; stratified squamous

    d) Stratified squamous; simple squamous

    e) Stratified squamous; stratified columnar

    e) Stratified squamous; stratified columnar

    Which of the following does not account for the gelatinous consistency of connective tissue ground substance?

    a) Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs)

    b) Proteoglycans c) Hyaluronic acid d) Collagen

    e) Chondroitin sulfate

    d) Collagen

    Plasma cells produce the ground substance that forms the matrix of connective tissues.

    a) True b) False b) False

    Excitable cells respond to outside stimuli by means of changes in plasma membrane shape.

    a) True b) False b) False

    The shape of a person's external ear is due to the presence of ________.

    a) ligaments

    b) elastic cartilage

    c) dense regular connective tissue

    d) fibrocartilage

    e) dense irregular connective tissue

    b) elastic cartilage

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